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341. Second survey of insecticide-resistance in body-lice, 1958-63 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Second survey of insecticide-resistance in body-lice, 1958-63 Between 1953 and 1956 the World Health Organization carried out a global survey of the susceptibility of body-lice to insecticides. A second survey was organized in 1958; this paper summarizes the results of susceptibility tests done in 22 countries over the period 1958-63.Resistance to DDT has been found in a number of countries. The LC(100) for resistant body-lice has been found to be over 5% DDT, the LC(100) for hybrids (...) to be between 1% and 5% DDT; and the LC(50) for susceptible genotypes has been estimated to be less than 0.04% DDT.Body-lice continue to be susceptible to gamma-HCH and pyrethrins in most countries, although they show increased tolerance to gamma-HCH in Egypt. Their susceptibility to malathion in various localities in Egypt has been assessed, and the LC(50) found to range from 0.02% to 0.032%.

1965 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

342. Toxicity of Sevin (1-Naphthyl-n-Methyl-Carbamate) To Cattle Grubs, Lice, and Cattle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxicity of Sevin (1-Naphthyl-n-Methyl-Carbamate) To Cattle Grubs, Lice, and Cattle Sevin, a cholinergic insecticide, was used for the control of cattle lice Haemotopinus eurysternus and Bovicolar bovis and cattle grubs Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis. Partial or complete spraying of the animal body with 0.5 per cent Sevin was equally effective for louse control and one application killed the lice and prevented reinfestation in ;carrier' cows for 17-20 weeks. The dermal or parenteral

1962 Canadian journal of comparative medicine and veterinary science

343. Susceptibility of body-lice to DDT in a heavily treated area of Yugoslavia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Susceptibility of body-lice to DDT in a heavily treated area of Yugoslavia Body-lice collected in the Kosohovo-Metohia area of Yugoslavia, an area with a long history of epidemic typhus and one which had been treated with DDT since 1947, were tested for their susceptibility to that compound by the standard WHO test and showed an average mortality of 99% to 1.0% DDT and 96% to 0.1% DDT. Freshly fed insects showed 100% mortality at both concentrations. Tests with DDT-impregnated cloth indicated (...) that the LD(50) had tripled between 1955 and 1958.In sleeve tests the body-lice appeared to tolerate 15 times as much DDT as in tests not involving the use of the human arm. Tests were also made to ascertain the effect of lowered temperature on reducing mortality from DDT, and the speed of kill with DDT was compared with that with BHC and pyrethrins.

1960 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

344. Methods for measuring insecticide susceptibility levels in bed-bugs, conenosed bugs, fleas and lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Methods for measuring insecticide susceptibility levels in bed-bugs, conenosed bugs, fleas and lice A standard kit is prepared and distributed by WHO for testing insecticide resistance in adult mosquitos, and it would seem advantageous to be able to use the filter papers impregnated with DDT and dieldrin contained in this kit for testing resistance in other insects. Experiments have been successfully conducted with a view to developing methods based on the use of these papers for testing (...) susceptibility levels in bed-bugs, cone-nosed bugs, fleas and lice. The designs of the various test methods and the results obtained are described in this paper. The tests for bed-bugs and fleas have been adopted as provisional methods by the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides; those for cone-nosed bugs and lice have been designated tentative methods, requiring further investigation prior to the drawing up of specifications.

1961 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

345. INSECTS AND WAR: LICE Full Text available with Trip Pro

INSECTS AND WAR: LICE 20767301 2011 03 29 2011 03 29 0007-1447 2 2803 1914 Sep 19 British medical journal Br Med J INSECTS AND WAR: LICE. 497-9 Shipley A E AE eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 2010 8 27 6 0 1914 9 19 0 0 1914 9 19 0 1 ppublish 20767301 PMC2299779

1914 British medical journal

346. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BEST METHODS OF DESTROYING LICE AND OTHER BODY VERMIN Full Text available with Trip Pro

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BEST METHODS OF DESTROYING LICE AND OTHER BODY VERMIN 20767691 2011 03 29 2011 03 29 0007-1447 1 2842 1915 Jun 19 British medical journal Br Med J AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BEST METHODS OF DESTROYING LICE AND OTHER BODY VERMIN. 1038-41 Kinloch J P JP eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 2010 8 27 6 0 1915 6 19 0 0 1915 6 19 0 1 ppublish 20767691 PMC2302500

1915 British medical journal

347. Common sense guidelines for children with lice

lice cannot live off of a warm body for very long. Consider washing items that have recently (within 2 days) come in contact with a child’s head, like hat or hair accessories, but exhaustive and widespread cleaning and vacuuming efforts are not needed. Widespread use of chemical sprays in the house is dangerous and unnecessary. Most importantly, as the AAP says, it doesn’t make any sense to exclude children with lice or nits from school. That doesn’t decrease transmission, and it doesn’t prevent (...) , an itchy scalp. Here’s what parents should keep in mind when they suspect their child has lice: Lice are not difficult to diagnose. They run around the scalp. Look. If they’re there, you’ll see them. You can also “catch” them on a comb. Lice are not little fluffy bits of fuzz or little flakes of nothing. Lice eggs (nits) look like sesame seeds, and they’re literally glued to individual hairs, down near the scalp. The live ones, ones that will hatch, are within ½ inch of the scalp. Any nits further out

2015 KevinMD blog

348. Prevalence of Myrsidea salimalii (Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on striated babblers (Turdoides earlei) (Timaliidae: Passeriformes: Aves) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Myrsidea salimalii (Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on striated babblers (Turdoides earlei) (Timaliidae: Passeriformes: Aves) Survey of literature showed that the population characteristics of the phthirapterans parasitizing striated babblers deserved investigation. Hence, 30 birds were examined during 2007-2009 in district Rampur U.P. The prevalence of an amblyceran louse, Myrsidea salimalii on striated babblers was 40%. The mean intensity of infestation and the sample mean abundance (...) were 33.5 and 13.4, respectively. The variance to mean ratio of the population exceeded unity (36.24). The frequency distribution pattern of the louse was aggregated but did not conform to the negative binomial model. Females outnumbered the males in natural condition (M:F-1:1.4) while the nymphal population had an edge over adult population (A:N-1:1.3).

2011 Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology

349. Lice

are transmitted by close contact; body lice are transmitted in cramped, crowded conditions; and pubic lice are transmitted by sexual contact. Symptoms, signs, diagnosis, and treatment differ by location of infestation. Lice are wingless, blood-sucking insects that infest the head ( Pediculus humanus var. capitis ), body ( P. humanus var. corporis ), or pubis ( Phthirus pubis ). The 3 kinds of lice differ substantially in morphology and clinical features (see Figure: ). Head lice and pubic lice live directly (...) (eg, military barracks) and in people of low socioeconomic status. Transmission is by sharing of contaminated clothing and bedding. Body lice are main vectors of , , and . Body Louse (Pediculus humanus var. corporis) Image courtesy of the World Health Organization and the Public Health Image Library of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body lice cause pruritus; signs are small red puncta caused by bites, usually associated with linear scratch marks, urticaria, or superficial

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

350. Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780. (Abstract)

Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780. Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise

2010 European journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

351. Effectiveness of Permethrin Impregnated Underwear in Preventing Louse Proliferation in Infected Homeless

Effectiveness of Permethrin Impregnated Underwear in Preventing Louse Proliferation in Infected Homeless Effectiveness of Permethrin Impregnated Underwear in Preventing Louse Proliferation in Infected Homeless - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effectiveness of Permethrin Impregnated Underwear in Preventing Louse Proliferation in Infected Homeless (ERPOUPER) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01287663 Recruitment Status : Terminated First Posted : February 1, 2011 Last Update

2011 Clinical Trials

352. Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition Full Text available with Trip Pro

of fish resistance to lice, through biological control methods, needs better understanding of the protective mechanisms. We used a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR to examine the time-course of immune gene expression changes in salmon skin, spleen, and head kidney during the first 15 days after challenge, which encompassed the copepod and chalimus stages of lice development.Large scale and highly complex transcriptome responses were found already one day after infection (dpi). Many genes (...) Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer), an ectoparasitic copepod with a complex life cycle causes significant losses in salmon aquaculture. Pesticide treatments against the parasite raise environmental concerns and their efficacy is gradually decreasing. Improvement

2011 BMC genomics

353. Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82

2011 Journal of Insect Science

354. Original observations of Desmozoon lepeophtherii, a microsporidian hyperparasite infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and its subsequent detection by other researchers Full Text available with Trip Pro

Original observations of Desmozoon lepeophtherii, a microsporidian hyperparasite infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and its subsequent detection by other researchers A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse), infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions (...) distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon

2011 Parasites & vectors

355. A Safety and Efficacy Study Comparing 0.5% Ivermectin Cream to a Vehicle Control in Subjects With Head Lice Infestation

Responsible Party: Topaz Pharmaceuticals Inc ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: TOP011 First Posted: February 10, 2010 Results First Posted: April 4, 2012 Last Update Posted: April 6, 2012 Last Verified: April 2012 Keywords provided by Topaz Pharmaceuticals Inc: Head lice Pediculus humanus capitis Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Parasitic Diseases Ivermectin Antiparasitic Agents Anti-Infective Agents (...) With Pediculus Humanus Capitis Infestation Study Start Date : March 2010 Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2010 Actual Study Completion Date : July 2010 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: 0.5% Ivermectin Cream Drug: Ivermectin Cream Up to 4 ounces of topical 0.5% Ivermectin Cream applied to the hair and scalp on day 1 Placebo Comparator: Vehicle control Drug: vehicle control Up

2010 Clinical Trials

356. Efficacy of chemical and botanical over-the-counter pediculicides available in Brazil, and off-label treatments, against head lice ex vivo. (Abstract)

Efficacy of chemical and botanical over-the-counter pediculicides available in Brazil, and off-label treatments, against head lice ex vivo. There is a lack of reliable data on the efficacy of over-the-counter (OTC) pediculicides in Brazil.We performed ex vivo assays of eight marketed pediculicides: 1% permethrin (Kwell, Clean Hair, Keltrina, Nedax), 0.02% deltamethrin (Deltacid, Pediderm), and two "natural" products (Piolho e Lêndea, Pilogenio). We also tested 5% permethrin (Keltrina Plus (...) ), traditional home remedies and an ivermectin-based product used in veterinary medicine. Head lice (49-52 per group) were immersed in the compound for 3 min and washed after 20 min to simulate the typical in vivo treatment protocol. Lice were examined for activity up to 24 h using stringent criteria for survival.Of the permethrin containing products, highest mortality was observed with Kwell and Clean Hair (97.9 and 90.2% after 4 h). Keltrina, Nedax, Keltrina Plus, and the two deltamethrin-based products

2010 International Journal of Dermatology

357. A randomized, assessor-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, phase IV comparative trial of a suffocant compared with malathion in the treatment of head lice in children. (Abstract)

A randomized, assessor-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, phase IV comparative trial of a suffocant compared with malathion in the treatment of head lice in children. There are concerns about the effectiveness of head lice treatments because of increasing resistance and safety. This trial compared the safety and efficacy of a suffocant-based head lice treatment to malathion in children.The trial used strict entry criteria, standardized treatment and assessment regimens, sibling treatment where (...) appropriate and a primary efficacy end-point defined as the absence of live head lice.A total of 216 children were enrolled. One hundred and sixty-nine were per-protocol. The suffocant was significantly more effective than malathion for the intention-to-treat population (53.9% vs 40.4% louse-free, unadjusted P = 0.052; adjusted P = 0.024), as well as for the per-protocol population (57.8% vs 43.0% louse-free, unadjusted P = 0.054; adjusted P = 0.045). Adverse events were limited to itching or stinging

2010 The Australasian journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

358. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product. Full Text available with Trip Pro

instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7)). The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined.The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6%) and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6%) was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (...) A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product. There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation

2010 BMC dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

359. Oral ivermectin for head lice: a comparison with 0.5 % topical malathion lotion. (Abstract)

Oral ivermectin for head lice: a comparison with 0.5 % topical malathion lotion. Reports of treatment failure of head lice have become increasingly common. Oral ivermectin has been proposed as a potential alternative for the treatment of head lice infestation. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical malathion lotion in the treatment of head lice.Eighty apparently healthy children with head lice infestation were randomly assigned to 2 groups, with 40 (...) group and 95% in the malathion group. No major adverse effects were observed in either group.Oral ivermectin is a promising effective approach for the treatment of head lice and could be an ideal substitute for conventional pediculicides.© The Author • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

2010 Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG Controlled trial quality: uncertain

360. Household-wide ivermectin treatment for head lice in an impoverished community: randomized observer-blinded controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Household-wide ivermectin treatment for head lice in an impoverished community: randomized observer-blinded controlled trial. To generate evidence on the effectiveness of household-wide treatment for preventing the transmission of pediculosis capitis (head lice) in resource-poor communities.We studied 132 children without head lice who lived in a slum in north-eastern Brazil. We randomized the households of the study participants into an intervention and a control group and prospectively (...) calculated the incidence of infestation with head lice among the children in each group. In the intervention group, all of the children's family members who lived in the household were treated with ivermectin; in the control group, no family member was treated. We used the chi(2) test with continuity correction or Fisher's exact test to compare proportions. We performed survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimates with log rank testing and the Mann-Whitney U test to analyse the length of lice-free

2010 Bulletin of the World Health Organization Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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