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241. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. (Abstract)

Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative.We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic (...) data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire.Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38

2011 International Journal of Dermatology

242. An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation

: January 19, 2015 Last Update Posted : January 19, 2015 Sponsor: Hatchtech Pty Ltd Information provided by (Responsible Party): Hatchtech Pty Ltd Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Phase 2 study to assess the safety and effectiveness of a product to treat children and adults with head lice Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pediculosis Drug: Group A - Low-Dose Ha44 0.37% w/w Drug: Group B - High Dose Ha44 Gel 0.74% w/w Drug: Group C - Placebo Phase 2 Study Design Go (...) of at least 33 pounds Has an active head lice infestation at Day 0. An active infection is defined as at least 3 live lice for the index subject and at least 1 live louse for the other household members Belong to a household of no more than 6 members, except where additional household members are < 2 years of age Belong to a household with an eligible index subject between 2 and 12 years of age with active lice infestation Female subjects must be: of non-childbearing potential (no history of menstrual

2011 Clinical Trials

243. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). (Abstract)

Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals (...) used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy

2011 Journal of medical entomology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

244. Lindane and other treatments for lice and scabies: a review of clinical effectiveness and safety

of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Lindane and other treatments for lice and scabies: a review of clinical effectiveness and safety. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). 2010 Authors' conclusions In summary, there are several promising new treatments for the management of head lice including ivermectin, malathion, benzyl alcohol, spinosad, isopropyl myristate, and dimeticone. However, benzyl (...) alcohol has only been shown to be clinically effective compared to placebo. Further RCTs are needed to establish the clinical effectiveness of benzyl alcohol relative to other treatments for head lice. The available evidence suggests that permethrin and ivermectin may be the most clinically effective therapies for scabies. Due to limitations noted in the identified studies, further research is required to establish the clinical effectiveness of emerging therapies for lice and scabies. Most

2010 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

245. Pediculosis (Diagnosis)

cement surrounding the hair shaft. Photo courtesy of David Shum, MDWestern University, London Ontario. Two empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior (...) corporis (body lice), and Pthirus pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called “crabs”). See the louse images below. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various skin reactions, recognize potential comorbidities, and select treatment

2014 eMedicine.com

246. Pediculosis (Treatment)

empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers (...) , Davidovitch N, Zangvil E. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol . 2002 May. 16(3):257-9. . Pubic "Crab" Lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . 2013 Sep 24; Accessed: October 31, 2014. Chosidow O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet . 2000 Mar 4. 355(9206):819-26. . Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences

2014 eMedicine.com

247. Pediculosis (Overview)

cement surrounding the hair shaft. Photo courtesy of David Shum, MDWestern University, London Ontario. Two empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior (...) corporis (body lice), and Pthirus pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called “crabs”). See the louse images below. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various skin reactions, recognize potential comorbidities, and select treatment

2014 eMedicine.com

248. Pediculosis (Follow-up)

empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers (...) , Davidovitch N, Zangvil E. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol . 2002 May. 16(3):257-9. . Pubic "Crab" Lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . 2013 Sep 24; Accessed: October 31, 2014. Chosidow O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet . 2000 Mar 4. 355(9206):819-26. . Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences

2014 eMedicine.com

249. Pediculosis (Treatment)

empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers (...) , Davidovitch N, Zangvil E. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol . 2002 May. 16(3):257-9. . Pubic "Crab" Lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . 2013 Sep 24; Accessed: October 31, 2014. Chosidow O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet . 2000 Mar 4. 355(9206):819-26. . Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

250. Pediculosis (Diagnosis)

cement surrounding the hair shaft. Photo courtesy of David Shum, MDWestern University, London Ontario. Two empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior (...) corporis (body lice), and Pthirus pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called “crabs”). See the louse images below. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various skin reactions, recognize potential comorbidities, and select treatment

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

251. Pediculosis (Follow-up)

empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers (...) , Davidovitch N, Zangvil E. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol . 2002 May. 16(3):257-9. . Pubic "Crab" Lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . 2013 Sep 24; Accessed: October 31, 2014. Chosidow O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet . 2000 Mar 4. 355(9206):819-26. . Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

252. Pediculosis (Overview)

cement surrounding the hair shaft. Photo courtesy of David Shum, MDWestern University, London Ontario. Two empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior (...) corporis (body lice), and Pthirus pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called “crabs”). See the louse images below. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various skin reactions, recognize potential comorbidities, and select treatment

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

253. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon? (Full text)

Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon? The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon (...) to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could

2014 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences PubMed abstract

254. Vegetative Compatibility and Heterokaryon Formation between Different Isolates of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum by using the nit Mutant System (Full text)

Vegetative Compatibility and Heterokaryon Formation between Different Isolates of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum by using the nit Mutant System Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of bean anthracnose, is one of the most common pathogens leading to expressive damage to plants beyond presenting noticeable variability. The knowledge on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) is of particular interest in asexual fungi as they subdivide the population in groups that can exchange genetic (...) information via heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle. Among the techniques used in studies about vegetative compatibility groups, the obtainment of nit mutants is apparent. This paper is aimed at obtaining heterokaryons between different isolates of C. lindemuthianum, grouping them in VCGs and evaluating their genetic variability by using the nit mutants system. Nit mutants were obtained from 20 single spore isolates. The mutants were phenotypically classified and paired for complementation

2011 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology PubMed abstract

255. Treatment of human head lice (Full text)

). "The biology of Pediculus humanus , Supplementary notes". Parasitology . 11 (2): 201–221. : . Mumcuoglu KY, Miller J, Gofin R, et al. (September 1990). "Epidemiological studies on head lice infestation in Israel. I. Parasitological examination of children". International Journal of Dermatology . 29 (7): 502–6. : . . Buxton, Patrick A. (1947). "The biology of Pediculus humanus ". The Louse; an account of the lice which infest man, their medical importance and control (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold. pp. 24 (...) . If living lice are still present, repeat the treatment using an anti-louse product with a different active ingredient. Keep in hair for 2 hours and rinse it out then, clean before sleep. Prophylactic treatment with pediculicides is not recommended. Itching may persist for up to a week after head lice eradication. [ ] Heated air [ ] A heated air device designed by Larada Sciences to kill headlice by drying Devices blowing heated air onto the scalp have been tested for efficiency in killing lice and eggs

2012 Wikipedia PubMed abstract

256. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) (Full text)

a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia).Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within (...) Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each

2011 BMC genomics PubMed abstract

257. Gene Splicing in Lice and the Challenge of Clothing

& Scientific Policy Post navigation in A terrific article recently published in , “Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice,” provides a compelling example of maximizing genome information – adaptation of the louse Pediculus humanus to the new habitat created when our ancestors invented clothing. HEAD VS BODY LICE Many parents encounter when their children are sent home from school with instructions to get rid of the horrible rice-krispie-like eggs (“nits”) clinging to their scalp hairs. A good washing won’t (...) do it. Medication and clunky combs do very little alone. The sooner the poor parent realizes that meticulous nit-picking is the only solution, the sooner the nightmare ends. But consider the louse’s point of view. Nitpicking isn’t easy Lice live on us so that they can drink our blood, with a little help from bacteria that provide the B vitamins needed to extract maximal nutrients from their meals. Head lice lay their eggs on our hair shafts, gluing them in place. These are the much more common

2015 PLOS Blogs Network

258. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009 (Full text)

Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009 The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 (...) : the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P

2013 Journal of Fish Diseases PubMed abstract

259. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils. (Abstract)

Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils. Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget (...) ) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2

2013 Medical and veterinary entomology

260. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice (Full text)

Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites (...) is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were

2014 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences PubMed abstract

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