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Lemierre Syndrome

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121. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum (Overview)

presenting with a deep ulcer. [ ] Diabetic patients are more vulnerable to infection by A haemolyticum , and wound and blood cultures are appropriate if the patient appears septic. Multiple wound cultures may be required before A haemolyticum is identified. A haemolyticum is sometimes a copathogen with other bacteria, including with Fusobacterium necrophorum in one case of Lemierre disease. [ ] Although A haemolyticum has been implicated in a wide spectrum of diseases, it has been most commonly (...) . . Balakrishnan D. Arcanobacterium Hemolyticum Chorioamnionitis Leading to Preterm Labour – A Case Report. Basic Sci Med . 2017. 6(1):1-4. Smith HM, Arul I. Wound Infection and Sepsis Caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. Clin Microbiol News . 2016. 38(6):49-50. Younus F, Chua A, Tortora G, Jimenez VE. Lemierre's disease caused by co-infection of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and Fusobacterium necrophorum: a case report. J Infect . 2002 Aug. 45(2):114-7. . Nyman M, Alugupalli KR, Strömberg S, Forsgren

2014 eMedicine.com

122. Thrombophlebitis (Overview)

(11):2189-96. . Hochmair M, Valipour A, Oschatz E, Hollaus P, Huber M, Chris Burghuber O. From a sore throat to the intensive care unit: the Lemierre syndrome. Wien Klin Wochenschr . 2006 May. 118(7-8):243-6. . Brinsuk M, Tank J, Luft FC, Busjahn A, Jordan J. Heritability of venous function in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . 2004 Jan. 24(1):207-11. . Tröbinger C, Wiedermann CJ. Bodybuilding-induced Mondor's disease of the chest wall. Phys Ther Sport . 2017 Jan. 23:133-135. . Amano M (...) Author: Padma Chitnavis, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thrombophlebitis Overview Background Thrombophlebitis involves the formation of a blood clot in the presence of venous inflammation or injury. Many innate conditions may predispose patients to thrombophlebitis by means of a variety of hypercoagulopathy syndromes. [ ] Traumatic events can also initiate a thrombophlebitic reaction. In addition, the persistence of significant reflux

2014 eMedicine.com

123. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (Overview)

syndrome (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). Hemoptysis suggests the possibility of tuberculosis. A tuberculin skin test, chest radiography, or both are appropriate in these patients. Complications of specific conditions Complications of group A streptococcal disease Group A streptococcal pharyngitis is of special concern because its complications include streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, acute rheumatic fever (ARF), acute glomerulonephritis (...) > Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author: Anne Meneghetti, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Overview Practice Essentials Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs range from the common cold—typically a mild, self-limited, catarrhal syndrome of the nasopharynx—to life-threatening illnesses

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum (Follow-up)

report. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg . 2015 Mar-Apr. 31 (2):e31-3. . Balakrishnan D. Arcanobacterium Hemolyticum Chorioamnionitis Leading to Preterm Labour – A Case Report. Basic Sci Med . 2017. 6(1):1-4. Smith HM, Arul I. Wound Infection and Sepsis Caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. Clin Microbiol News . 2016. 38(6):49-50. Younus F, Chua A, Tortora G, Jimenez VE. Lemierre's disease caused by co-infection of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and Fusobacterium necrophorum: a case report. J Infect (...) you like to print? Sections Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Find Us On About Membership WebMD Network Editions All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum) and Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most Popular Articles According

2014 eMedicine.com

125. Thrombophlebitis (Diagnosis)

(11):2189-96. . Hochmair M, Valipour A, Oschatz E, Hollaus P, Huber M, Chris Burghuber O. From a sore throat to the intensive care unit: the Lemierre syndrome. Wien Klin Wochenschr . 2006 May. 118(7-8):243-6. . Brinsuk M, Tank J, Luft FC, Busjahn A, Jordan J. Heritability of venous function in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . 2004 Jan. 24(1):207-11. . Tröbinger C, Wiedermann CJ. Bodybuilding-induced Mondor's disease of the chest wall. Phys Ther Sport . 2017 Jan. 23:133-135. . Amano M (...) Author: Padma Chitnavis, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thrombophlebitis Overview Background Thrombophlebitis involves the formation of a blood clot in the presence of venous inflammation or injury. Many innate conditions may predispose patients to thrombophlebitis by means of a variety of hypercoagulopathy syndromes. [ ] Traumatic events can also initiate a thrombophlebitic reaction. In addition, the persistence of significant reflux

2014 eMedicine.com

126. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (Diagnosis)

syndrome (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). Hemoptysis suggests the possibility of tuberculosis. A tuberculin skin test, chest radiography, or both are appropriate in these patients. Complications of specific conditions Complications of group A streptococcal disease Group A streptococcal pharyngitis is of special concern because its complications include streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, acute rheumatic fever (ARF), acute glomerulonephritis (...) > Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author: Anne Meneghetti, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Overview Practice Essentials Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs range from the common cold—typically a mild, self-limited, catarrhal syndrome of the nasopharynx—to life-threatening illnesses

2014 eMedicine.com

127. Thrombophlebitis (Follow-up)

a sore throat to the intensive care unit: the Lemierre syndrome. Wien Klin Wochenschr . 2006 May. 118(7-8):243-6. . Brinsuk M, Tank J, Luft FC, Busjahn A, Jordan J. Heritability of venous function in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . 2004 Jan. 24(1):207-11. . Tröbinger C, Wiedermann CJ. Bodybuilding-induced Mondor's disease of the chest wall. Phys Ther Sport . 2017 Jan. 23:133-135. . Amano M, Shimizu T. Mondor's Disease: A Review of the Literature. Intern Med . 2018 May 18. . Belcaro G (...) venous thromboembolism. Thromb Haemost . 1997 Oct. 78(4):1183-8. . Beller FK. Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy. Anderson A, ed. Thromboembolic Disorders . New York, NY: Harper & Row; 1968. Homans J. Thrombosis of the deep leg veins due to prolonged sitting. N Engl J Med . 1954 Jan 28. 250(4):148-9. . Lord RS, McGrath M. Travelers venous thrombosis. 1993. Cushman M. Epidemiology and risk factors for venous thrombosis. Semin Hematol . 2007 Apr. 44(2):62-9. . Lord RS. Air travel-related deep venous

2014 eMedicine.com

128. Infectious Mononucleosis (Diagnosis)

pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis in an immunocompetent host. Heart Lung . 2013 Jan. 42(1):74-6. . Klemola E, Von Essen R, Henle G, et al. Infectious-mononucleosis-like disease with negative heterophil agglutination test. Clinical features in relation to Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus antibodies. J Infect Dis . 1970 Jun. 121(6):608-14. . Koj IG, Cunha BA. EBV infectious mononucleosis (...) of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med . 2007 Oct. 120(10):911.e1-8. . Schlossberg D. Infectious Mononucleosis . 2nd Ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1988. Jacobs BC, Rothbarth PH, van der Meche FG, et al. The spectrum of antecedent infections in Guillain-Barre syndrome: a case-control study. Neurology . 1998 Oct. 51(4):1110-5. . Jappe U. Amoxicillin-induced exanthema in patients with infectious mononucleosis: allergy or transient immunostimulation?. Allergy . 2007 Dec. 62(12):1474-5. . Jenson HB. Acute

2014 eMedicine.com

129. Lung Abscess (Diagnosis)

, not 1, but 4 microbes, thought to be Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus species, a fastidious gram-negative anaerobe, and, possibly, Prevotella melaninogenicus . Lung abscess was a devastating disease in the preantibiotic era, when one third of the patients died, another one third recovered, and the remainder developed debilitating illnesses such as recurrent abscesses, chronic empyema, bronchiectasis, or other consequences of chronic pyogenic infections. In the early postantibiotic period (...) necrosis 7-14 days later, resulting in formation of lung abscess. Other mechanisms for lung abscess formation include bacteremia or tricuspid valve endocarditis causing septic emboli (usually multiple) to the lung. Lemierre syndrome, an acute oropharyngeal infection followed by of the internal jugular vein, is a rare cause of lung abscesses. The oral anaerobe F necrophorum is the most common pathogen. Microbiology Because of the difficulty obtaining material uncontaminated by nonpathogenic bacteria

2014 eMedicine.com

130. Infectious Mononucleosis (Follow-up)

colonization versus infection. Infect Dis Pract . 1994. 18:16. Glaser SL, Lin RJ, Stewart SL, Ambinder RF, Jarrett RF, Brousset P, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated Hodgkin's disease: epidemiologic characteristics in international data. Int J Cancer . 1997 Feb 7. 70(4):375-82. . Godshall SE, Kirchner JT. Infectious mononucleosis. Complexities of a common syndrome. Postgrad Med . 2000 Jun. 107(7):175-9, 183-4, 186. . Gold WL, Kapral MK, Witmer MR, et al. Postanginal septicemia as a life-threatening (...) , Saito F, Nomura S, et al. A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after the primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost . 2007 Jul. 13(3):323-8. . Klein E, Masucci MG. Cell-mediated immunity against Epstein-Barr virus infected B lymphocytes. Springer Semin Immunopathol . 1982. 5(1):63-73. . Klein NC, Petelin A, Cunha BA. Mycoplasma pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis

2014 eMedicine.com

131. Mastoiditis (Treatment)

. Complications of mastoiditis in children at the onset of a new millennium. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 2005 Feb. 114(2):147-52. . Fischer JB, Prout A, Blackwood RA, Warrier K. Lemierre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Mastoiditis in a 2-Year-Old Girl with Congenital Dwarfism. Infect Dis Rep . 2015 Apr 15. 7 (2):5922. . Enoksson F, Groth A, Hultcrantz M, Stalfors J, Stenfeldt K, Hermansson A. Subperiosteal abscesses in acute mastoiditis in 115 Swedish children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol . 2015 Jul. 79 (7 (...) material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Pediatric Mastoiditis) and Pediatric Mastoiditis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most Popular Articles According to Pediatricians Recommended 2002 994656-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 858990-overview Procedures Procedures 2002 859316-overview Procedures Procedures 2002 860323-overview Procedures Procedures Need a Curbside Consult

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

132. Infections of the Lung, Pleura and Mediastinum: Surgical Perspective (Treatment)

contains fat and lymphoid tissue. The middle mediastinum comprises the heart, pericardium, aorta, carina, mainstem bronchi, and lymph nodes. The posterior mediastinum includes the esophagus, descending aorta, vagus nerve, and thoracic duct. Chest radiographs and computed tomography images of patients with mediastinitis follow. CT scan of the thorax of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing pneumomediastinum posterior to and to the left of the trachea, free (...) fluid surrounding the trachea, and left pleural effusion. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing development of ring-enhancing fluid collections in the anterior mediastinum just posterior to the sternum. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing a right pleural ring-enhancing abscess which persisted following drainage

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

133. Mastoiditis (Follow-up)

. Complications of mastoiditis in children at the onset of a new millennium. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 2005 Feb. 114(2):147-52. . Fischer JB, Prout A, Blackwood RA, Warrier K. Lemierre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Mastoiditis in a 2-Year-Old Girl with Congenital Dwarfism. Infect Dis Rep . 2015 Apr 15. 7 (2):5922. . Enoksson F, Groth A, Hultcrantz M, Stalfors J, Stenfeldt K, Hermansson A. Subperiosteal abscesses in acute mastoiditis in 115 Swedish children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol . 2015 Jul. 79 (7 (...) material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Pediatric Mastoiditis) and Pediatric Mastoiditis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most Popular Articles According to Pediatricians Recommended 2002 994656-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 858990-overview Procedures Procedures 2002 859316-overview Procedures Procedures 2002 860323-overview Procedures Procedures Need a Curbside Consult

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

134. Peritonsillar Abscess (Follow-up)

factors may reduce its occurrence. Previous Next: Complications Note the following possible complications: Airway compromise Aspiration of abscess contents (spontaneously or with incision and drainage) and development of aspiration pneumonia Parapharyngeal abscess Septic thrombophlebitis involving the internal jugular vein (Lemierre syndrome) or internal carotid artery leading to septicemia with metastatic foci of infection, especially in the lung (Lemierre syndrome, caused by Fusobacterium ) Carotid (...) on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most Popular Articles According to Pediatricians Recommended 2002 858001-overview Procedures Procedures 2002 849233-overview Procedures Procedures 2001 /viewarticle/889211 Journal Article Journal Article 2001 /viewarticle/908860 News News Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult.

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

135. Infections of the Lung, Pleura and Mediastinum: Surgical Perspective (Follow-up)

contains fat and lymphoid tissue. The middle mediastinum comprises the heart, pericardium, aorta, carina, mainstem bronchi, and lymph nodes. The posterior mediastinum includes the esophagus, descending aorta, vagus nerve, and thoracic duct. Chest radiographs and computed tomography images of patients with mediastinitis follow. CT scan of the thorax of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing pneumomediastinum posterior to and to the left of the trachea, free (...) fluid surrounding the trachea, and left pleural effusion. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing development of ring-enhancing fluid collections in the anterior mediastinum just posterior to the sternum. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing a right pleural ring-enhancing abscess which persisted following drainage

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

136. Mastoiditis (Diagnosis)

. Masked mastoiditis. Laryngoscope . 1983 Aug. 93(8):1034-7. . Oestreicher-Kedem Y, Raveh E, Kornreich L, et al. Complications of mastoiditis in children at the onset of a new millennium. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 2005 Feb. 114(2):147-52. . Fischer JB, Prout A, Blackwood RA, Warrier K. Lemierre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Mastoiditis in a 2-Year-Old Girl with Congenital Dwarfism. Infect Dis Rep . 2015 Apr 15. 7 (2):5922. . Enoksson F, Groth A, Hultcrantz M, Stalfors J, Stenfeldt K, Hermansson (...) material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Pediatric Mastoiditis) and Pediatric Mastoiditis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most Popular Articles According to Pediatricians Recommended 2002 994656-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 858990-overview Procedures

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

137. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis (Treatment)

, and axillary deep venous thrombosis and the risk of pulmonary embolism. Vascular . 2008 Mar-Apr. 16 (2):73-9. . Righini CA, Karkas A, Tourniaire R, N'Gouan JM, Schmerber S, Reyt E, et al. Lemierre syndrome: study of 11 cases and literature review. Head Neck . 2014 Jul. 36 (7):1044-51. . Ascher E, Salles-Cunha S, Hingorani A. Morbidity and mortality associated with internal jugular vein thromboses. Vasc Endovascular Surg . 2005 Jul-Aug. 39 (4):335-9. . Tovi F, Fliss DM, Gatot A, Hertzanu Y. Septic jugular (...) thrombosis with abscess formation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1991 Aug. 100 (8):682-4. . Fuhrman T, Balatbat J, Frakes J, Metz R. Internal jugular thrombosis causing increased intracranial pressure and upper airway edema. Internet J Anesthesiol . 1999. 4 (3):1-5. . Kim BY, Yoon DY, Kim HC, Kim ES, Baek S, Lim KJ, et al. Thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (Lemierre syndrome): clinical and CT findings. Acta Radiol . 2013 Jul. 54 (6):622-7. . Sheikh MA, Topoulos AP, Deitcher SR. Isolated internal

2014 eMedicine Surgery

138. Peritonsillar Abscess (Overview)

are available internationally. Although tonsillitis is a disease of childhood, only one third of PTA cases are found in this age group. The age of patients with the condition is variable, ranging from 1 to 76 years, with the highest incidence in persons aged 15-35 years. No sexual or racial predilection has been established. In a retrospective cohort study of 427 patients with PTA, Marom et al investigated how the characteristics of PTA may have changed over time. [ ] The results led the authors to conclude (...) A, Passet E, Rossi P, Nadalin J, et al. Ten years of descending necrotizing mediastinitis: management of 23 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 2007 Sep. 65 (9):1716-24. . Ehrenfried Berthelsen R, Hein L. [Lemierre's syndrome following peritonsillar abscess]. Ugeskr Laeger . 2012 May 28. 174 (22):1534-5. . Ramirez-Schrempp D, Dorfman DH, Baker WE, Liteplo AS. Ultrasound soft-tissue applications in the pediatric emergency department: to drain or not to drain?. Pediatr Emerg Care . 2009 Jan. 25 (1):44-8

2014 eMedicine Surgery

139. Infections of the Lung, Pleura and Mediastinum: Surgical Perspective (Diagnosis)

contains fat and lymphoid tissue. The middle mediastinum comprises the heart, pericardium, aorta, carina, mainstem bronchi, and lymph nodes. The posterior mediastinum includes the esophagus, descending aorta, vagus nerve, and thoracic duct. Chest radiographs and computed tomography images of patients with mediastinitis follow. CT scan of the thorax of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing pneumomediastinum posterior to and to the left of the trachea, free (...) fluid surrounding the trachea, and left pleural effusion. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing development of ring-enhancing fluid collections in the anterior mediastinum just posterior to the sternum. CT scan of the thorax with intravenous contrast of a sixteen-year-old with Lemierre's syndrome and anterior mediastinitis revealing a right pleural ring-enhancing abscess which persisted following drainage

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

140. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis (Overview)

and commonly isolated pathogen. [ ] Other organisms include Bacteroides and Peptostreptococcus species, Eikenella corrodens, and S aureus. Previous Next: Epidemiology Some studies suggest that the rate of thrombosis may be lower for Silastic (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) hemodialysis catheters inserted percutaneously than for those inserted surgically. Additionally, the rate of thrombosis may be lower in patients undergoing hemodialysis than in other critically ill patients. The incidence of Lemierre syndrome (...) thrombosis. Mortality has been reported to be 14% at 1 month, 33% at 3 months, and 42% at 12 months. [ ] Before the antibiotic era, Lemierre syndrome was associated with a mortality exceeding 50%. Today, however, death is uncommon when the syndrome is recognized early and treated with appropriate aggressive medical and surgical therapy. In one series of patients with septic thrombophlebitis occurring over a 9-year period, death occurred in 17% of patients. Many patients have ongoing critical illness

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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