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Lead-Time Bias

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161. Underutilization of Living Donor Liver Transplantation in the United States: Bias against MELD 20 and Higher (PubMed)

Underutilization of Living Donor Liver Transplantation in the United States: Bias against MELD 20 and Higher Background and Aims: Utilization of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and its relationship with recipient Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) needs further evaluation in the United States (U.S.). We evaluated the association between recipient MELD score at the time of surgery and survival following LDLT. Methods: All U.S. adult LDLT recipients with MELD < 25 were evaluated

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2016 Journal of clinical and translational hepatology

162. Camera trap placement and the potential for bias due to trails and other features. (PubMed)

Camera trap placement and the potential for bias due to trails and other features. Camera trapping has become an increasingly widespread tool for wildlife ecologists, with large numbers of studies relying on photo capture rates or presence/absence information. It is increasingly clear that camera placement can directly impact this kind of data, yet these biases are poorly understood. We used a paired camera design to investigate the effect of small-scale habitat features on species richness (...) estimates, and capture rate and detection probability of several mammal species in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA. Cameras were deployed at either log features or on game trails with a paired camera at a nearby random location. Overall capture rates were significantly higher at trail and log cameras compared to their paired random cameras, and some species showed capture rates as much as 9.7 times greater at feature-based cameras. We recorded more species at both log (17) and trail features (15

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2017 PLoS ONE

163. The effect of order of dwells on the first dwell gaze bias for eventually chosen items. (PubMed)

The effect of order of dwells on the first dwell gaze bias for eventually chosen items. The relationship between choice and eye movement has gained marked interest. The gaze bias effect, i.e., the tendency to look longer at items that are eventually chosen, has been shown to occur in the first dwell (initial cohesion of fixations for an item). In the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm, participants would look at one of the items first (defined as first look; FL), and they would (...) then move and look at another item (second look; SL). This study investigated how the order in which the chosen items were looked at modulates the first dwell gaze bias effect. Participants were asked to assert their preferences and perceptual 2AFC decisions about human faces (Experiment 1) and daily consumer products (Experiment 2), while their eye movements were recorded. The results showed that the first dwell gaze bias was found only when the eventually chosen item was looked at after another one

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2017 PLoS ONE

164. Richard Smith: Strong evidence of bias against research from low income countries

Richard Smith: Strong evidence of bias against research from low income countries Richard Smith: Strong evidence of bias against research from low income countries - The BMJ ---> I have taught classes on how to get published in scientific journals in many low and middle income countries, and just about every participant in every class has thought that science journals are biased against research from low and middle income countries. I think that they are as well, but strong evidence (...) with the United States can increase his or her citations by 20% (probably because citations are derived from databases that favour American journals and because Americans cite Americans just as Brits cite Brits). But all this could be explained not by bias but simply because research from high income countries, particularly the US, is better. What has been needed is a study that controls for the quality of the research and even for the reviewer. Now we have such a study. The study, which comes from Imperial

2017 The BMJ Blog

165. Unconscious bias and its effect on health care leadership

Unconscious bias and its effect on health care leadership Unconscious bias and its effect on health care leadership | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Unconscious bias and its effect on health care leadership This content relates to the following topics: Share this content Authors The need to build organisational cultures in which there is high quality (...) , ever improving compassionate care focused on the needs of patients is now an indisputable and understandable refrain of health policy. But, experience has demonstrated time and again that achieving change takes considerable time, energy, passion and conviction. Related content You may also be interested in Quick links Connect with us Latest Tweet Weekly Update newsletter Subscribe for a weekly round-up of our latest news and content Sign up Footer © The King's Fund 2019 Registered charity: 1126980

2015 The King's Fund

166. Bias, Conflicts, Spin: The 8th Olympiad of Research on Science & Publishing Begins

Bias, Conflicts, Spin: The 8th Olympiad of Research on Science & Publishing Begins Bias, Conflicts, Spin: The 8th Olympiad of Research on Science & Publishing Begins | Absolutely Maybe PLOS Blogs Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Diverse perspectives on science and medicine Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi (...) of the next study, presented by . It’s early days for this ( ). We don’t know yet how much errors (or worse) are affecting the literature. In discussion time, remarked on what this has to say about our priorities: “We have someone to check the commas, but not the gene sequences”. Next we were onto the Research Integrity Group at Biomed Central: what comes at journals? reported on all the questions that came to the group from 2015 to 2016. Over a thousand queries came their way – a very small proportion

2017 Absolutely Maybe

167. Hello handsome! Male's facial attractiveness gives rise to female's fairness bias in Ultimatum Game scenarios-An ERP study. (PubMed)

Hello handsome! Male's facial attractiveness gives rise to female's fairness bias in Ultimatum Game scenarios-An ERP study. The current study delineated how male proposers' facial attractiveness affect female responders' fairness considerations and their subsequent decision outcome during the Ultimatum Game (UG). Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 female subjects, who played the role as responders and had to decide whether to accept offers from either attractive (...) or unattractive male proposers. Behavioral data (Acceptance Ratio and Response time) revealed that, more offers were accepted from attractive-face conditions; subjects typically responded quicker to unfair offers from unattractive proposers as compared with slower to unfair offers from attractive proposers. The ERP data demonstrated similar N2 amplitudes elicited by both attractive and unattractive faces, and a larger early frontal LPP elicited by the attractive faces compared with unattractive ones

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2017 PLoS ONE

168. Right wing authoritarianism is associated with race bias in face detection. (PubMed)

perceptive racial bias during early perception. To test this hypothesis, 67 participants detected faces within arrays of neutral objects. The faces were either Caucasian (in-group) or North African (out-group) and either had a neutral or angry expression. Results showed that participants with higher self-reported right-wing authoritarianism were more likely to show slower response times for detecting out- vs. in-groups faces. We interpreted our results according to the Dual Process Motivational Model (...) Right wing authoritarianism is associated with race bias in face detection. Racial discrimination can be observed in a wide range of psychological processes, including even the earliest phases of face detection. It remains unclear, however, whether racially-biased low-level face processing is influenced by ideologies, such as right wing authoritarianism or social dominance orientation. In the current study, we hypothesized that socio-political ideologies such as these can substantially predict

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2017 PLoS ONE

169. Acupuncturists mistake insufficient rigor for bias against them

Acupuncturists mistake insufficient rigor for bias against them Acupuncturists mistake insufficient rigor for bias against them | ScienceBlogs Advertisment Search Search Toggle navigation Main navigation Acupuncturists mistake insufficient rigor for bias against them By on May 14, 2017. Of all the modalities of alternative medicine currently in use, arguably acupuncture is the one that has achieved the most mainstream acceptance in medicine. I've often asked why it has become so common (...) in particular, the retconned version, which posits acupuncture as being thousands of years old and having been practiced in basically the same form over all that time, has little resemblance to the original, which . Basically, TCM is . None of this has stopped China from continuing to support and , even in 2017. Meanwhile media effective for a number of conditions. I've on this blog, sometimes finding some , because it's an excellent alternative medicine modality to use to discuss placebo effects

2017 Respectful Insolence

170. When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective. (PubMed)

processes lead to intergroup bias in very different intergroup contexts if people identify with the respective social groups. A recent prominent model based on these theories is the ingroup-projection model. As this model assumes, an ingroup's norms and standards are applied to outgroups included in a common superordinate category (this is called ingroup projection). Intergroup bias results because the outgroup fulfils these norms and standards less than the ingroup. Importantly, if the diversity (...) When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective. The question how intergroup bias can be alleviated is of much theoretical and practical interest. Whereas diversity training and the multiculturalism ideology are two approaches prominent in practice, most theoretical models on reducing intergroup bias are based on social-identity theory and self-categorization theory. This social-identity perspective assumes that similar

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2017 PLoS ONE

171. Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflict-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia. (PubMed)

Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflict-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia. Methodologies to measure gender-based violence (GBV) have received inadequate attention, especially in humanitarian contexts where vulnerabilities to violence are exacerbated. This paper compares the results from individual audio computer-assisted self-administered (ACASI) survey interviews with results from participatory social mapping activities, employed (...) , it may lead to a skewed perception that adolescent GBV involving strangers is a more pressing issue than intimate partner and family-based sexual violence, when in fact, both are of great concern.

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2017 PLoS ONE

172. Cognitive bias modification in early alcohol withdrawal: a first look

Cognitive bias modification in early alcohol withdrawal: a first look Cognitive bias modification in early alcohol withdrawal Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » Cognitive bias modification in early alcohol withdrawal: a first look Sep 20 2016 Posted by The prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use in the UK is estimated at approximately 7.6 million people, and for dependent patients relapse is the norm rather than the exception. is a treatment increasingly (...) or less effective at suppressing more impulsive behaviours, depending on the individual and their present cognitive or emotional state. It is suggested that the first system is driven by cognitive biases, specifically attentional bias (the tendency for alcohol-related cues, say, to grab attention) and approach bias (automatic behavioural approach towards alcohol-related cues), both of which have previously been shown to be associated with various substance-use measures (Field & Cox, 2008; Wiers et al

2016 The Mental Elf

173. Attentional bias toward high-calorie food-cues and trait motor impulsivity interactively predict weight gain (PubMed)

Attentional bias toward high-calorie food-cues and trait motor impulsivity interactively predict weight gain Strong bottom-up impulses and weak top-down control may interactively lead to overeating and, consequently, weight gain. In the present study, female university freshmen were tested at the start of the first semester and again at the start of the second semester. Attentional bias toward high- or low-calorie food-cues was assessed using a dot-probe paradigm and participants completed (...) the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Attentional bias and motor impulsivity interactively predicted change in body mass index: motor impulsivity positively predicted weight gain only when participants showed an attentional bias toward high-calorie food-cues. Attentional and non-planning impulsivity were unrelated to weight change. Results support findings showing that weight gain is prospectively predicted by a combination of weak top-down control (i.e. high impulsivity) and strong bottom-up impulses (i.e

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2016 Health psychology open

174. In praise of little: sponsorship bias in depression research

on boards, etc) This is a good thing as an overly restrictive definition may lead to an underestimate of the effect of pharmaceutical sponsorship. However, there was no measurement of financial COI for psychotherapy such as authors writing books or running paid-for workshops describing their models of psychotherapy. There was measurement of risk of bias in the studies using four criteria from the Cochrane Collaboration. Appropriate statistical techniques were used to check for missing studies (...) In praise of little: sponsorship bias in depression research In praise of little: sponsorship bias in depression research Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » In praise of little: sponsorship bias in depression research Nov 4 2016 Posted by There is concern that sponsorship bias by pharmaceutical companies may influence the results of research and overstate the effectiveness of psychiatric medication. It’s possible that this kind of financial conflict of interest may

2016 The Mental Elf

175. Cognitive bias modification for addiction: are we flogging a dead horse?

Cognitive bias modification for addiction: are we flogging a dead horse? Cognitive bias modification for addiction: are we flogging a dead horse? Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » Cognitive bias modification for addiction: are we flogging a dead horse? Nov 7 2016 Posted by Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a computerised intervention that trains people to overcome the automatic cognitive processing biases that play an important role in the development (...) and maintenance of psychological disorders. The types of biases targeted by cognitive bias modification include: Attentional bias (when stimuli related to the disorder capture the attention) Approach bias (when stimuli related to the disorder evoke approach behaviour automatically) Deficits in response inhibition (when stimuli related to the disorder impair the ability to control behaviour) Interpretive bias (when ambiguous stimuli related to the disorder are interpreted in a way that exacerbates symptoms

2016 The Mental Elf

176. Should Antiepileptic Drugs Be Initiated in the Emergency Department After a First-Time Seizure?

Should Antiepileptic Drugs Be Initiated in the Emergency Department After a First-Time Seizure? Should Antiepileptic Drugs Be Initiated in the Emergency Department After a First-Time Seizure? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 69, Issue 6, Pages 752–754 Should Antiepileptic Drugs Be Initiated in the Emergency Department After a First-Time Seizure? x Michael Gottlieb , MD (EBEM (...) Commentator) , x Galeta Carolyn Clayton , MD (EBEM Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL DOI: | Publication History Published online: November 04, 2016 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Immediate initiation of antiepileptic drug treatment after an unprovoked first-time seizure may decrease the rate of recurrent seizure, but does not otherwise affect long-term prognosis and is associated with adverse events. Methods Data Sources

2017 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

177. Cognitive therapies targeting change in two or more health behaviours at the same time: a systematic review

habits. The included studies involved different patient groups and sedentary and/or overweight persons. We included 14 randomised controlled trials, however few studies followed up the participants beyond four months. We found that: Cognitive therapies, targeting two or more health behaviours at the same time, probably lead to small improvements in physical activity and dietary habits, compared to no intervention or usual care, based on moderate-quality evidence. We are uncertain whether cognitive (...) at least two health behaviours at the same time probably lead to small short-term improvements in physical activity level and diet when they are compared to no intervention or usual care. Compared to other interventions, the evidence is too uncertain to indicate whether cognitive therapies targeting multiple behaviours at the same time change physical activity, diet, and tobacco use. Address/contact Norwegian Institute of Public Health PO Box 222 Skøyen N-0213 Oslo PO Box 973 Sentrum N-5808 Bergen

2017 Norwegian Institute of Public Health

178. Later school start times for supporting the education, health and well-being of high school students

low, as we rated most studies as being at high or unclear risk of bias with respect to allocation, attrition, absence of randomization, and the collection of baseline data. Therefore, we cannot be confident about the effects of later school start times. Preliminary evidence from the included studies indicated a potential association between later school start times and academic and psychosocial outcomes, but quality and comparability of these data were low and often precluded quantitative (...) Later school start times for supporting the education, health and well-being of high school students A Campbell Systematic Review 2017:15 Education Coordinating Group Robert Marx, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Colleen M Davison, Lee-Anne Ufholz, John Freeman, Ravi Shankar, Lisa Newton, Robert S Brown, Alyssa S Parpia, Ioana Cozma, Shawn Hendrikx Later school start times for supporting the education, health, and well-being of high school students: a systematic review Published: December 2017 Search

2017 Campbell Collaboration

179. Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children. (PubMed)

, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information.We included 14 studies (involving 2656 children). All studies reported blood lead level outcomes and none reported on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes. We put studies into subgroups according to their intervention type. We performed meta-analysis of both continuous and dichotomous data for subgroups where appropriate. Educational interventions were not effective in reducing blood lead levels (continuous (...) Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children. Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review by the same authors first published in 2008.To determine the effectiveness of household interventions in preventing or reducing lead exposure in children as measured by reductions in blood lead levels

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2014 Cochrane

180. NY Times ‘Well’ section continues to mislead readers — this time on facial exercises that ‘may make you look 3 years younger’

NY Times ‘Well’ section continues to mislead readers — this time on facial exercises that ‘may make you look 3 years younger’ NY Times 'Well' section continues to mislead readers -- this time on facial exercises that 'may make you look 3 years younger' - HealthNewsReview.org Note to our followers: Our nearly 13-year run of daily publication of new content on HealthNewsReview.org came to a close at the end of 2018. Publisher Gary Schwitzer and other contributors may post new articles (...) periodically. But all of the 6,000+ articles we have published contain lessons to help you improve your critical thinking about health care interventions. And those will be still be alive on the site for a couple of years. 6093 Posts Menu January 15, 2018 NY Times ‘Well’ section continues to mislead readers — this time on facial exercises that ‘may make you look 3 years younger’ Posted By Categories , , , Tags Michael Joyce is a writer-producer with HealthNewsReview.org and tweets as The New York Times

2018 HealthNewsReview

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