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221. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium. We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016

2016 Journal of Travel Medicine

222. Nutrigenomic effects of glucosinolates on liver, muscle and distal kidney in parasite-free and salmon louse infected Atlantic salmon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nutrigenomic effects of glucosinolates on liver, muscle and distal kidney in parasite-free and salmon louse infected Atlantic salmon Reduction of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon achieved by glucosinolates (GLs) from Brassica plants was recently reported. However, wider application of functional feeds based on GLs requires better knowledge of their positive and adverse effects.Liver, distal kidney and muscle transcriptomes of salmon exposed to the extreme dose of GLs were (...) storage protein ferritin). This response could be advantageous for salmon upon encountering lice, which depend on the host for the provision of iron carrying heme. Most of the hepatic genes studied by qPCR showed similar expression levels in fish exposed to GLs, lice and their combination, while renal induction of leptin suggested heightened stress by the combination of extreme dose of GLs and lice. High expression of interferon γ (cytokine considered organ-protective in mammalian kidney) was detected

2016 Parasites & vectors

223. Louse-borne relapsing fever - report of four cases in Switzerland, June-December 2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Louse-borne relapsing fever - report of four cases in Switzerland, June-December 2015. Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is a neglected disease that has been restricted to East Africa for many decades. Several cases in refugees from the Horn of Africa have been recently diagnosed in four European countries.We report four additional cases of LBRF in asylum seekers from Somalia and Eritrea who presented with fever shortly after arriving in Switzerland during a seven-month period. Multiple

2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

224. RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Rhabdoviruses are a family of enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infecting a variety of hosts. Recently, two vertically transmitted salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) rhabdoviruses (LsRV) have been identified. The prevalence of these viruses was measured along the Norwegian coast and found to be close to 100%, and with the present lack of suitable cell (...) lines to propagate these viruses, it is challenging to obtain material to study their host impact and infection routes. Thus, virus free lice strains were established from virus infected lice carrying one or both LsRVs by treating them with N protein dsRNA twice during development. The viral replication of the N protein was specifically down-regulated following introduction of virus-specific dsRNA, and virus-free lice strains were maintained for several generations. A preliminary study on infection

2017 Scientific reports

225. Genome Sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, Endosymbiont of Chimpanzee Lice, and Genomic Comparison of Recently Acquired Endosymbionts from Human and Chimpanzee Lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi (...) Genome Sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, Endosymbiont of Chimpanzee Lice, and Genomic Comparison of Recently Acquired Endosymbionts from Human and Chimpanzee Lice The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones

2014 G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

226. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus

2015 PloS one

227. Oral ivermectin versus malathion lotion for difficult-to-treat head lice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral ivermectin versus malathion lotion for difficult-to-treat head lice. Head-lice infestation is prevalent worldwide, especially in children 3 to 11 years old. Topical insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids and malathion) used as a lotion, applied twice at an interval of 7 to 11 days, are typically used for treatment. Resistance of lice to insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, results in treatment failure. The efficacy of alternative agents is controversial.We conducted a multicenter, cluster (...) sites. The primary end point was the absence of head lice on day 15.A total of 812 patients from 376 households were randomly assigned to receive either ivermectin or malathion. In the intention-to-treat population, 95.2% of patients receiving ivermectin were lice-free on day 15, as compared with 85.0% of those receiving malathion (absolute difference, 10.2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6 to 15.7; P<0.001). In the per-protocol population, 97.1% of patients in the ivermectin

2010 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

228. Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon The use of phytochemicals is a promising solution in biological control against salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant (...) and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate if Atlantic salmon fed two different doses of glucosinolate-enriched feeds would be protected against lice infection. The effects of feeding high dose of glucosinolates before the infection, and of high and low doses five weeks into the infection were studied.Skin was screened by 15 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR.A 25 % reduction (P < 0.05) in lice counts was obtained in the low dose

2016 Parasites & vectors

229. Genomic prediction of host resistance to sea lice in farmed Atlantic salmon populations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genomic prediction of host resistance to sea lice in farmed Atlantic salmon populations Sea lice have significant negative economic and welfare impacts on marine Atlantic salmon farming. Since host resistance to sea lice has a substantial genetic component, selective breeding can contribute to control of lice. Genomic selection uses genome-wide marker information to predict breeding values, and can achieve markedly higher accuracy than pedigree-based methods. Our aim was to assess the genetic (...) architecture of host resistance to sea lice, and test the utility of genomic prediction of breeding values. Individual lice counts were measured in challenge experiments using two large Atlantic salmon post-smolt populations from a commercial breeding programme, which had genotypes for ~33 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The specific objectives were to: (i) estimate the heritability of host resistance; (ii) assess its genetic architecture by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS); (iii

2016 Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE

230. Sex-biased gene expression and sequence conservation in Atlantic and Pacific salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sex-biased gene expression and sequence conservation in Atlantic and Pacific salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae), are highly important ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids, and cause multi-million dollar losses to the salmon aquaculture industry annually. Salmon lice display extensive sexual dimorphism in ontogeny, morphology, physiology, behavior, and more. Therefore, the identification of transcripts with differential

2016 BMC genomics

231. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation (...) . Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

2016 International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife

232. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate Full Text available with Trip Pro

/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners (...) ) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role

2016 Scientific reports

233. Neem Lotion With Combing for Lice

F Burgess, Medical Entomology Centre Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This was a Phase IIa randomised, assessor blinded, parallel group study in which half the participants were treated with Nice 'n Clear neem-based conditioning lotion plus combing with a head louse detection and removal comb and the remainder were treated with Nice 'n Clear plus combing with a normal grooming comb Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pediculoses Head Lice Device: Neem-based (...) lotion plus louse comb Device: Neem-based lotion plus grooming comb Phase 2 Detailed Description: Neem oil has had a long reputation for killing a wide range of insects, including head lice. Several products are marketed with this oil as a named active ingredient, e.g. Nice 'n Clear neem-based conditioning lotion. This product was developed as an aid to combing out head lice for eliminating infestation but it has been considered possible that the neem oil could act to kill lice and inhibit their eggs

2016 Clinical Trials

234. A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Resultz Lice and Egg Elimination Kit on Pediatric and Adult Subjects

Pediculus Capitis Device: Apply Liquid Then Comb Out Not Applicable Detailed Description: Resultz Lice and Egg Elimination Kit will be efficacious in the removal of human head lice infestations in children and adult subjects under simulated real world conditions. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 100 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care (...) this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 2 Years to 90 Years (Child, Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Must have active head lice infestations (at least 1 live louse and eggs) Good general health based on medical history Each subject has to be consented Exclusion Criteria

2016 Clinical Trials

235. Is Hair Lice Still a Public Health Problem? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is Hair Lice Still a Public Health Problem? 28053940 2018 11 13 2251-6085 45 12 2016 Dec Iranian journal of public health Iran. J. Public Health Is Hair Lice Still a Public Health Problem? 1671-1672 Dalimi Abdolhossein A Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Mahdavi Poor Behroz B Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; Dept. of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Paramedicine, Tabriz

2016 Iranian journal of public health

236. Population characteristics of black kite lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Population characteristics of black kite lice A look on literature revealed that the population characteristics of Phthiraptera infesting Black Kite, Milvus migrans Boddaert deserved investigation. Thirty-two kites were sampled in district Rampur (U.P.) India during January 2011-December 2012, for the presence of phthirapteran ectoparasites. Two amblyceran species, Laemobothrion maximum Scopoli and Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny and one ischnoceran louse, Degeeriella regalis Giebel were (...) recovered. The prevalence, intensity of infestation, sample mean abundance, range of infestation, sex ratios, and adult nymph ratios of three lice were recorded. C. turbinatum ranked first in the order of prevalence and intensity of infestation, followed by D. regalis. The prevalence and intensity of L. maximum was quite low.

2016 Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology

237. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA (...) Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences

2016 PeerJ

238. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected (...) chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive

2016 The Korean journal of parasitology

239. Time-to-response toxicity analysis as a method for drug susceptibility assessment in salmon lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Time-to-response toxicity analysis as a method for drug susceptibility assessment in salmon lice The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) is an ectoparasite causing infections of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Northern hemisphere. While L. salmonis control at commercial mariculture sites increasingly employs non-medicinal approaches, such as cage designs reducing infection rates and biological control through cleaner fish, anti-parasitic drugs are still (...) showed variability between experimental repeats, both types of bioassay consistently discriminated susceptible and drug-resistant L. salmonis laboratory strains.Infections by sea lice cause significant costs to the global salmon farming industry, which have been estimated to exceed €300 million per year worldwide. Control of sea lice still relies to a significant extent on chemical delousing; however, chemical control is threatened by resistance formation. Resistance can be combated by rotation

2016 Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

240. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta) Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt (...) genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome

2015 Scientific reports

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