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2. Leprosy

Leprosy Leprosy - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Leprosy Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2018 Summary Chronic infectious disease caused by the acid-fast bacteria Mycobacterium leprae , characterised by skin lesion(s) and involvement of peripheral nerves. Skin lesions can be erythematous or hypopigmented, single or multiple macules, papules, or nodules, sometimes with loss (...) of sensation. Skin smear may or may not be positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) depending on the classification (multibacillary vs. paucibacillary). Nerve damage to peripheral nerve trunks may occur, with loss of sensation in the skin and weakness of muscles supplied by the affected nerve, leading to disabilities. Diagnosis is most commonly based on clinical signs and symptoms, and in practice, people usually report on their own to the health centre. The standard WHO-recommended treatment for leprosy

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Assistive technologies for improving the oral hygiene of leprosy patients residing in a former leprosy colony in Betim, Minas Gerais, Brazil. (PubMed)

Assistive technologies for improving the oral hygiene of leprosy patients residing in a former leprosy colony in Betim, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study deals with management of a group of elderly patients with a history of leprosy and hand deformities by a multidisciplinary team of dentists and occupational therapists. Assistive technology devices have been developed to allow such patients to obtain independence in oral self-care and can be a cost-effective approach to improving oral care (...) in this population. The objective of this study was to describe the development of assistive devices to facilitate daily oral hygiene in older people with enduring leprosy-related impairments.Case study realized among elders with a history of leprosy residents in a former isolation colony in Betim, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The elders were evaluated for dependence on others for denture hygiene and mouthwash using the Daily Oral Hygiene Activity Index (ADOH). Those deemed partially or completely dependent on others

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2018 PLoS ONE

4. Case Report: A Case of Type 1 Leprosy Reaction and Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Complicating the Clinical Course of Multibacillary Leprosy. (PubMed)

Case Report: A Case of Type 1 Leprosy Reaction and Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Complicating the Clinical Course of Multibacillary Leprosy. Type 1 reactions, characterized by increasing lesion erythema, pain, and nerve damage, commonly complicate leprosy. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a potentially fatal reaction occurring 6-8 weeks into dapsone therapy. We present a case of intercurrent Type 1 reaction and DHS in a multibacillary leprosy patient recently started on multidrug

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

5. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination (PubMed)

Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking.We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020.Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model (...) selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods.We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB

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2017 Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

6. Corticosteroids for treating nerve damage in leprosy. (PubMed)

Corticosteroids for treating nerve damage in leprosy. Leprosy causes nerve damage that can result in nerve function impairment and disability. Corticosteroids are commonly used for treating nerve damage, although their long-term effect is uncertain. This is an update of a review first published in 2007, and previously updated in 2009 and 2011.To assess the effects of corticosteroids on nerve damage in leprosy.On 16 June 2015, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register (...) , the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, and LILACS. We also checked clinical trials registers and contacted trial authors.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of corticosteroids for nerve damage in leprosy. The comparators were no treatment, placebo treatment, or a different corticosteroid regimen.The primary outcome was improvement in nerve function after one year. Secondary outcomes were change in nerve pain, limitations in activities

2016 Cochrane

7. Can different stages of leprosy treatment influence the profile of oral health? Oral status in leprosy (PubMed)

Can different stages of leprosy treatment influence the profile of oral health? Oral status in leprosy The aim of study was to evaluate the oral health status, salivary flow and halitosis among individuals diagnosed with leprosy as compared with healthy subjects.A sample of 160 individuals was allocated into four groups, as follows: (G1) individuals with complete leprosy treatment; (G2) individuals diagnosed with leprosy and under multi-drug therapy; (G3) individuals diagnosed with leprosy (...) high, with no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). As for salivary flow, 76.2% of the subjects presented normal flow rates, while 10% and 13.7% showed low and very low salivary flow rates, respectively, with hyposalivation being mostly observed in Groups 1 and 2. The highest prevalence of noticeable odor was found in healthy individuals (G4), and the most prevalent periodontal diagnosis was gingivitis (63.1%) in Group 3 (individuals with leprosy not yet under multi-drug therapy) followed

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2018 Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal

8. A rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature review (PubMed)

A rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature review Type 1 leprosy reaction, also known as "reversal reaction", is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 (...) leprosy reactions.A 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to our hospital with symptoms of erythematous plaques and pain over her left upper limb for 2 days and foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days. The patient had a 6-year history of leprosy. Type 1 leprosy reactions were initially considered, followed by treatment with methylprednisolone. Two days later, the patient's symptoms were aggravated, with neck muscle tension and difficulty in opening her mouth, and the erythematous plaques

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2018 Infectious diseases of poverty

9. Alternate Anti-Leprosy Regimen for Multidrug Therapy Refractory Leprosy: A Retrospective Study from a Tertiary Care Center in North India. (PubMed)

Alternate Anti-Leprosy Regimen for Multidrug Therapy Refractory Leprosy: A Retrospective Study from a Tertiary Care Center in North India. A subset of multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients manifest with clinical "nonresponsiveness" to the fixed-duration, World Health Organization multidrug therapy MB regimen (WHO-MDT-MBR). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of alternate anti-leprosy therapy (ALT) in such patients. This is an analysis of patients (...) ' records, registered in the leprosy clinic of our institute over a period of 6 years (2010-2015). The criteria for inadequate response/nonresponsiveness to treatment were as follows: 1) persistent/new lesions after completing ≥ 12 months of WHO-MDT-MBR (isolated reactions were ruled out histopathologically) and 2) persistent positive/increasing value of the morphological index (MI) and a 2 log increase in the bacteriological index (BI) after ≥ 12 months of WHO-MDT-MBR. Such cases were treated with ALT

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

10. Can baseline ML Flow test results predict leprosy reactions? An investigation in a cohort of patients enrolled in the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil. (PubMed)

Can baseline ML Flow test results predict leprosy reactions? An investigation in a cohort of patients enrolled in the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil. The predictive value of the serology to detection of IgM against the Mycobacterium leprae-derived phenolic glycolipid-I/PGL-I to identify leprosy patients who are at higher risk of developing reactions remains controversial. Whether baseline results of the ML Flow test can predict leprosy reactions (...) was investigated among a cohort of patients enrolled in The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR).This was a descriptive study focusing on the main clinical manifestations of leprosy patients enrolled in the U-MDT/CT-BR from March 2007 to February 2012 at two Brazilian leprosy reference centers. For research purposes, 753 leprosy patients were categorized according to a modified Ridley-Jopling (R&J) classification and according to the development of leprosy

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2017 Infectious diseases of poverty

11. Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Either Natural Octyl Disaccharide-Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic or Phenolic Glycolipid-I Antigens for the Detection of Leprosy Patients in Colombia. (PubMed)

Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Either Natural Octyl Disaccharide-Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic or Phenolic Glycolipid-I Antigens for the Detection of Leprosy Patients in Colombia. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Delays in attaining correct diagnosis permit progressive peripheral nerve damage that can produce irreversible disabilities. Tests detecting antigen-specific antibodies can aid the diagnostic process and potentially (...) detect patients earlier. Reported tests have lacked optimal sensitivity and specificity; however, the need to develop new tests to aid early diagnosis still remains. In this study, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID). Serum samples from confirmed multibacillary patients (N = 338) and paucibacillary patients (N = 58) were

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

12. Anti-natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) antibodies as indicators of leprosy reactions and neuritis. (PubMed)

Anti-natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) antibodies as indicators of leprosy reactions and neuritis. Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. We hypothesized that natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) would be helpful as an indicator of LRs (...) and neuritis.To assess the utility of NDO-LID in indicating reactions, ELISA were used to detect specific antibodies in serum samples from 80 Colombian leprosy patients (40 with and 40 without history of LRs). Responses were detected using a range of detection reagents detecting IgG, IgM or both isotypes.Patients with a history of LRs had an increased seropositivity rate for anti-NDO-LID antibodies compared to patients without (anti-NDO-LID protein A [p=0.02], IgG anti-NDO-LID [p=0.01] and IgM anti-NDO-LID [p

2017 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

13. Leprosy reactions: The predictive value of Mycobacterium leprae-specific serology evaluated in a Brazilian cohort of leprosy patients (U-MDT/CT-BR) (PubMed)

Leprosy reactions: The predictive value of Mycobacterium leprae-specific serology evaluated in a Brazilian cohort of leprosy patients (U-MDT/CT-BR) Leprosy reactions, reversal reactions/RR and erythema nodosum leprosum/ENL, can cause irreversible nerve damage, handicaps and deformities. The study of Mycobacterium leprae-specific serologic responses at diagnosis in the cohort of patients enrolled at the Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy Regimen for Leprosy Patients in Brazil/U-MDT/CT (...) -BR is suitable to evaluate its prognostic value for the development of reactions.IgM and IgG antibody responses to PGL-I, LID-1, ND-O-LID were evaluated by ELISA in 452 reaction-free leprosy patients at diagnosis, enrolled and monitored for the development of leprosy reactions during a total person-time of 780,930 person-days, i.e. 2139.5 person-years, with a maximum of 6.66 years follow-up time.Among these patients, 36% (160/452) developed reactions during follow-up: 26% (119/452) RR and 10% (41

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2017 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

14. Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts (PubMed)

Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals.The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic (...) glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID).The study population consisted of 130 leprosy cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 and 277 household contacts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse the reactivity of antibodies against NDOHSA, LID-1 and NDOLID. The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer

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2017 Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

15. Antimicrobial reisistance in leprosy: report of a global consultation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 27-28 October 2016

Antimicrobial reisistance in leprosy: report of a global consultation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 27-28 October 2016 Antimicrobial reisistance in leprosy: report of a global consultation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 27-28 October 2016 JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Antimicrobial reisistance in leprosy: report of a global consultation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 27-28 October 2016 View (...) / Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation Regional Office for South-East Asia, World Health Organization . (‎2016)‎. Antimicrobial reisistance in leprosy: report of a global consultation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 27-28 October 2016. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. Gov't Doc # SEA-GLP-2016.5 Collections Language English Metadata View Item

2016 WHO

16. WHO Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy Control, Report on the Thirteenth Meeting, New Delhi, India, 26 November 2015

WHO Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy Control, Report on the Thirteenth Meeting, New Delhi, India, 26 November 2015 WHO Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy Control, Report on the Thirteenth Meeting, New Delhi, India, 26 November 2015 JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links WHO Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy Control, Report on the Thirteenth Meeting, New Delhi (...) , India, 26 November 2015 View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Abstract The Thirteenth Meeting of WHO Technical Advisory Group (‎TAG)‎ on Leprosy Control was organized in New Delhi, on 26 November 2015 to discuss and endorse the draft Global Leprosy Strategy 2016-2020; Accelerating a towards ‘leprosy-free world’ and advise on tools for implementation of the strategy by national programmes. The WHO TAG appreciated the consultative efforts taken by WHO in developing Global Leprosy Strategy 2016

2016 WHO

17. Leprosy survey among rural communities and wild armadillos from Amazonas state, Northern Brazil. (PubMed)

Leprosy survey among rural communities and wild armadillos from Amazonas state, Northern Brazil. There is evidence that in southern US, leprosy is a zoonosis infecting wild Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos but the extent of this finding is unknown. This ecological study investigated leprosy in rural communities and in wild armadillos from the Brazilian Amazon. The study area was the Mamiá Lake of Coari municipality, Amazonas State, Northern region, a hyper endemic leprosy area where residents (...) live on subsistence farming, fishing and armadillo hunting and its meat intake are frequent. The leprosy survey was conducted in sixteen communities by a visiting team of specialists. Local partakers provided wild armadillos to investigate M. leprae infection. Volunteers had complete dermato-neurological examination by a dermatologist with expertise in leprosy diagnosis, suspect skin lesions were biopsied for histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin/HE, Fite-Faraco/FF staining); slit skin smears were

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2019 PLoS ONE

18. Evaluation of safety tool for ambulatory leprosy patients at risk of adverse outcome (PubMed)

Evaluation of safety tool for ambulatory leprosy patients at risk of adverse outcome Leprosy is a potentially debilitating disease of the skin and nerves that requires a complex management approach consisting of laboratory monitoring, screening for factors that will adversely affect outcome with corticosteroids, engagement of allied health services, and prolonged follow-up. Given the complexities of leprosy management, a safety tool was developed and implemented in the Tropical Disease Unit (...) at Toronto General Hospital. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the tool using a retrospective chart review.We reviewed the charts of patients with leprosy treated over a 3.5-year period: up to 3 years prior to tool implementation, and 6-months following implementation. Pre-determined outcomes of interest included: loss to follow-up; monitoring of laboratory parameters; allied health services engagement; baseline ophthalmologic assessment; and risk mitigation interventions.Of 17 patients

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2018 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

19. "If you will counsel properly with love, they will listen": A qualitative analysis of leprosy affected patients' educational needs and caregiver perceptions in Nepal. (PubMed)

"If you will counsel properly with love, they will listen": A qualitative analysis of leprosy affected patients' educational needs and caregiver perceptions in Nepal. Leprosy remains a disease of concern in many countries including Nepal. To achieve the target of elimination, the WHO strategy promotes comprehensive education of patients, healthcare workers (HCWs), and the public on leprosy-related issues. However most educational programs are based on the concerns of HCWs and not on patients (...) ' needs. The objective of this paper is to explore the educational needs of leprosy affected patients in Nepal and compare them to the needs perceived by HCWs.Semi directive interviews were conducted with patients and HCWs. The data was analyzed using the basic interpretative qualitative framework. The study was conducted in two leprosy referral centers, one university hospital and one primary health care center: Lalgadh Leprosy Hospital and Services Centre, Anandaban Hospital and its satellite clinic

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2019 PLoS ONE

20. Effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis in preventing leprosy in patient contacts: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis in preventing leprosy in patient contacts: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin.The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients (...) with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease.In the quantitative component, individuals in contact with leprosy patients were included. In the qualitative component, in addition to contacts, health professionals who were in the practice of treating leprosy were included.The quantitative component considered

2017 JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports

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