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Safety of malathion dusting powder for louse control Because some strains of body lice are resistant to DDT and gamma-BHC, there is need for other effective, safe chemicals to control them. Malathion is known to be effective at a concentration of 1%. To test its safety, the bodies and clothing of 39 men were dusted 5 times a week for 8-16 weeks with talcum powder containing 0, 1%, 5%, and 10% malathion. Complaints about odour and skin irritation were roughly proportional to dosage. No change (...) in blood cholinesterase activity was found, except perhaps with 10% powder. Urinary excretion of malathion-derived material was proportional to dosage. No other changes attributable to malathion were observed and the compound is considered safe for control of head and body lice.
Anemia in Range Cattle Heavily Infested with the Short-Nosed Sucking Louse, Haematopinus Eurysternus (NITZ.) (Anoplura: Haematopinidae) 17649226 2007 07 27 2018 11 13 0316-5957 24 5 1960 May Canadian journal of comparative medicine and veterinary science Can J Comp Med Vet Sci Anemia in Range Cattle Heavily Infested with the Short-Nosed Sucking Louse, Haematopinus Eurysternus (NITZ.) (Anoplura: Haematopinidae). 158-61 Shemanchuk J A JA Haufe W O WO Thompson C O CO eng Journal Article Canada Can
Louse-borne Relapsing Fever in Persia 18905239 2008 10 16 2018 12 01 0007-1447 1 4545 1948 Feb 14 British medical journal Br Med J Louse-borne relapsing fever in Persia. 291-3 BODMAN R I RI STEWART I S IS eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 OM Animals Biometry Persia Phthiraptera Relapsing Fever epidemiology statistics & numerical data 4814:632u RELAPSING FEVER/epidemiology and statistics 1948 2 14 0 0 2008 10 24 9 0 1948 2 14 0 0 ppublish 18905239 PMC2093033
Confirmation of the efficacy of a novel fipronil spot-on for the treatment and control of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs. A novel spot-on formulation containing fipronil (Eliminall(®)/Exproline vet™) Spot-on Solution for Dogs, Pfizer Animal Health, registered and manufactured by Krka, d.d, Novo mesto) was evaluated in three laboratory studies to confirm efficacy against fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs for at least one month. Control of two laboratory strains of cat flea (...) (Ctenocephalides felis), two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) and the chewing louse (Trichodectes canis) was evaluated. In all studies, dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups and compared with untreated dogs. The studies also included a commercial, comparator product containing fipronil (Frontline(®) spot-on, Merial Limited). All treatments were applied to the skin at one spot between the scapulae on Day 0. In the studies, dogs were infested with fleas and/or ticks
Evaluation of two methods for quantifying passeriform lice Two methods commonly used to quantify ectoparasites on live birds are visual examination and dust-ruffling. Visual examination provides an estimate of ectoparasite abundance based on an observer's timed inspection of various body regions on a bird. Dust-ruffling involves application of insecticidal powder to feathers that are then ruffled to dislodge ectoparasites onto a collection surface where they can then be counted. Despite (...) the common use of these methods in the field, the proportion of actual ectoparasites they account for has only been tested with Rock Pigeons (Columba livia), a relatively large-bodied species (238-302 g) with dense plumage. We tested the accuracy of the two methods using European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris; ~75 g). We first quantified the number of lice (Brueelia nebulosa) on starlings using visual examination, followed immediately by dust-ruffling. Birds were then euthanized and the proportion of lice
humanus corpus , Phthiruspubis Infestation , HeadLice , Phthiruspubis , Body Louse Infestation , PediculusCapitis Infestation , Body Lice , Genital Lice From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Head and Body Lice are interchangeable HeadLice (Pediculushumanuscapitis) Female lays eggs at base of hair Egg adheres as hair grows Transmitted by fomites or head to head contact Body Lice (Pediculushumanus corpus) Live in seams of clothing or bedding which they briefly leave only to feed on human host (...) capitis (diagnosis) , pediculosiscapitis , Pediculuscapitis infestation , Nits - headlice , Headpediculosis , Head-louse infestation , Infestation (by);lice;head , nits , pediculuscapitis , headlouse , headlice infestation , Headlouse infestation (disorder) , Pediculuscapitis (organism) , Pediculosiscapitis , Headlice , Lice infested hair , Lousy hair , Nit infested hair , Nits , Headlice infestation , Headlouse infestation , Pediculosiscapitis (disorder) , Pediculushumanuscapitis
Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms (...) growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic
Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation Host density thresholds are a fundamental component of the population dynamics of pathogens, but empirical evidence and estimates are lacking. We studied host density thresholds in the dynamics of ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on salmon farms. Empirical examples include a 1994 epidemic in Atlantic Canada and a 2001 epidemic in Pacific Canada. A mathematical model suggests dynamics (...) of lice are governed by a stable endemic equilibrium until the critical host density threshold drops owing to environmental change, or is exceeded by stocking, causing epidemics that require rapid harvest or treatment. Sensitivity analysis of the critical threshold suggests variation in dependence on biotic parameters and high sensitivity to temperature and salinity. We provide a method for estimating the critical threshold from parasite abundances at subcritical host densities and estimate
Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculushumanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the headlouse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes (...) ) as the headlouse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the headlouse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement
in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions (...) . Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population.Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges
host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems.The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape (...) from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms.Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from
Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful (...) inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were
Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite (...) Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis.Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7-10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars
PURLs: Combatting lice in a single treatment. 22220295 2012 03 22 2018 11 13 1533-7294 61 1 2012 Jan The Journal of family practice J Fam Pract PURLs: combatting lice in a single treatment. 41-2 Brown Dionna D The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Rowland Kate K eng UL1 RR024999 RR NCRR NIH HHS United States Comment Journal Article United States J Fam Pract 7502590 0094-3509 Pediatrics. 2009 Sep;124(3):e389-95 19706558 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 1 ppublish 22220295 jfp_6101h
and radiated in the early Cenozoic, following the radiation of mammals and birds. The recent release of the human louse genome has provided new opportunities for research. The genome is being used to find new genetic markers for phylogenetics and population genetics, to understand the complex evolutionary relationships of mitochondrial genes, and to study genome evolution. Genomes are informing us not only about lice, but also about their obligate endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to lice and their hosts (...) , lice and their endosymbionts do not share common evolutionary histories, suggesting that endosymbionts are either replaced over time or that there are multiple independent origins of symbiosis in lice. Molecular phylogenetics and whole genome sequencing have recently provided the first insights into the phylogenetic placement and metabolic characteristics of these distantly related bacteria. Comparative genomics between distantly related louse symbionts can provide insights into conserved metabolic
Intestines Lice Infestations Pediculus Rickettsia Rickettsia prowazekii 5120:7975:70:134:239 AUREOMYCIN PEDICULI RICKETTSIA 1950 10 1 1950 10 1 0 1 1950 10 1 0 0 ppublish 14778040 PMC1791185 N Engl J Med. 1949 Dec 29;241(26):1037-47 15398246 (...) The Effect of Aureomycin on Ricksettia Prowazeki in the Intestines of Body Lice 14778040 2004 02 15 2018 12 01 0316-5957 14 10 1950 Oct Canadian journal of comparative medicine and veterinary science Can J Comp Med Vet Sci The effect of aureomycin on Rickettsia prowazeki in the intestines of body lice. 325-30 PRZESMYCKI F F WOJCIECHOWSKI E E MIKOLAJCZYK E E eng Journal Article Canada Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 0151757 0316-5957 WCK1KIQ23Q Chlortetracycline OM Animals Chlortetracycline Humans
Techniques for rearing and handling body lice, oriental rat fleas, and cat fleas The authors describe techniques for handling and rearing large numbers of body lice (Pediculushumanushumanus L.), oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild)), and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché)).Body lice may be fed on man or on domestic rabbits. In the latter case, the lice are kept on woollen patches in glass dishes at 30 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. The patches are placed (...) on the clipped belly of a rabbit once a day and the lice allowed to feed. Eggs are deposited on the patches, and the adult lice are transferred to new patches every two or three days.The adults of oriental rat fleas are fed on white rats, and the larvae are reared in a medium of dry sand and powdered beef-blood. Cocoons are placed in emergence funnels from which pure cultures drop into collecting jars. Cat fleas are raised in a very similar manner, but the adults are fed on dogs.