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Length Bias

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1. Platelet count, spleen length, and platelet count-to-spleen length ratio for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices in people with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. (PubMed)

all but one of the included studies to be at high risk of bias. We had major concerns about defining the cut-off value for the three index tests; most included studies derived the best cut-off values a posteriori, thus overestimating accuracy; 16 studies were designed to validate the 909 (n/mm3)/mm cut-off value for platelet count-to-spleen length ratio. Enrolment of participants was not consecutive in six studies and was unclear in 31 studies. Thirty-four studies assessed enrolment consecutively (...) Platelet count, spleen length, and platelet count-to-spleen length ratio for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices in people with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Current guidelines recommend screening of people with oesophageal varices via oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy at the time of diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis. This requires that people repeatedly undergo unpleasant invasive procedures with their attendant risks, although half of these people have no identifiable oesophageal

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2017 Cochrane

2. Bias due to censoring of deaths when calculating extra length of stay for patients acquiring a hospital infection. (PubMed)

Bias due to censoring of deaths when calculating extra length of stay for patients acquiring a hospital infection. In many studies the information of patients who are dying in the hospital is censored when examining the change in length of hospital stay (cLOS) due to hospital-acquired infections (HIs). While appropriate estimators of cLOS are available in literature, the existence of the bias due to censoring of deaths was neither mentioned nor discussed by the according authors.Using multi (...) -state models, we systematically evaluate the bias when estimating cLOS in such a way. We first evaluate the bias in a mathematically closed form assuming a setting with constant hazards. To estimate the cLOS due to HIs non-parametrically, we relax the assumption of constant hazards and consider a time-inhomogeneous Markov model.In our analytical evaluation we are able to discuss challenging effects of the bias on cLOS. These are in regard to direct and indirect differential mortality. Moreover, we

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2018 BMC medical research methodology

3. Rolling circle amplification shows a sinusoidal template length-dependent amplification bias (PubMed)

Rolling circle amplification shows a sinusoidal template length-dependent amplification bias Biophysical properties of DNA such as its longitudinal and torsional persistence length govern many processes and phenomena in biology, DNA nanotechnology and biotechnology. It has, for example, long been known that the circularization efficiency of short DNA fragments shows a periodic pattern where fragments with integer helical turns circularize much more efficiently than those with odd helical half (...) turns due to stronger stacking of duplex ends. Small DNA circles can serve as templates for rolling circle amplification (RCA), which is a common and extremely robust amplification mechanism for nucleic acids. We discovered a strong template length-dependent amplification efficiency bias of RCA with the same periodicity as B-DNA. However, stacking cannot explain the mechanism behind this bias as the presence of the polymerase in the bifurcation fork inhibits base stacking of ends. Instead, coarse

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2017 Nucleic acids research

4. Gene length and detection bias in single cell RNA sequencing protocols (PubMed)

Gene length and detection bias in single cell RNA sequencing protocols Background: Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has rapidly gained popularity for profiling transcriptomes of hundreds to thousands of single cells. This technology has led to the discovery of novel cell types and revealed insights into the development of complex tissues. However, many technical challenges need to be overcome during data generation. Due to minute amounts of starting material, samples undergo extensive (...) amplification, increasing technical variability. A solution for mitigating amplification biases is to include unique molecular identifiers (UMIs), which tag individual molecules. Transcript abundances are then estimated from the number of unique UMIs aligning to a specific gene, with PCR duplicates resulting in copies of the UMI not included in expression estimates. Methods: Here we investigate the effect of gene length bias in scRNA-Seq across a variety of datasets that differ in terms of capture

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2017 F1000Research

5. Non-contemporaneous control bias

Non-contemporaneous control bias Non-contemporaneous control bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Non-contemporaneous control bias Differences in the timing of selection of case and controls within in a study influence exposures and outcomes resulting in biased estimates. Table of Contents Background If in a case-control study, cases are selected during one period and controls are selected during another period, then the relationships observed between exposures (...) and outcomes of interest might be affected. Changes in disease or diagnostic definitions, exposures over time and treatments could all contribute to non-contemporaneous bias. Case-control studies can use historical controls in their design. For practical reasons, this can be a useful approach since it avoids the need to collect new information for the control group. However, this risks introducing non-contemporaneous control bias as over time there may have been changing factors affecting controls

2018 Catalogue of Bias

6. Early enteral nutrition within 24 hours of lower gastrointestinal surgery versus later commencement for length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. (PubMed)

Early enteral nutrition within 24 hours of lower gastrointestinal surgery versus later commencement for length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. This is an update of the review last published in 2011. It focuses on early postoperative enteral nutrition after lower gastrointestinal surgery. Traditional management consisted of 'nil by mouth', where patients receive fluids followed by solids after bowel function has returned. Although several trials have reported lower incidence (...) ) is associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (LoS), fewer complications, mortality and adverse events in patients undergoing lower gastrointestinal surgery (distal to the ligament of Treitz).We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library 2017, issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to 15 November 2017), Ovid Embase (1974 to 15 November 2017). We also searched for ongoing trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials

2019 Cochrane

7. Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Comparing Methods to Address Bias Due to Length of Gestation in Epidemiological Studies. (PubMed)

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Comparing Methods to Address Bias Due to Length of Gestation in Epidemiological Studies. Studies examining total gestational weight gain (GWG) and outcomes associated with gestational age (GA) are potentially biased. The z-score has been proposed to mitigate this bias. We evaluated a regression-based adjustment for GA to remove the correlation between GWG and GA, and compared it to published weight-gain-for-gestational-age z-scores when applied to a study (...) bias and precision, where 95% is nominal.Under a simulated null association, total GWG resulted in a biased mortality estimate (RR = 0.87; coverage = 0%); estimates adjusted for GA were unbiased (RR = 1.00; coverage = 94%). Quintile-specific RRs ranged from 0.97-1.03. Similar results were observed for site-specific analyses. The overall z-score RR was 0.97 (84% coverage) with quintile-specific RRs ranging from 0.64-0.90. Estimates were close to 1.0 at most sites, with coverage from 70-94%. Sites 1

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2016 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

8. Conflation of Short Identity-by-Descent Segments Bias Their Inferred Length Distribution (PubMed)

Conflation of Short Identity-by-Descent Segments Bias Their Inferred Length Distribution Identity-by-descent (IBD) is a fundamental concept in genetics with many applications. In a common definition, two haplotypes are said to share an IBD segment if that segment is inherited from a recent shared common ancestor without intervening recombination. Segments several cM long can be efficiently detected by a number of algorithms using high-density SNP array data from a population sample (...) , under demographic scenarios typical for modern humans for all programs tested. The impact of such conflation is much smaller for longer (> 2 cM) segments. This biases the inferred IBD segment length distribution, and so can affect downstream inferences that depend on the assumption that each segment of IBD derives from a single common ancestor. As an example, we present and analyze an estimator of the de novo mutation rate using IBD segments, and demonstrate that unmodeled conflation leads

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2016 G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

9. Length Bias

Length Bias Length Bias Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Length Bias Length Bias Aka: Length Bias , Length-Time Bias (...) common in screening group Screening cohort has a better prognosis by definition IV. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Length Bias." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Epidemiology About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians

2018 FP Notebook

10. Early enteral nutrition within 24 hours of lower gastrointestinal surgery versus later commencement for length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. (PubMed)

Early enteral nutrition within 24 hours of lower gastrointestinal surgery versus later commencement for length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. This is an update of the review last published in 2011. It focuses on early postoperative enteral nutrition after lower gastrointestinal surgery. Traditional management consisted of 'nil by mouth', where patients receive fluids followed by solids after bowel function has returned. Although several trials have reported lower incidence (...) ) is associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (LoS), fewer complications, mortality and adverse events in patients undergoing lower gastrointestinal surgery (distal to the ligament of Treitz).We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library 2017, issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to 15 November 2017), Ovid Embase (1974 to 15 November 2017). We also searched for ongoing trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials

2018 Cochrane

11. Intraoperative use of low volume ventilation to decrease postoperative mortality, mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay and lung injury in adults without acute lung injury. (PubMed)

Intraoperative use of low volume ventilation to decrease postoperative mortality, mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay and lung injury in adults without acute lung injury. Since the 2000s, there has been a trend towards decreasing tidal volumes for positive pressure ventilation during surgery. This an update of a review first published in 2015, trying to determine if lower tidal volumes are beneficial or harmful for patients.To assess the benefit of intraoperative use of low tidal volume (...) of the retained studies with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We analysed data with both fixed-effect (I2 statistic less than 25%) or random-effects (I2 statistic greater than 25%) models based on the degree of heterogeneity. When there was an effect, we calculated a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) using the odds ratio. When there was no effect, we calculated the optimum information size.We included seven new RCTs (536 participants) in the update.In total, we included 19

2018 Cochrane

12. Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador

Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador Christine Soong, Susan Gillam, Stephen Bornstein, Pablo Navarro NLCAHR October 2017 | Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador 2 This contextualized health research synthesis report was prepared by the Newfoundland & Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research (NLCAHR), Memorial University. It was developed through the analysis, interpretation (...) credit is given to NLCAHR. For further information please contact: nlcahr@mun.ca Cite as: Soong, C., Gillam, S., Bornstein, S., Navarro, P. (2017). Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador. St. John’s, NL: Newfoundland & Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Memorial University ISBN: 978-0-88901-480-0 Find CHRSP Reports Online All reports of the Contextualized Health Research Synthesis program are available online: www.nlcahr.mun.ca/chrsp/ Online Companion Document

2018 Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information

13. Interventions to increase or decrease the length of primary care physicians' consultation. (PubMed)

until 4 January 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP).Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials of interventions to alter the length of primary care physicians' consultations.Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies using agreed criteria and resolved disagreements (...) low; most studies had a high risk of bias, particularly due to non-random allocation of participants and the absence of data on participants' characteristics and small sample sizes. We are uncertain whether altering appointment length increases primary care consultation length, number of referrals and investigations, prescriptions, or patient satisfaction based on very low-certainty evidence. None of the studies reported on the effects of altering the length of consultation on resources used.We

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2016 Cochrane

14. The presence of different irrigants in the root canal system can affect working length determination during root canal treatment.

The presence of different irrigants in the root canal system can affect working length determination during root canal treatment. UTCAT3301, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title The presence of different irrigants in the root canal system can affect working length determination during root canal treatment. Clinical Question For a patient receiving root canal treatment, does the absence of an irrigant (...) in the root canal system result in successful determination of accurate working length compared to the presence of an irrigant? Clinical Bottom Line For a patient receiving root canal treatment, the absence of an irrigant in root canal system is better for determining working length compared to the presence of an irrigant. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence) #1) Tsesis/2015 10 studies including 1105

2017 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

15. A newer sedative agent may shorten length of stay in intensive care units

setting, dose of medication, patient characteristics and length of follow-up which reduces the reliability of the combined results. Six individual studies were at high risk of bias mainly because of a lack of blinding of participants, but this is unlikely to have influenced the main conclusion. What did it find? One trial comparing dexmedetomidine with clonidine found that target sedation level, with less need for additional sedation, was achieved in more patients who received dexmedetomidine than (...) . The overall quality of evidence was low with uncertain or high risk of bias in the trials reviewed. Dexmedetomidine is expensive. This review did not include trials that compared the costs of treatment so cost-effectiveness is unknown. However, stays in ICU are costly and this drug did reduce length of ICU stay so may well reduce overall costs. It would be beneficial to know from future trials if particular sub groups of patients were more likely to benefit from treatment with dexmedetomidine

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

16. A newer sedative agent may shorten length of stay in intensive care units

setting, dose of medication, patient characteristics and length of follow-up which reduces the reliability of the combined results. Six individual studies were at high risk of bias mainly because of a lack of blinding of participants, but this is unlikely to have influenced the main conclusion. What did it find? One trial comparing dexmedetomidine with clonidine found that target sedation level, with less need for additional sedation, was achieved in more patients who received dexmedetomidine than (...) . The overall quality of evidence was low with uncertain or high risk of bias in the trials reviewed. Dexmedetomidine is expensive. This review did not include trials that compared the costs of treatment so cost-effectiveness is unknown. However, stays in ICU are costly and this drug did reduce length of ICU stay so may well reduce overall costs. It would be beneficial to know from future trials if particular sub groups of patients were more likely to benefit from treatment with dexmedetomidine

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

17. The Magnitude of Time-Dependent Bias in the Estimation of Excess Length of Stay Attributable to Healthcare-Associated Infections. (PubMed)

The Magnitude of Time-Dependent Bias in the Estimation of Excess Length of Stay Attributable to Healthcare-Associated Infections. BACKGROUND Estimates of the excess length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in which total LOS of patients with and without HAIs are biased because of failure to account for the timing of infection. Alternate methods that appropriately treat HAI as a time-varying exposure are multistate models and cohort studies, which match (...) regarding the time of infection. We examined the magnitude of this time-dependent bias in published studies that compared different methodological approaches. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies that report attributable LOS estimates using both total LOS (time-fixed) methods and either multistate models or matching patients with and without HAIs using the timing of infection. RESULTS Of the 7 studies that compared time-fixed methods to multistate

2015 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

18. Length bias correction in one-day cross-sectional assessments - The nutritionDay study. (PubMed)

Length bias correction in one-day cross-sectional assessments - The nutritionDay study. A major problem occurring in cross-sectional studies is sampling bias. Length of hospital stay (LOS) differs strongly between patients and causes a length bias as patients with longer LOS are more likely to be included and are therefore overrepresented in this type of study. To adjust for the length bias higher weights are allocated to patients with shorter LOS. We determined the effect of length-bias (...) to the General Hospital of Vienna between 2005 and 2009, where the distribution of LOS can be assumed to be known. Additionally, a simplified calculation scheme for estimating the adjusted distribution function of LOS is demonstrated on a small patient example.The crude median (lower quartile; upper quartile) LOS in the cross-sectional sample was 14 (8; 24) and decreased to 7 (4; 12) when adjusted. Hence, adjustment for length bias in cross-sectional studies is essential to get appropriate

2015 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

19. Interior renovation of a general practitioner office leads to a perceptual bias on patient experience for over one year. (PubMed)

Interior renovation of a general practitioner office leads to a perceptual bias on patient experience for over one year. Measuring patient experience is key when assessing quality of care but can be biased: A perceptual bias occurs when renovations of the interior design of a general practitioner (GP) office improves how patients assessed quality of care. The aim was to assess the length of perceptual bias and if it could be reproduced after a second renovation.A GP office with 2 GPs (...) (p = 0.068). Results were unchanged in the multivariate model.Interior renovation of a GP office probably causes a perceptual bias for >1 year that improves how patients rate quality of care. This bias could be reproduced after a second renovation strengthening a possible causal relationship. These findings imply to appropriately time measurement of patient experience to at least one year after interior renovation of GP practices to avoid environmental changes influences the estimates when

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2018 PLoS ONE

20. Metformin and Reduced Risk of Cancer in the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry: Real Effect or Immortal Time Bias? (PubMed)

or at enrollment, 1226 patients who initiated metformin after enrollment, and an unexposed group of 1392 patients who never used metformin.Metformin users were categorized into 11 groups in terms of length of time between metformin initiation and enrollment. The percent changes in immortal person-time were calculated for each group.As the groups of current metformin users (n = 3485) were added sequentially to the metformin group with potential immortal time bias (n = 1226), the proportion of immortal person (...) Metformin and Reduced Risk of Cancer in the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry: Real Effect or Immortal Time Bias? Whether metformin reduces cancer risk has been hotly debated. One common opinion is that the observed beneficial effects of metformin are the consequence of immortal time bias.To examine whether the observed beneficial effects of metformin on cancer risk are the consequence of immortal time bias.Retrospective cohort study.A cohort of 3485 patients who started metformin before

2019 Journal of General Internal Medicine

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