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Lead-Time Bias

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161. Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. (PubMed)

Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. Primates have evolved to rapidly detect and respond to danger in their environment. However, the mechanisms involved in attending to threatening stimuli are not fully understood. The dot-probe task is one of the most widely used experimental paradigms to investigate these mechanisms in humans. However, to date, few studies have been conducted in non-human primates. The aim of this study (...) was to investigate whether the dot-probe task can measure attentional biases towards threatening faces in chimpanzees. Eight adult chimpanzees participated in a series of touch screen dot-probe tasks. We predicted faster response times towards chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces and faster response times towards faces of high threat intensity (scream) than low threat intensity (bared teeth). Contrary to prediction, response times for chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces did

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2018 PLoS ONE

162. Is there a gender bias in the advancement to SAGES leadership? (PubMed)

Is there a gender bias in the advancement to SAGES leadership? The proportion of women in surgery has risen significantly yet there remains gender discrepancies in upper leadership positions in academia. Specialty societies play an important role in academic advancement but the progression of women in surgical societies has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences in advancement within the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic (...) Surgeons (SAGES) leadership.A retrospective audit of all SAGES committee members (CM) from 1992 to 2018 was performed. The overall membership gender distribution was available from 2010 to 2018. Leadership positions included Committee Chair/Co-chair, Board of Governors, and Executive Committee. Three phenomena were investigated: "pipeline," by determining the change in women CMs compared to overall membership over time; "sticky floors," by comparing advancement beyond CM by gender; "glass-ceiling

2019 Surgical endoscopy

163. Risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) showed low inter-rater reliability and challenges in its application. (PubMed)

Risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) showed low inter-rater reliability and challenges in its application. to assess the inter-rater reliability (IRR) and usability of the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool (ROBINS-I).cross sectional study. Five raters independently applied ROBINS-I to the non-randomized cohort studies in three systematic reviews on vaccines, opiate abuse, and rehabilitation. We calculated Fleiss' Kappa for multiple raters (...) as a measure of IRR and discussed the application of ROBINS-I to identify difficulties and possible reasons for disagreement.31 studies were included (195 evaluations). IRRs were slight for overall judgment (IRR 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and individual domains (from 0.04, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.12 for the domain "selection of reported results" to 0.18, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.26 for the domain "deviation from intended interventions"). Mean time to apply the tool was 27.8 minutes (SD 12.6) per study. The main

2019 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

164. A Qualitative Study of New York Medical Student Views on Implicit Bias Instruction: Implications for Curriculum Development. (PubMed)

at times resist this instruction. Little guidance exists to overcome this resistance and to engage students in implicit bias instruction; instruction over time could lead to eventual skill development that is necessary to mitigate the influence of implicit bias on clinical practice behaviors.To explore student perceptions of challenges and opportunities when participating in implicit bias instruction.We conducted a qualitative study that involved 11 focus groups with medical students across each (...) A Qualitative Study of New York Medical Student Views on Implicit Bias Instruction: Implications for Curriculum Development. For at least the past two decades, medical educators have worked to improve patient communication and health care delivery to diverse patient populations; despite efforts, patients continue to report prejudice and bias during their clinical encounters. Targeted instruction in implicit bias recognition and management may promote the delivery of equitable care, but students

2019 Journal of General Internal Medicine

165. Assessments of attrition bias in Cochrane systematic reviews are highly inconsistent and thus hindering trial comparability. (PubMed)

Assessments of attrition bias in Cochrane systematic reviews are highly inconsistent and thus hindering trial comparability. An important part of the systematic review methodology is appraisal of the risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane systematic reviews are considered golden standard regarding systematic review methodology, but Cochrane's instructions for assessing risk of attrition bias are vague, which may lead to inconsistencies in authors' assessments. The aim of this study (...) was to analyze consistency of judgments and support for judgments of attrition bias in Cochrane reviews of interventions published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR).We analyzed Cochrane reviews published from July 2015 to June 2016 in the CDSR. We extracted data on number of included trials, judgment of attrition risk of bias for each included trial (low, unclear or high) and accompanying support for the judgment (supporting explanation). We also assessed how many Cochrane reviews had

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2019 BMC medical research methodology

166. Evaluating selection bias in a population-based cohort study with low baseline participation: the LIFE-Adult-Study. (PubMed)

Evaluating selection bias in a population-based cohort study with low baseline participation: the LIFE-Adult-Study. Participation in epidemiologic studies is steadily declining, which may result in selection bias. It is therefore an ongoing challenge to clarify the determinants of participation to judge possible selection effects and to derive measures to minimise that bias. We evaluated the potential for selection bias in a recent population-based cohort study with low baseline participation (...) generally stronger in men than in women. For example, in male study participants aged 50-69, the frequency of high education was 1.5 times that of the general population, and the frequency of myocardial infarction was half that of nonparticipants. Lack of time and interest, as well as health problems were the main reasons for nonparticipation.Our investigation suggests that the low baseline participation in LIFE-Adult is associated with the typical selection of study participants with higher social

2019 BMC medical research methodology

167. Preventing bias from selective non-response in population-based survey studies: findings from a Monte Carlo simulation study. (PubMed)

Preventing bias from selective non-response in population-based survey studies: findings from a Monte Carlo simulation study. Health researchers often use survey studies to examine associations between risk factors at one time point and health outcomes later in life. Previous studies have shown that missing not at random (MNAR) may produce biased estimates in such studies. Medical researchers typically do not employ statistical methods for treating MNAR. Hence, there is a need to increase (...) knowledge about how to prevent occurrence of such bias in the first place.Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the degree to which selective non-response leads to biased estimates of associations between risk factors and health outcomes when persons with the highest levels of health problems are under-represented or totally missing from the sample. This was examined under different response rates and different degrees of dependency between non-response and study variables.Response rate per se

2019 BMC medical research methodology

168. Publication Bias: Association of Diagnostic Accuracy in Radiology Conference Abstracts with Full-Text Publication. (PubMed)

Publication Bias: Association of Diagnostic Accuracy in Radiology Conference Abstracts with Full-Text Publication. Background Recent investigations have identified a faster time to publication for imaging studies with higher diagnostic test accuracy (DTA), but it is unknown whether such studies are more likely to be published. A higher probability of full-text publication for studies with higher DTA could have negative consequences on clinical decision making and patient care. Purpose

2019 Radiology

169. Measuring attention bias in observers of strabismus subjects. (PubMed)

Measuring attention bias in observers of strabismus subjects. Despite the known negative psychosocial impact and the importance of facial aesthetics for individuals with strabismus, the gaze pattern of the presumed attention bias has not been documented previously.Thirty images (15 digitally reconstructed color photographs to show strabismus and 15 photographs of volunteers without strabismus) were viewed in random order by 25 naïve participants (age range, 23-63 years; 15 females). Visual scan (...) paths of participants were recorded using an infrared corneal image eye movement recorder, and the individual parameters of saccades, fixations, and dwell time were assessed using DataViewer software.Viewers primarily tended to fixate on the eyes, the nose was the next most prominent point of focus (both P < 0.001). Time to first fixation and the presence of strabismus in the images presented were significantly associated (P < 0.001). When the eyes were viewed, there was more time spent looking

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

170. What Emergency Medicine Rewards: Is There Implicit Gender Bias in National Awards? (PubMed)

What Emergency Medicine Rewards: Is There Implicit Gender Bias in National Awards? Multiple studies have demonstrated a gender gap in the percentage of women recognized in national awards, but to our knowledge this gap has not been studied within emergency medicine. This study is designed to evaluate the presence of a gender gap in female representation in awards from national emergency medicine organizations in the United States and Canada.The awards from 5 national organizations during (...) medicine, which may reflect a lag time between receiving national awards and earning academic and professional promotion. Although some organizations had significantly lower representation of female awardees, the overall trends indicate that women have closed the gender gap in award representation. This may signal a forthcoming change in other domains with established gaps in emergency medicine; specifically, in leadership and pay.Copyright © 2019 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published

2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine

171. Bias in the Peer Review Process: Can We Do Better? (PubMed)

Bias in the Peer Review Process: Can We Do Better? Peer review is the major method used by the scientific community to evaluate manuscripts and decide what is suitable for publication. However, this process in its current design is not bulletproof and is prone to reviewer and editorial bias. Its lack of objectivity and transparency raise concerns that manuscripts might be judged based on interests irrelevant to the content itself and not on merit alone. This commentary reviews some of the most (...) common biases that could potentially affect objective evaluation of a manuscript and proposes alternatives to the current single-blind peer review process that is being used by most scientific journals, including Obstetrics & Gynecology. By rethinking and tackling the shortcomings of the current methodology for peer review, we hope to create a discussion that will eventually lead to improving research and, ultimately, patient care.

2019 Obstetrics and Gynecology

172. Effects of Attentional Bias Modification on residual symptoms in depression: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Attentional Bias Modification on residual symptoms in depression: a randomized controlled trial. Following treatment, many depressed patients have significant residual symptoms. However, large randomised controlled trials (RCT) in this population are lacking. When Attention bias modification training (ABM) leads to more positive emotional biases, associated changes in clinical symptoms have been reported. A broader and more transparent picture of the true advantage of ABM based

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2019 BMC Psychiatry

173. Bias in the Peer Review Process: Can We Do Better? (PubMed)

Bias in the Peer Review Process: Can We Do Better? Peer review is the major method used by the scientific community to evaluate manuscripts and decide what is suitable for publication. However, this process in its current design is not bulletproof and is prone to reviewer and editorial bias. Its lack of objectivity and transparency raise concerns that manuscripts might be judged based on interests irrelevant to the content itself and not on merit alone. This commentary reviews some of the most (...) common biases that could potentially affect objective evaluation of a manuscript and proposes alternatives to the current single-blind peer review process that is being used by most scientific journals, including Obstetrics & Gynecology. By rethinking and tackling the shortcomings of the current methodology for peer review, we hope to create a discussion that will eventually lead to improving research and, ultimately, patient care.

2019 Obstetrics and Gynecology

174. Prevalence of trial registration varies by study characteristics and risk of bias. (PubMed)

Prevalence of trial registration varies by study characteristics and risk of bias. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of trial registration in health research, whether trial registration status and timing vary depending on trial characteristics, and the relationship between trial registration status and risk of bias.We systematically reviewed all clinical trials published from January to June 2017 in 28 high- and low-impact factor general and specialty medicine (...) journals.We identified 370 trials and assessed risk of bias in 183 trials. Trial registration rates were high; 95% of trials were registered prospectively or retrospectively before enrollment completion. Larger sample size, multiple recruitment countries, and primary industry funding were all predictors of earlier trial registration. Prospectively registered trials had a significantly lower risk of bias compared to unregistered trials across all domains. Prospectively registered trials had a similar risk

2019 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

175. Decision-making in Orthopaedic Oncology: Does Cognitive Bias Affect a Virtual Patient's Choice Between Limb Salvage and Amputation? (PubMed)

treatments-we assessed cognitive bias by deliberate alteration of the subjective presentation of the same objective information.(1) Will the manner in which information is presented to a simulated patient, in the setting of treatment for a bone sarcoma, bias their decision regarding pursuing amputation versus limb salvage? (2) At the time of decision-making, will a simulated patient's personal background, demographics, or mood affect their ultimate decision?Survey respondents (Amazon MTurk platform) were (...) Decision-making in Orthopaedic Oncology: Does Cognitive Bias Affect a Virtual Patient's Choice Between Limb Salvage and Amputation? The local treatment of extremity sarcomas usually is predicated on a decision between limb salvage and amputation. The manner in which surgical options are presented in the context of shared decision-making may influence this decision. In a population of "simulated" patients-survey respondents presented with a mock clinical vignette and then asked to choose between

2019 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

176. Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. (PubMed)

. Distinguishing the mechanism for under-representation could help in designing strategies to improve study representation, leading to more effective evidence-based recommendations.Patient portals offer an attractive option for minimizing bias and encouraging broader, more representative participation in clinical research.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions (...) Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. Determine whether women and men differ in volunteering to join a Research Recruitment Registry when invited to participate via an electronic patient portal without human bias.Under-representation of women and other demographic groups in clinical research studies could be due either to invitation bias (explicit or implicit) during screening and recruitment or by lower rates of deciding to participate

2019 Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

177. Attentional bias modification is associated with fMRI response toward negative stimuli in individuals with residual depression: a randomized controlled trial (PubMed)

Attentional bias modification is associated with fMRI response toward negative stimuli in individuals with residual depression: a randomized controlled trial Attentional bias modification (ABM) may lead to more adaptive emotion perception and emotion regulation. Understanding the neural basis of these effects may lead to greater precision for the development of future treatments. Task-related functional MRI (fMRI) after ABM training has not been investigated in depression so far. The main aim (...) replaced the more positively valenced face of a given pair. As participants implicitly learned to predict the probe location, this would be likely to induce a more positive attentional bias. The placebo condition was identical, except for the contingency of the probe, which appeared equally behind positive and negative stimuli. We compared depression symptoms and subjective ratings of perceived negativity during fMRI between the training groups. We explored brain activation in predefined regions

2019 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

178. Bias in cohort-based comparisons of immigrants' health outcomes between countries: a simulation study. (PubMed)

simulation cardiovascular disease was the outcome and immortality in the second. Bias was evaluated using a Cox regression model adjusted for age and other dependant variables.Comparing populations from wave vs. continuous migration may lead to bias only if the duration of stay has a dose-response effect (increase in simulated cardiovascular disease risk by 5% every 5 years vs. no risk: hazard-ratio 1.20(0.15); by 10% every 5 years: 1.47(0.14)). Differentials in return-migration patterns lead to bias (...) Bias in cohort-based comparisons of immigrants' health outcomes between countries: a simulation study. Cohort-type data are increasingly used to compare health outcomes of immigrants between countries, e.g. to assess the effects of different national integration policies. In such international comparisons, small differences in cardiovascular diseases risk or mortality rates have been interpreted as showing effects of different policies. We conjecture that cohort-type data sets available

2019 BMC Public Health

179. Selective reporting bias in randomised controlled trials from two network meta-analyses: comparison of clinical trial registrations and their respective publications. (PubMed)

Selective reporting bias in randomised controlled trials from two network meta-analyses: comparison of clinical trial registrations and their respective publications. To determine (i) the difference in the frequency of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in trial registrations and their respective primary publications and (ii) the effect of adding SAE data from registries to a network meta-analysis (NMA) in changing the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve values (...) with a trial registry and 72 (35.5%) posted results in the registry. The proportion of registered trials increased over time (38.5% in 2005 vs 78.6% in 2014). Of the publications with results posted in a trial registry, 14 (19.4%) had inconsistent reporting of overall SAEs; 7 (10.4%) studies did not report SAEs in the publication but did in the registry. In the 134 randomised trials with a prespecified primary outcome in the registry, 19 studies (9.4%) had a change in the primary outcome in the publication

2019 BMJ open

180. How and when informative visit processes can bias inference when using electronic health records data for clinical research. (PubMed)

the informed presence can impact inference.We first simulated a visit process where a series of biomarkers were observed informatively and uninformatively over time. We further compared inference derived from a randomized control trial (ie, uninformative visits) and EHR data (ie, potentially informative visits).We find that only when there is both a strong association between the biomarker and the outcome as well as the biomarker and the visit process is there bias. Moreover, once there are some (...) How and when informative visit processes can bias inference when using electronic health records data for clinical research. Electronic health records (EHR) data have become a central data source for clinical research. One concern for using EHR data is that the process through which individuals engage with the health system, and find themselves within EHR data, can be informative. We have termed this process informed presence. In this study we use simulation and real data to assess how

2019 Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

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