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341. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. (Abstract)

Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative.We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic (...) data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire.Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38

2011 International Journal of Dermatology

342. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

343. Vegetative Compatibility and Heterokaryon Formation between Different Isolates of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum by using the nit Mutant System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vegetative Compatibility and Heterokaryon Formation between Different Isolates of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum by using the nit Mutant System Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of bean anthracnose, is one of the most common pathogens leading to expressive damage to plants beyond presenting noticeable variability. The knowledge on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) is of particular interest in asexual fungi as they subdivide the population in groups that can exchange genetic (...) information via heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle. Among the techniques used in studies about vegetative compatibility groups, the obtainment of nit mutants is apparent. This paper is aimed at obtaining heterokaryons between different isolates of C. lindemuthianum, grouping them in VCGs and evaluating their genetic variability by using the nit mutants system. Nit mutants were obtained from 20 single spore isolates. The mutants were phenotypically classified and paired for complementation

2011 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

344. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions (...) . Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population.Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges

2012 BMC ecology

345. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems.The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape (...) from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms.Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from

2012 BMC biology

346. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes (...) ) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement

2012 Genome biology and evolution

347. Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation Host density thresholds are a fundamental component of the population dynamics of pathogens, but empirical evidence and estimates are lacking. We studied host density thresholds in the dynamics of ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on salmon farms. Empirical examples include a 1994 epidemic in Atlantic Canada and a 2001 epidemic in Pacific Canada. A mathematical model suggests dynamics (...) of lice are governed by a stable endemic equilibrium until the critical host density threshold drops owing to environmental change, or is exceeded by stocking, causing epidemics that require rapid harvest or treatment. Sensitivity analysis of the critical threshold suggests variation in dependence on biotic parameters and high sensitivity to temperature and salinity. We provide a method for estimating the critical threshold from parasite abundances at subcritical host densities and estimate

2012 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

348. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms (...) growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic

2012 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

349. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite (...) Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis.Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7-10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars

2012 Parasites & vectors Controlled trial quality: uncertain

350. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. (Abstract)

Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful (...) inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were

2012 Veterinary parasitology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

351. PURLs: Combatting lice in a single treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PURLs: Combatting lice in a single treatment. 22220295 2012 03 22 2018 11 13 1533-7294 61 1 2012 Jan The Journal of family practice J Fam Pract PURLs: combatting lice in a single treatment. 41-2 Brown Dionna D The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Rowland Kate K eng UL1 RR024999 RR NCRR NIH HHS United States Comment Journal Article United States J Fam Pract 7502590 0094-3509 Pediatrics. 2009 Sep;124(3):e389-95 19706558 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 1 ppublish 22220295 jfp_6101h

2012 Journal of Family Practice

352. Taxonomy of lice and their endosymbiotic bacteria in the post-genomic era. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and radiated in the early Cenozoic, following the radiation of mammals and birds. The recent release of the human louse genome has provided new opportunities for research. The genome is being used to find new genetic markers for phylogenetics and population genetics, to understand the complex evolutionary relationships of mitochondrial genes, and to study genome evolution. Genomes are informing us not only about lice, but also about their obligate endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to lice and their hosts (...) , lice and their endosymbionts do not share common evolutionary histories, suggesting that endosymbionts are either replaced over time or that there are multiple independent origins of symbiosis in lice. Molecular phylogenetics and whole genome sequencing have recently provided the first insights into the phylogenetic placement and metabolic characteristics of these distantly related bacteria. Comparative genomics between distantly related louse symbionts can provide insights into conserved metabolic

2012 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

353. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) Full Text available with Trip Pro

a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia).Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within (...) Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each

2011 BMC genomics

354. Counter-narratives for the prevention of violent radicalisation: a systematic review of targeted interventions Full Text available with Trip Pro

and The Torah): Moses, having pleaded with The Pharaoh of Egypt to release the Hebrews and accept the One True God, threatened Pharaoh with divine retribution. The Pharaoh was arrogant and ignored Moses' warning. As promised God punished Pharaoh with several disasters such as drought, famine, disease, locusts, lice and frogs brought upon his own people. Here, the murder of innocent people (retribution for not accepting a particular worldview) is perceived as an instrumental means of achieving the overall

2020 Campbell Collaboration

355. Febrile seizure

The American Academy of Pediatrics announced a standard definition of febrile seizures as a seizure occurring in febrile children between the ages of 6 and 60 months who do not have an intracranial infection, metabolic disturbance, or history of afebrile seizures. Capovilla G, Mastrangelo M, Romeo A, et al. Recommendations for the management of "febrile seizures": Ad Hoc Task Force of LICE Guidelines Commission. Epilepsia. 2009 Jan;50(suppl 1):S2-6. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528

2019 BMJ Best Practice

356. Prevalence of Myrsidea salimalii (Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on striated babblers (Turdoides earlei) (Timaliidae: Passeriformes: Aves) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Myrsidea salimalii (Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on striated babblers (Turdoides earlei) (Timaliidae: Passeriformes: Aves) Survey of literature showed that the population characteristics of the phthirapterans parasitizing striated babblers deserved investigation. Hence, 30 birds were examined during 2007-2009 in district Rampur U.P. The prevalence of an amblyceran louse, Myrsidea salimalii on striated babblers was 40%. The mean intensity of infestation and the sample mean abundance (...) were 33.5 and 13.4, respectively. The variance to mean ratio of the population exceeded unity (36.24). The frequency distribution pattern of the louse was aggregated but did not conform to the negative binomial model. Females outnumbered the males in natural condition (M:F-1:1.4) while the nymphal population had an edge over adult population (A:N-1:1.3).

2011 Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology

357. Investigation and Management of Gynaecomastia in Primary & Secondary Care

• Refer to Medical Endocrinology clinic abnormal ßhcg or afP blood results or abnormal finding on testicular uss • Refer to Urology Clinic urgently su MMary stateM ent : ManageM ent of gynaeco MastIa In PrIMary & secondary carer eferral directly to the Breast u nit In the presence of the following clinical scenarios, a referral directly to the local breast unit may be considered. 1. Clinical suspicion of malignancy • >50 year old man with unilateral firm sub-areolar mass with or without nipple

2019 Association of Breast Surgery

358. Management of Fibroadenomas

, G uinee DG, Eb y PR, T hik e AA, V ohr a P et al. P h yll odes T umor ( PT) S ubsequen t t o a D iagnosis o f F ibr oadenoma ( F A) on B r east C or e N eedl e B iopsy ( CNB ): F r equency and Char act eristics. T he 103r d Annual M eeting o f the U nit ed S ta t es and Canadian A cadem y o f P a thol ogy . M ar ch 2014 , San D iego CA, USA. 4. T an B Y , A cs G, Appl e SK, Badv e S, B l eiw eiss IJ, B r ogi E et al. P h yll odes tumours o f the br east: a c onsensus r e view . H ist opa thol

2019 Association of Breast Surgery

360. Lash Infestation or Phthiriasis

only humans (NB in Pediculosis capitis, i.e. infestation by head lice [ Pediculus humanus capitis ], the lashes are rarely involved) crab lice infest coarsely spaced hair, predominantly pubic hair lashes also provide ideal spacing genital-to-eye transmission, possibly on bedding and towels crab lice survive no more than two days if separated from human host this insect is not a vector for other diseases in severe cases, lice faeces can cause keratoconjunctivitis Predisposing factors Most common (...) Lash Infestation or Phthiriasis Phthiriasis (pediculosis ciliaris) submit The College submit You're here: Phthiriasis (pediculosis ciliaris) Phthiriasis (pediculosis ciliaris) The CMGs are guidelines on the diagnosis and management of a range of common and rare, but important, eye conditions that present with varying frequency in primary and first contact care. Share options Aetiology Infestation of lid margins by the crab louse (Phthirus pubis) , a bloodfeeding obligate ectoparasite affecting

2020 College of Optometrists

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