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Lead-Time Bias

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141. Assessments of attrition bias in Cochrane systematic reviews are highly inconsistent and thus hindering trial comparability. (PubMed)

Assessments of attrition bias in Cochrane systematic reviews are highly inconsistent and thus hindering trial comparability. An important part of the systematic review methodology is appraisal of the risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane systematic reviews are considered golden standard regarding systematic review methodology, but Cochrane's instructions for assessing risk of attrition bias are vague, which may lead to inconsistencies in authors' assessments. The aim of this study (...) was to analyze consistency of judgments and support for judgments of attrition bias in Cochrane reviews of interventions published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR).We analyzed Cochrane reviews published from July 2015 to June 2016 in the CDSR. We extracted data on number of included trials, judgment of attrition risk of bias for each included trial (low, unclear or high) and accompanying support for the judgment (supporting explanation). We also assessed how many Cochrane reviews had

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2019 BMC medical research methodology

142. Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. (PubMed)

. Distinguishing the mechanism for under-representation could help in designing strategies to improve study representation, leading to more effective evidence-based recommendations.Patient portals offer an attractive option for minimizing bias and encouraging broader, more representative participation in clinical research.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions (...) Count me in: using a patient portal to minimize implicit bias in clinical research recruitment. Determine whether women and men differ in volunteering to join a Research Recruitment Registry when invited to participate via an electronic patient portal without human bias.Under-representation of women and other demographic groups in clinical research studies could be due either to invitation bias (explicit or implicit) during screening and recruitment or by lower rates of deciding to participate

2019 Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

143. Effects of Attentional Bias Modification on residual symptoms in depression: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Attentional Bias Modification on residual symptoms in depression: a randomized controlled trial. Following treatment, many depressed patients have significant residual symptoms. However, large randomised controlled trials (RCT) in this population are lacking. When Attention bias modification training (ABM) leads to more positive emotional biases, associated changes in clinical symptoms have been reported. A broader and more transparent picture of the true advantage of ABM based

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2019 BMC Psychiatry

144. Time-lapse systems for embryo incubation and assessment in assisted reproduction. (PubMed)

Time-lapse systems for embryo incubation and assessment in assisted reproduction. Embryo incubation and assessment is a vital step in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Traditionally, embryo assessment has been achieved by removing embryos from a conventional incubator daily for quality assessment by an embryologist, under a light microscope. Over recent years time-lapse systems have been developed which can take digital images of embryos at frequent time intervals. This allows (...) embryologists, with or without the assistance of embryo selection software, to assess the quality of the embryos without physically removing them from the incubator.The potential advantages of a time-lapse system (TLS) include the ability to maintain a stable culture environment, therefore limiting the exposure of embryos to changes in gas composition, temperature and movement. A TLS has the potential advantage of improving embryo selection for ART treatment by utilising additional information gained

2018 Cochrane

145. Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. (PubMed)

sepsis rates and led to no significant differences in any of the prespecified outcomes. Review authors judged the study to be of low quality because of high risk of bias and imprecision.Randomised controlled trials have provided inadequate evidence for assessment of the efficacy or safety of antibiotics given at the time of CVC removal. The single identified trial was underpowered to address this question. Future research should be directed towards targeting use of antibiotics upon removal of CVC (...) Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Late-onset sepsis is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants, in addition to poorer long-term developmental outcomes and increased length of stay and hospital costs. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in hospitalised infants, and prevention of CLABSI is a key objective

2018 Cochrane

146. Timing of dornase alfa inhalation for cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Timing of dornase alfa inhalation for cystic fibrosis. Inhalation of the enzyme dornase alfa reduces sputum viscosity and improves clinical outcomes of people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether the timing of dornase alfa inhalation (in relation to airway clearance techniques or morning versus evening inhalation) has an impact on objective and subjective measures of clinical efficacy in people with cystic fibrosis.Relevant (...) randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), clinical trial registries and international cystic fibrosis conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 06 June 2018.Any trial of dornase alfa in people with cystic fibrosis where timing of inhalation was the randomised element in the trial with either: inhalation before compared to after airway clearance techniques; or morning compared

2018 Cochrane

147. Timing of renal replacement therapy initiation for acute kidney injury. (PubMed)

Timing of renal replacement therapy initiation for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition among patients in intensive care units (ICUs), and is associated with high death. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a blood purification technique used to treat the most severe forms of AKI. The optimal time to initiate RRT so as to improve clinical outcomes remains uncertain.This review complements another Cochrane review by the same authors: Intensity of continuous renal (...) replacement therapy for acute kidney injury.To assess the effects of different timing (early and standard) of RRT initiation on death and recovery of kidney function in critically ill patients with AKI.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 23 August 2018 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings

2018 Cochrane

148. Methodological issues in current practice may lead to bias in the development of biomarker combinations for predicting acute kidney injury. (PubMed)

Methodological issues in current practice may lead to bias in the development of biomarker combinations for predicting acute kidney injury. Individual biomarkers of renal injury are only modestly predictive of acute kidney injury (AKI). Using multiple biomarkers has the potential to improve predictive capacity. In this systematic review, statistical methods of articles developing biomarker combinations to predict AKI were assessed. We identified and described three potential sources of bias (...) (resubstitution bias, model selection bias, and bias due to center differences) that may compromise the development of biomarker combinations. Fifteen studies reported developing kidney injury biomarker combinations for the prediction of AKI after cardiac surgery (8 articles), in the intensive care unit (4 articles), or other settings (3 articles). All studies were susceptible to at least one source of bias and did not account for or acknowledge the bias. Inadequate reporting often hindered our assessment

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2015 Kidney International

149. Social disparities in hazardous alcohol use: self-report bias may lead to incorrect estimates (PubMed)

Social disparities in hazardous alcohol use: self-report bias may lead to incorrect estimates Self-report bias in surveys of alcohol consumption is widely documented; however, less is known about the distribution of such bias by socioeconomic status (SES) and about the possible impact on social disparities. This study aims to assess social disparities in hazardous drinking (HD) and to analyze how correcting alcohol consumption data for self-report bias may affect estimates (...) -educated women are more likely than less-educated women to engage in HD, while the opposite is observed in men in most countries. Large discrepancies in alcohol consumption between survey-based and aggregate estimates were found. Correcting for self-report bias increased estimates of social disparities in women, and decreased them in men, to the point that gradients were reversed in several countries (from higher rates in low education/SES men to an opposite pattern).This study provides evidence

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2015 The European Journal of Public Health

150. Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate

Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Discover Portal Discover Portal Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Published on 24 January 2018 doi: It seems safer to reduce the dose of biological drugs, rather than to stop them if people with rheumatoid arthritis and their doctors want to avoid relapse. Stopping (...) activity and often lead to remission. However, it is important not to remain on them at high doses due to infection risk and side effects. This review aimed to address the actual risk of relapse if stopping or reducing the dose of biological drugs. What did this study do? This systematic review and meta-analysis pooled the results of 15 randomised controlled trials and two non-randomised trials. It included 2,855 adults who had rheumatoid arthritis for less than a year to 13.6 years. Four trials were

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

151. Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems

Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Discover Portal Discover Portal Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Published on 2 August 2016 doi: For people with existing heart disease or stroke, a strategy of transfusing blood if anaemia is less severe, haemoglobin above 80g/L, led to fewer coronary syndromes. The strategy (...) syndrome (heart attack or unstable angina). Six of the trials were judged to be at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding of participants and staff, though this would have been hard to do. The pooling of overlapping cut-off values made comparison of the restrictive and liberal groups challenging. Also definitions of cardiovascular disease differed between trials. However, heterogeneity across trials was found to be low, increasing our confidence that the meta-analysis was valid. What did it find

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

152. Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control

Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Discover Portal Discover Portal Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Published on 23 March 2016 doi: Diabetes self-management education can lead to greater, and clinically important, reductions in blood sugar levels than usual care or other control treatments. Self-management programmes were most effective in people (...) with higher blood sugar levels to start with, and when they involved ten or more hours of contact time, although there was no indication that programmes running over a longer overall period of time were more effective. The interventions were very diverse so the optimal intervention duration, provider, or contact hours is not clear. This review did not study cost-effectiveness either, so it is not possible to give advice on how interventions compared to each other or which might deliver value for money

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

153. Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime

Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Discover Portal Discover Portal Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Published on 12 October 2015 doi: This NIHR study found that reducing or adapting street lighting was not linked to more road traffic accidents or crime in the UK. Many local authorities have changed their street lighting in recent (...) authorities on the type of street lighting changes made, the location of affected lighting and the date changes were introduced. Traffic collision data came from the UK’s official Department for Transport dataset (STATS19) and included dates, times, locations and details of casualties. Crime data came from the national Police website, including the type of crime, date (year/month) and geographical location. This publicly-available police crime data does not give precise locations or times of crimes, so

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

154. Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime

Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Discover Portal Discover Portal Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime Published on 12 October 2015 doi: This NIHR study found that reducing or adapting street lighting was not linked to more road traffic accidents or crime in the UK. Many local authorities have changed their street lighting in recent (...) authorities on the type of street lighting changes made, the location of affected lighting and the date changes were introduced. Traffic collision data came from the UK’s official Department for Transport dataset (STATS19) and included dates, times, locations and details of casualties. Crime data came from the national Police website, including the type of crime, date (year/month) and geographical location. This publicly-available police crime data does not give precise locations or times of crimes, so

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

155. Problem-Based Learning May Lead to Better Student Performance Results

Problem-Based Learning May Lead to Better Student Performance Results UTCAT3040, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Problem-Based Learning May Lead to Better Student Performance Results Clinical Question In dental pre-doctoral courses, does Problem-Based Learning (PBL) lead to better student performance on written exams and in clinical assessments in comparison to traditional lecture-based courses (...) ? Clinical Bottom Line Problem-Based Learning (PBL) was found to lead to equal or better student performance on written exams and may aid in applying learned knowledge in clinical situations. This is supported by systematic reviews of student performance and a case control study that evaluated the satisfaction of dentists trained with PBL. Studies with higher-level validity should be conducted in the future to develop higher quality evidence on the outcomes of PBL in dental education. Best Evidence (you

2016 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

156. Estimating the effect of cumulative occupational asbestos exposure on time to lung cancer mortality: Using structural nested failure-time models to account for healthy-worker survivor bias (PubMed)

Estimating the effect of cumulative occupational asbestos exposure on time to lung cancer mortality: Using structural nested failure-time models to account for healthy-worker survivor bias Previous estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos on lung cancer mortality have been obtained by using methods that are subject to the healthy-worker survivor bias. G-estimation of a structural nested model provides consistent exposure effect estimates under this bias.We estimated the effect (...) exposure, and age at study entry yielded a survival time ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval = 0.83 to 0.93). Further adjustment for work status yielded no practical change. The corresponding survival time ratio obtained using g-estimation of a structural nested model was 0.57 (0.33 to 0.96).Accounting for the healthy-worker survivor bias resulted in a 35% stronger effect estimate. However, this estimate was considerably less precise. When healthy-worker survivor bias is suspected, methods

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2014 Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

157. A methodological consideration for blood lead concentrations obtained from the earlobe in Japanese adults occupationally unexposed to lead (PubMed)

. There was a significant correlation between the earlobe BPb levels and cubital vein BPb levels (Spearman rank correlation r S = 0.941), though the earlobe BPb levels were significantly higher than the cubital vein BPb levels. Most of the participants regarded earlobe puncture as a painless method.These data suggest that earlobe BPb levels can be used to assess lead exposure in children. Blood collection using a capillary tube should be done carefully and promptly because slow withdrawal may lead to measurement bias. (...) A methodological consideration for blood lead concentrations obtained from the earlobe in Japanese adults occupationally unexposed to lead Neuropsychological effects of considerably low levels of lead exposure are observed in children, and a reliable and possibly painless technique that can detect such levels is required for the assessment of such exposure. We examined whether the blood lead (BPb) concentrations obtained from the earlobe were as valid and useful as those from the median cubital

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2017 Environmental health and preventive medicine

158. The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences

The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences Berkman ND, Santaguida PL, Viswanathan M, Morton SC Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Berkman ND (...) , Santaguida PL, Viswanathan M, Morton SC. The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Methods Research Report. 2014 Authors' objectives To comprehensively and systematically review and compare empirical evaluations of specific types of bias on effect estimates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in systematic reviews. Authors' conclusions Theory suggests that bias in the conduct of studies would

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

159. Lead-Time Bias

Lead-Time Bias Lead-Time Bias Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lead-Time Bias Lead-Time Bias Aka: Lead-Time Bias (...) diagnosis falsely appears to prolong survival Screened and unscreened patients each survive 7 years Screened patients know diagnosis 2 years earlier IV. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lead-Time Bias." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Epidemiology About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point

2015 FP Notebook

160. Missing information caused by death leads to bias in relative risk estimates. (PubMed)

Missing information caused by death leads to bias in relative risk estimates. In most clinical and epidemiologic studies, information on disease status is usually collected at regular follow-up visits. Often, this information can only be retrieved in individuals who are alive at follow-up, and studies frequently right censor individuals with missing information because of death in the analysis. Such ad hoc analyses can lead to seriously biased hazard ratio estimates of potential risk factors (...) . We systematically investigate this bias.We illustrate under which conditions the bias can occur. Considering three numerical studies, we characterize the bias, its magnitude, and direction as well as its real-world relevance.Depending on the situation studied, the bias can be substantial and in both directions. It is mainly caused by differential mortality: if deaths without occurrence of the disease are more pronounced, the risk factor effect is overestimated. However, if the risk for dying

2014 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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