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Leishmaniasis

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1. Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Leishmaniasis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary Has a range of clinical presentations; cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common, but visceral leishmaniasis is more serious and can be fatal if left untreated. Diagnosis is confirmed by various tests, including microscopic examination, culture, or molecular testing (...) , depending on the type of leishmaniasis and test availability. Possible treatments depend on clinical presentations, parasite species and strain, and the part of the world in which infection occurs. Treatment is less effective and more toxic in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent people. Definition The leishmaniases are a group of protozoan diseases infecting humans and mammals, causing either skin lesions or injury to the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, et al

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Nutritional supplements for patients being treated for active visceral leishmaniasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nutritional supplements for patients being treated for active visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by a parasite, which can lead to death if untreated. Poor nutritional status hastens the progression of VL infection, and VL worsens malnutrition status. Malnutrition is one of the poor prognostic factors identified for leishmaniasis. However, the effects of nutritional supplementation in people treated for VL are not known.To assess the effects of oral

2018 Cochrane

5. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary (...) randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE.Randomised controlled trials of either

2017 Cochrane

6. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary (...) randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE.Randomised controlled trials of either

2017 Cochrane

7. Leishmaniasis in Istanbul; A new epidemiological data about refugee leishmaniasis. (Abstract)

Leishmaniasis in Istanbul; A new epidemiological data about refugee leishmaniasis. Leishmania is an intracellular parasite, which is transmitted by the bite of infected female Phlebotominae sand flies. Turkey is a crossroad between Europe and Asia that makes it important in terms of epidemiology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate Leishmania infection among non-autochthonous patients admitted to Health Sciences University, Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training hospital between 2014-2018 (...) to be infected with L. tropica, while one patient was infected with L. infantum. Two of the lesions were wet type and 11 of them were dry type lesions. Several papers were published recently about leishmaniasis in Turkey but to best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting refugee leishmaniasis in İstanbul.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2019 Acta Tropica

8. Molecular Identification of Agents of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Different Areas of Iran Using Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 PCR-RFLP Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Identification of Agents of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Different Areas of Iran Using Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 PCR-RFLP Leishmaniasis is a major medical health problem and distributes in nearly half of 31 provinces of Iran. We aimed to identify cutaneous and visceral Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans and domestic dogs in various regions of Iran, 2010-2013.DNA was extracted from 108 lesion exudate samples of suspected patients (...) to cutaneous leishmaniasis and nine liver and spleen aspirates of infected dogs cultured in RPMI-1640 and amplified using partial sequence of ITS1 gene. The PCR amplicons were digested using HaeIII endonuclease enzyme and used in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Then, 48 amplicons representing various hosts were sequenced and compared to sequences from GenBank databases using BLAST.PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 60 and 48 CL patients were infected by Leishmania tropica and L. major

2018 Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases

9. Noninvasive Sweat-Based Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Noninvasive Sweat-Based Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the foremost barriers in the control of this disease, as demonstration of the parasite by splenic/bone marrow aspiration is relatively difficult and requires expertise and laboratory support. The aim of the present study was to find a noninvasive diagnostic approach using the existing recombinant kinesine-39 (rK-39) immunochromatographic (...) nitrocellulose strips test (ICT) with a human sweat specimen for the diagnosis of VL. The investigation was carried out on specimens (blood, sweat, and urine) collected from 58 confirmed VL, 50 confirmed post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), 36 healthy control, and 35 patients from other diseases. The data obtained from this study reveal that 96.6% clinically confirmed active VL participants were found to be positive when tested against a sweat specimen. Interestingly, the scenario was similar when

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

10. Imported leishmaniasis cases in Cuba (2006–2016): what have we learned Full Text available with Trip Pro

Imported leishmaniasis cases in Cuba (2006–2016): what have we learned Leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Leishmania spp., which is not endemic in Cuba. However, several factors (such as human activities, climate changes, and tourism) have led to an increase in the number of leishmaniasis cases in all regions, raising diagnosis and surveillance issues. We aim to present the retrospective analysis of 16 human cases suspicious of leishmaniasis, which were received during (...) leishmaniasis cases in Cuba. The utility and advantages of molecular diagnosis assays in non-endemic countries like Cuba are discussed.

2018 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

11. Impact of leishmaniasis in women: a practical review with an update on my ISD-supported initiative to combat leishmaniasis in Yemen (ELYP) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of leishmaniasis in women: a practical review with an update on my ISD-supported initiative to combat leishmaniasis in Yemen (ELYP) Stigma is synonymous with leishmaniasis, an endemic deadly flesh-eating disease in Yemen that affects predominantly poor rural women and children. Women with leishmaniasis often present late and experience not only physical deformities and the risk of death, but also the painful stigma of the disease and its consequences, a similar situation (...) to that of leprosy decades ago. The International Society of Dermatology-sponsored community dermatology project Eradication of Leishmaniasis from Yemen Project has made a difference in the leishmaniasis situation in Yemen and addressed its magnitude. The program eradicated leishmaniasis from some areas, dealt with and improved its alarming prevalence among children and women who are the neglected and highest risk groups, and solved some issues associated with poor access to proper drugs. Medicine donation has

2016 International journal of women's dermatology

12. Leptomonas seymouri and Crithidia fasciculata exoantigens can discriminate human cases of visceral leishmaniasis from American tegumentary leishmaniasis ones Full Text available with Trip Pro

Leptomonas seymouri and Crithidia fasciculata exoantigens can discriminate human cases of visceral leishmaniasis from American tegumentary leishmaniasis ones Exoantigens (exo) from Leptomonas seymouri and Crithidia fasciculata were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing 100% reactivity with sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, and no reactivity with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) ones. Our results have indicated that these exoantigens can be applied

2017 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

13. A third generation vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis: First-in-human trial of ChAd63-KH Full Text available with Trip Pro

A third generation vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis: First-in-human trial of ChAd63-KH Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T (...) cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed intentionally to induce Leishmania-specific CD8+ T

2017 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

14. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body (...) and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis). The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

2017 Case reports in infectious diseases

15. Clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of Visceral leishmaniasis in children in São Paulo state: an emerging focus of Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of Visceral leishmaniasis in children in São Paulo state: an emerging focus of Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial

2017 Pathogens and global health

16. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey. (Abstract)

Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey. In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for understanding its tropism in in vivo conditions. Clinical samples (lesion aspirations and bone

2017 Acta Tropica

17. Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis. (Abstract)

Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a vector-borne systemic disease, with a worldwide distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. VL patients may be asymptomatic or they may present symptoms and findings of a systemic infection. The positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis in patients with typical symptoms is usually high, but more often, the signs and symptoms

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

18. Spatial epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a municipality of west São Paulo State, Brazil. (Abstract)

Spatial epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a municipality of west São Paulo State, Brazil. In the last decade, in the state of São Paulo, 5898 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported. This study was undertaken to analyze the epidemiology of CL in the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, in São Paulo State, Brazil, based on a geographic approach, as very little is known of the relationship between CL and the spatial transformation process.This is a population-based

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

19. Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area, central Iran. (Abstract)

Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area, central Iran. ZCL is a growing threat in many rural areas of Iran which involves 17 out of 31 provinces. This study was conducted from April to November 2011 for evaluation of the efficacy of phostoxin and zinc phosphide against rodents.Rodent control operations were carried out using phostoxin and zinc phosphide. To evaluate the effect of rodent control operation

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

20. Molecular variation in Leishmania parasites from sandflies species of a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeast of Iran. (Abstract)

Molecular variation in Leishmania parasites from sandflies species of a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeast of Iran. In the well-known zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) focus in Turkmen Sahara, border of Iran and Turkmenistan, ZCL has increased among humans in the past five years. The present study was undertaken to incriminate vectors of ZCL in the region, and to find molecular variation in Leishmania parasites.The sandflies were sampled using CDC light-traps and sticky papers

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

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