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181. Enhanced transcriptomic responses in the Pacific salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi to the non-native Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar suggests increased parasite fitness Full Text available with Trip Pro

in Coho- or Sockeye-fed lice were more similar to those of parasites deprived of a host. To test for host acclimation by the parasite, we performed a reciprocal host transfer experiment and determined that the exaggerated response to Atlantic Salmon was independent of the initial host species, confirming our conclusion that the Pacific salmon louse exhibits an enhanced response to Atlantic Salmon.This study characterized global transcriptomic responses of Pacific salmon lice during infection (...) of susceptible and resistant hosts. Similar parasite responses during infection of Coho or Sockeye Salmon, despite differences in natural immunity to infection between these host species, indicate that host susceptibility status alone does not drive the parasite response. We identified an enhanced louse response after feeding on Atlantic Salmon, characterized by up-regulation of virulence factors, energy metabolism and reproductive-associated transcripts. In contrast, the responses of lice infecting Coho

2017 BMC genomics

182. The use of genomic information increases the accuracy of breeding value predictions for sea louse (Caligus rogercresseyi) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Full Text available with Trip Pro

The use of genomic information increases the accuracy of breeding value predictions for sea louse (Caligus rogercresseyi) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Sea lice infestations caused by Caligus rogercresseyi are a main concern to the salmon farming industry due to associated economic losses. Resistance to this parasite was shown to have low to moderate genetic variation and its genetic architecture was suggested to be polygenic. The aim of this study was to compare accuracies

2017 Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE

183. RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Rhabdoviruses are a family of enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infecting a variety of hosts. Recently, two vertically transmitted salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) rhabdoviruses (LsRV) have been identified. The prevalence of these viruses was measured along the Norwegian coast and found to be close to 100%, and with the present lack of suitable cell (...) lines to propagate these viruses, it is challenging to obtain material to study their host impact and infection routes. Thus, virus free lice strains were established from virus infected lice carrying one or both LsRVs by treating them with N protein dsRNA twice during development. The viral replication of the N protein was specifically down-regulated following introduction of virus-specific dsRNA, and virus-free lice strains were maintained for several generations. A preliminary study on infection

2017 Scientific reports

184. Legionella Becoming a Mutualist: Adaptive Processes Shaping the Genome of Symbiont in the Louse Polyplax serrata Full Text available with Trip Pro

Legionella Becoming a Mutualist: Adaptive Processes Shaping the Genome of Symbiont in the Louse Polyplax serrata Legionellaceae are intracellular bacteria known as important human pathogens. In the environment, they are mainly found in biofilms associated with amoebas. In contrast to the gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, which established a broad spectrum of symbioses with many insect taxa, the only instance of legionella-like symbiont has been reported from lice of the genus (...) decrease in GC content (23%). We identify several possible constraints underlying the evolution of this bacterium. On one hand, Ca. Legionella polyplacis and the louse symbionts Riesia and Puchtella experienced convergent evolution, perhaps due to adaptation to similar hosts. On the other hand, some metabolic differences are likely to reflect different phylogenetic positions of the symbionts and hence availability of particular metabolic function in the ancestor. This is exemplified by different

2017 Genome biology and evolution

185. The Number of Louse Eggs on Wild Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) Varies with Age, but Not with Sex or Season Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Number of Louse Eggs on Wild Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) Varies with Age, but Not with Sex or Season During grooming, primates remove harmful ectoparasites, such as ticks and lice, and there is direct evidence for a health benefit of tick removal. Grooming behaviors differ among primates with respect to age and sex. Moreover, the number of ectoparasite may exhibit seasonal variation. Therefore the number of ectoparasites on a host may vary with effects, host age and sex, and season (...) . However, these effects have not been a focus of louse infestation studies of primates. Grooming in Japanese macaques is related to sex and age, with developmental changes in behavior corresponding to the timing of tooth eruption. Moreover, behavioral data for Japanese macaques suggest that lice load may differ with the season. Thus, we examined whether the number of louse eggs varies according to host macaque sex, age, and season, and whether it changes in response to tooth eruption. We counted

2017 International Journal of Primatology

186. A pedigree‐based experiment reveals variation in salinity and thermal tolerance in the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Full Text available with Trip Pro

management strategies. These include freshwater and warm-water treatments to which the louse is sensitive. However, given the well-documented evolutionary capacity of this species, the risk of developing tolerance towards these environmental treatments cannot be dismissed. Two common-garden experiments were performed using full-sibling families of lice identified by DNA parentage testing to investigate whether one of the fundamental premises for evolution, in this context genetic variation (...) A pedigree‐based experiment reveals variation in salinity and thermal tolerance in the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis The salmon louse is a highly abundant ectoparasitic copepod of salmonids in the North Pacific and Atlantic. Widespread and rapid development of resistance to chemical agents used to delouse salmonids on marine farms is now threatening the continued development of the aquaculture industry and have served as a potent catalyst for the development of alternative pest

2017 Evolutionary applications

187. An Extraordinary Sex Determination Mechanism in a Book Louse Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Extraordinary Sex Determination Mechanism in a Book Louse 28592506 2017 12 14 2018 12 02 1943-2631 206 2 2017 06 Genetics Genetics An Extraordinary Sex Determination Mechanism in a Book Louse. 751-753 10.1534/genetics.117.201236 Beukeboom Leo W LW 0000-0001-9838-9314 Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, 9700 CC, The Netherlands l.w.beukeboom@rug.nl. eng Journal Article Comment United States Genetics 0374636 0016-6731 IM Genetics. 2017 Jun;206(2):1091 (...) -1100 28292917 Animals Insecta Paternal Inheritance Phthiraptera Sex Determination Processes Psocodea maternal effect parent-of-origin effect paternal genome elimination 2017 03 10 2017 04 23 2017 6 9 6 0 2017 6 9 6 0 2017 12 15 6 0 ppublish 28592506 genetics.117.201236 10.1534/genetics.117.201236 PMC5499182 J Hered. 2017 Jan;108(1):78-93 27543823 Ecol Lett. 2014 Dec;17(12):1602-12 25328085 Mol Ecol. 2015 Oct;24(20):5075-7 26477297 Results Probl Cell Differ. 1999;25:41-71 10339741 Science. 2016 Jul

2017 Genetics

188. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in the ectoparasitic crustacean salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in the ectoparasitic crustacean salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an endemic ectoparasite on salmonid fish that is challenging for the salmon farming industry and wild fish. Salmon lice produce high numbers of offspring, necessitating sequestration of large amounts of lipids into growing oocytes as a major energy source for larvae, most probably mediated by lipoproteins. The microsomal triglyceride (...) transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the assembly of lipoproteins. Salmon lice have three L. salmonis MTP (LsMTP) transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms, which are predicted to contain three β-sheets (N, C, and A) and a central helical domain, similar to MTPs from other species. In adult females, the LsMTPs are differently transcribed in the sub-cuticular tissues, the intestine, the ovary, and in the mature eggs. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LsMTP in mature females

2017 Journal of lipid research

189. Systematic identification and characterization of stress-inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systematic identification and characterization of stress-inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are parasitic copepods, living mainly on Atlantic salmon and leading to large economical losses in aquaculture every year. Due to the emergence of resistances to several drugs, alternative treatments are developed, including treatment with hydrogen peroxide, freshwater or thermal treatment. The present study gives (...) a first overview of the thermotolerance and stress response of salmon lice. Sea lice nauplii acclimated to 10 °C can survive heat shocks up to 30 °C and are capable of hardening by a sublethal heat shock. We searched in the genome for heat shock protein (HSP) encoding genes and tested their inducibility after heat shock, changes in salinity and treatment with hydrogen peroxide, employing microfluidic qPCRs. We assessed 38 candidate genes, belonging to the small HSP, HSP40, HSP70 and HSP90 families

2017 Cell stress & chaperones

190. Effectiveness of "No More" Anti-lice Medical Device to Kill Lice and Lice Eggs

Sponsor: Pharmayeda Information provided by (Responsible Party): Pharmayeda Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine effectiveness of an Anti-lice treatment using the medical device "No More" which is designed to kill lice and lice eggs on the head. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Lice Device: Topically Not Applicable Detailed Description: The Clinical Trial Protocol include 2 visits First Visit: Explanation and signing of consent (...) forms. Diagnosis: Prof. Shemer will check if the patients have sufficient living lice or lice eggs and if so they will be scheduled to receive treatment. Second Visit: -Spread the "No More" on the head of the boy or girl on dry hair. After five minutes comb with an adequately thick comb and the eggs will fall out easily with the pulling of the comb. Wash the hair. Combing the hair again with a thick comb for five minutes and/or 20 combings; Checking if the head is free of eggs and lice via a visual

2015 Clinical Trials

191. Coinfection takes its toll: Sea lice override the protective effects of vaccination against a bacterial pathogen in Atlantic salmon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Coinfection takes its toll: Sea lice override the protective effects of vaccination against a bacterial pathogen in Atlantic salmon Vaccination is considered crucial for disease prevention and fish health in the global salmon farming industry. Nevertheless, some aspects, such as the efficacy of vaccines, can be largely circumvented during natural coinfections. Sea lice are ectoparasitic copepods that can occur with a high prevalence in the field, are frequently found in co-infection with other (...) pathogens, and are highly detrimental to fish health. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the interaction between the detrimental effects of coinfection and the protective effects of vaccination in fish. We used the interaction between the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi, the bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis, and their host, the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, as a study model. Our results showed that coinfection decreased the accumulated survival (AS) and specific growth rate

2017 Scientific reports

192. Changing Demographics and Prevalence of Body Lice among Homeless Persons, Marseille, France. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changing Demographics and Prevalence of Body Lice among Homeless Persons, Marseille, France. The prevalence of body lice among 2,288 sheltered homeless persons in the city of Marseille during 2000-2017 was 12.2% and significantly decreased over time. We report a positive association between body lice infestations and older age, duration of stays in France for migrants, frequent consumption of alcohol, and tobacco smoking.

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

193. The Phe362Tyr mutation conveying resistance to organophosphates occurs in high frequencies in salmon lice collected from wild salmon and trout Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Phe362Tyr mutation conveying resistance to organophosphates occurs in high frequencies in salmon lice collected from wild salmon and trout The parasitic salmon louse, and its resistance to chemical delousing agents, represents one of the largest challenges to the salmon aquaculture industry. We genotyped lice sampled from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway with the recently identified Phe362Tyr mutation that conveys resistance to organophosphates. These results were compared (...) selected for in fish-farms where organophosphates are used for delousing. Therefore, our results suggest extensive exchange of lice between farmed and wild hosts, and indicate that in farming-dense regions in Norway, aquaculture represents a major driver of salmon louse population structure. Finally, these data suggest that the wild hosts within the regions studied will not delay the spread of resistance when organophosphates are used.

2017 Scientific reports

194. Lousy chicks: Chewing lice from the Imperial Shag, Leucocarbo atriceps Full Text available with Trip Pro

infested by at least one lice species. P. turbinatus was present in all of the lousy chicks, while P. caputincisum infested 84.2% of them. The mean intensity was 29.5 and the range 1-129. There was no difference in prevalence, mean intensity or mean abundance between louse species. However, we found differences among the pattern of infestation of each species. Imperial shag chicks were infested by their parents during their first days of life by P. turbinatus, mainly in nymphal stage and by P (...) Lousy chicks: Chewing lice from the Imperial Shag, Leucocarbo atriceps Forty-one imperial shag chicks were sampled for lice during the breeding season of 2014 in Punta León, Argentina. We found 2 lice species, Pectinopygus turbinatus infesting the body and Piagetiella caputincisum present in the oral cavity of the birds. This constitutes the first host record for P. turbinatus and the first record for the continental Argentina for P. caputincisum. Ninety-three percent of the chicks were

2017 International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife

195. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi (...) . The transcriptomic response of the salmon louse to F. margolisi was profiled at both the copepodid larval stage and the pre-adult stage using microarray technology. Infected copepodids differentially expressed 577 transcripts related to stress, ATP generation and structural components of muscle and cuticle. The infection also impacted the response of the copepodid to the parasiticide emamectin benzoate (EMB) at a low dose of 1.0 ppb for 24 h. A set of 48 transcripts putatively involved in feeding and host

2017 BMC genomics

196. Control of lice infestation in horses using a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin topical application Full Text available with Trip Pro

Control of lice infestation in horses using a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin topical application Two open-controlled studies evaluated the tolerance and the efficacy of a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin-based pour-on solution (Deltanil®; Virbac, France) in treating (study 1) and preventing (study 2) natural Damalinia equi infestations in horses. In study 1, seven adult horses received 10 mL of the solution from mane to tail head on day 0 (D0). Four adult horses, living separately, served as non-treated controls (...) % on D7, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 50 and 56, respectively (mean [SD]: D0 3.1 [1.8]). In study 2, the lice populations remained high in the two control horses throughout the study (max mean [SD]: D0 159 [151.3], min D45 34 [39.6]). On treated animals, all parasite counts were negative except on D15 (one louse found). The protection rate was 99.7% on D15 and 100% from D30 to D60.A single application of the 10 mg/mL deltamethrin preparation was effective and safe in the treatment and in the prevention of lice

2017 Irish veterinary journal

197. Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee 28366167 2018 04 30 2018 11 13 1466-609X 21 1 2017 Apr 03 Critical care (London, England) Crit Care Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee. 81 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 Cutuli Salvatore L SL Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8 00168, Rome, Italy. De Pascale Gennaro G Department of Anesthesiology (...) Hypotension etiology Italy Jaundice etiology Leptospira pathogenicity Leptospirosis psychology therapy Lice Infestations psychology therapy Refugees psychology Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult ethnology psychology therapy Treatment Refusal ethnology psychology Borrelia recurrentis Borreliosis Leptospira Leptospirosis Migrants 2017 4 4 6 0 2017 4 4 6 0 2018 5 1 6 0 epublish 28366167 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 PMC5376700 PLoS One. 2009 Sep 18;4(9):e7093 19763264 Intensive Care

2017 Critical Care

198. Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - A review. (Abstract)

Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - A review. The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector (...) important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious

2017 Acta Tropica

199. Lice

humanus corpus , Phthirus pubis Infestation , Head Lice , Phthirus pubis , Body Louse Infestation , Pediculus Capitis Infestation , Body Lice , Genital Lice From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Head and Body Lice are interchangeable Head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) Female lays eggs at base of hair Egg adheres as hair grows Transmitted by fomites or head to head contact Body Lice (Pediculus humanus corpus) Live in seams of clothing or bedding which they briefly leave only to feed on human host (...) capitis (diagnosis) , pediculosis capitis , Pediculus capitis infestation , Nits - head lice , Head pediculosis , Head-louse infestation , Infestation (by);lice;head , nits , pediculus capitis , head louse , head lice infestation , Head louse infestation (disorder) , Pediculus capitis (organism) , Pediculosis capitis , Head lice , Lice infested hair , Lousy hair , Nit infested hair , Nits , Head lice infestation , Head louse infestation , Pediculosis capitis (disorder) , Pediculus humanus capitis

2018 FP Notebook

200. Unilateral Axillary Pseudochromhidrosis-like Lesion Caused by Pediculosis Pubis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unilateral Axillary Pseudochromhidrosis-like Lesion Caused by Pediculosis Pubis 27098803 2017 03 07 2018 11 13 2542-5641 129 9 2016 May 05 Chinese medical journal Chin. Med. J. Unilateral Axillary Pseudochromhidrosis-like Lesion Caused by Pediculosis Pubis. 1133-4 10.4103/0366-6999.180525 Wang Tao T Liang Si S Liu Yue-Hua YH Department of Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China. Lian (...) Christine Guo CG eng Case Reports Letter China Chin Med J (Engl) 7513795 0366-6999 IM Animals Axilla Humans Lice Infestations complications Male Middle Aged Phthirus Sweat Gland Diseases etiology 2016 4 22 6 0 2016 4 22 6 0 2017 3 8 6 0 ppublish 27098803 ChinMedJ_2016_129_9_1133_180525 10.4103/0366-6999.180525 PMC4852685 Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Jun;22(6):304-5 21680662 Clin Exp Dermatol. 2015 Jul;40(5):572-4 25641729 J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jan;50(1):1-12; quiz 13-4 14699358 Clin Dermatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;32

2016 Chinese medical journal

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