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221. Population characteristics of black kite lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Population characteristics of black kite lice A look on literature revealed that the population characteristics of Phthiraptera infesting Black Kite, Milvus migrans Boddaert deserved investigation. Thirty-two kites were sampled in district Rampur (U.P.) India during January 2011-December 2012, for the presence of phthirapteran ectoparasites. Two amblyceran species, Laemobothrion maximum Scopoli and Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny and one ischnoceran louse, Degeeriella regalis Giebel were (...) recovered. The prevalence, intensity of infestation, sample mean abundance, range of infestation, sex ratios, and adult nymph ratios of three lice were recorded. C. turbinatum ranked first in the order of prevalence and intensity of infestation, followed by D. regalis. The prevalence and intensity of L. maximum was quite low.

2016 Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology

222. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate Full Text available with Trip Pro

/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners (...) ) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role

2016 Scientific reports

223. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation (...) . Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

2016 International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife

224. Neem Lotion With Combing for Lice

F Burgess, Medical Entomology Centre Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This was a Phase IIa randomised, assessor blinded, parallel group study in which half the participants were treated with Nice 'n Clear neem-based conditioning lotion plus combing with a head louse detection and removal comb and the remainder were treated with Nice 'n Clear plus combing with a normal grooming comb Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pediculoses Head Lice Device: Neem-based (...) lotion plus louse comb Device: Neem-based lotion plus grooming comb Phase 2 Detailed Description: Neem oil has had a long reputation for killing a wide range of insects, including head lice. Several products are marketed with this oil as a named active ingredient, e.g. Nice 'n Clear neem-based conditioning lotion. This product was developed as an aid to combing out head lice for eliminating infestation but it has been considered possible that the neem oil could act to kill lice and inhibit their eggs

2016 Clinical Trials

225. A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Resultz Lice and Egg Elimination Kit on Pediatric and Adult Subjects

Pediculus Capitis Device: Apply Liquid Then Comb Out Not Applicable Detailed Description: Resultz Lice and Egg Elimination Kit will be efficacious in the removal of human head lice infestations in children and adult subjects under simulated real world conditions. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 100 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care (...) this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 2 Years to 90 Years (Child, Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Must have active head lice infestations (at least 1 live louse and eggs) Good general health based on medical history Each subject has to be consented Exclusion Criteria

2016 Clinical Trials

226. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta) Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt (...) genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome

2015 Scientific reports

227. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts. Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice (...) drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor

2015 Diseases of aquatic organisms Controlled trial quality: uncertain

228. Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphates (OP). Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s) gene(s (...) ) with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b) in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5) and the other resistant (n=5) for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE) in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos

2015 PloS one

229. Studies of Ancient Lice Reveal Unsuspected Past Migrations of Vectors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies of Ancient Lice Reveal Unsuspected Past Migrations of Vectors. Lice are among the oldest parasites of humans representing an excellent marker of the evolution and migration of our species over time. Here, we analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed in this study the mitochondrial DNA of seven ancient head louse eggs found on hair remains recovered from two sites in Israel: 1) five nits dating from Chalcolithic period (4,000 bc) were found in the Cave (...) of the Treasure located at Nahal Mishmar, in the Judean Desert and 2) two nits dating from Early Islamic Period (ad 650-810) were found in Nahal Omer in the Arava Valley (between Dead Sea and Red Sea). Our results suggest that these eggs belonged to people originating from west Africa based on identification of the louse mitochondrial sub-clade specific to that region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

230. Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection (...) of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most

2010 Journal of Insect Science

231. The clinical trials supporting benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (Ulesfia): a safe and effective topical treatment for head lice (pediculosis humanus capitis). (Abstract)

The clinical trials supporting benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (Ulesfia): a safe and effective topical treatment for head lice (pediculosis humanus capitis). Benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (BAL 5%) is a non-neurotoxic topical head lice treatment that is safe and effective in children as young as 6 months of age. The safety and efficacy of this pediculicide has been studied in 695 (confirm number) subjects in all phases of clinical development. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) demonstrated that the active (...) the use of sufficient product to saturate the hair, resulted in 100% efficacy after both 10 and 30 minute treatments. A third phase II trial verified an effective dose. Phase III trials compared BAL 5% to vehicle placebo for two 10-minute applications. It proved to be safe and effective (p < 0.001) for treatment of head lice and is the first FDA-approved non-neurotoxic lice treatment, now available in the United States as Ulesfia lotion.

2010 Pediatric dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

232. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households (...) , which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well

2011 Parasitology

233. Head lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Head lice Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group.We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other

2011 BMJ Clinical Evidence

234. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

235. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. (Abstract)

Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative.We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic (...) data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire.Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38

2011 International Journal of Dermatology

236. An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation

: January 19, 2015 Last Update Posted : January 19, 2015 Sponsor: Hatchtech Pty Ltd Information provided by (Responsible Party): Hatchtech Pty Ltd Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Phase 2 study to assess the safety and effectiveness of a product to treat children and adults with head lice Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pediculosis Drug: Group A - Low-Dose Ha44 0.37% w/w Drug: Group B - High Dose Ha44 Gel 0.74% w/w Drug: Group C - Placebo Phase 2 Study Design Go (...) of at least 33 pounds Has an active head lice infestation at Day 0. An active infection is defined as at least 3 live lice for the index subject and at least 1 live louse for the other household members Belong to a household of no more than 6 members, except where additional household members are < 2 years of age Belong to a household with an eligible index subject between 2 and 12 years of age with active lice infestation Female subjects must be: of non-childbearing potential (no history of menstrual

2011 Clinical Trials

237. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). (Abstract)

Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals (...) used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy

2011 Journal of medical entomology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

238. Lindane and other treatments for lice and scabies: a review of clinical effectiveness and safety

of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Lindane and other treatments for lice and scabies: a review of clinical effectiveness and safety. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). 2010 Authors' conclusions In summary, there are several promising new treatments for the management of head lice including ivermectin, malathion, benzyl alcohol, spinosad, isopropyl myristate, and dimeticone. However, benzyl (...) alcohol has only been shown to be clinically effective compared to placebo. Further RCTs are needed to establish the clinical effectiveness of benzyl alcohol relative to other treatments for head lice. The available evidence suggests that permethrin and ivermectin may be the most clinically effective therapies for scabies. Due to limitations noted in the identified studies, further research is required to establish the clinical effectiveness of emerging therapies for lice and scabies. Most

2010 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

239. Pediculosis (Diagnosis)

cement surrounding the hair shaft. Photo courtesy of David Shum, MDWestern University, London Ontario. Two empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior (...) corporis (body lice), and Pthirus pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called “crabs”). See the louse images below. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various skin reactions, recognize potential comorbidities, and select treatment

2014 eMedicine.com

240. Pediculosis (Treatment)

empty nits from Pediculus humanus capitis. Note the open shells still attached to the hairs and the porous operculi through which the lice have hatched. Photo courtesy of David G. Schaus. Three specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis. Pediculus humanus corporis. Phthirus pubis. Note the crab-like appearance. The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on clothing fibers instead of hair fibers (...) , Davidovitch N, Zangvil E. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol . 2002 May. 16(3):257-9. . Pubic "Crab" Lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . 2013 Sep 24; Accessed: October 31, 2014. Chosidow O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet . 2000 Mar 4. 355(9206):819-26. . Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences

2014 eMedicine.com

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