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Lead-Time Bias

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121. Partial verification bias and incorporation bias affected accuracy estimates of diagnostic studies for biomarkers that were part of an existing composite gold standard. (PubMed)

Partial verification bias and incorporation bias affected accuracy estimates of diagnostic studies for biomarkers that were part of an existing composite gold standard. To investigate how choice of gold standard biases estimates of sensitivity and specificity in studies reassessing the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers that are already part of a lifetime composite gold standard (CGS).We performed a simulation study based on the real-life example of the biomarker "protein 14-3-3" used (...) for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three different types of gold standard were compared: perfect gold standard "autopsy" (available in a small fraction only; prone to partial verification bias), lifetime CGS (including the biomarker under investigation; prone to incorporation bias), and "best available" gold standard (autopsy if available, otherwise CGS).Sensitivity was unbiased when comparing 14-3-3 with autopsy but overestimated when using CGS or "best available" gold standard. Specificity of 14-3-3

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2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

122. Stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, and sad bias in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder or depression (PubMed)

collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task (...) Stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, and sad bias in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder or depression Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We

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2016 Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

123. The effects of a teaching intervention on weight bias among kinesiology undergraduate students. (PubMed)

and diet in weight management. We measured explicit and implicit weight bias using Anti-Fat Attitude Test (AFAT) and Implicit Association Test (IAT), respectively pre-intervention, immediate post intervention and 1 month later.In mixed model analysis, AFAT Blame scores had significant group by time interaction (p < 0.001). Blame scores significantly reduced with mean differences (standard error (SE)) of -0.35 (0.08) post intervention (p < 0.001) and persisted to be reduced with mean differences (SE (...) The effects of a teaching intervention on weight bias among kinesiology undergraduate students. Weight bias is present among kinesiology professionals and this may cause a significant negative impact on their clients with obesity. Thus, our objective was to test if learning about uncontrollable cause of obesity and about weight bias would reduce explicit and implicit weight bias among kinesiology undergraduate students compared to the traditional curriculum which is more focused on controllable

2019 International Journal of Obesity

124. Translating a rodent measure of negative bias into humans: the impact of induced anxiety and unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders. (PubMed)

choice ratios, reaction times and parameters recovered from a computational model of reaction time - the drift diffusion model (DDM) - from a two-alternative-forced-choice task in which ambiguous and unambiguous auditory stimuli were paired with high and low rewards.Both groups showed over 93% accuracy on unambiguous tones indicating intact discrimination, but symptomatic individuals demonstrated increased negative affective bias on ambiguous tones [proportion high reward = 0.42 (s.d. = 0.14 (...) Translating a rodent measure of negative bias into humans: the impact of induced anxiety and unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are ubiquitous but current treatment options are ineffective for many sufferers. Moreover, a number of promising pre-clinical interventions have failed to translate into clinical efficacy in humans. Improved treatments are unlikely without better animal-human translational pipelines. Here, we translate a rodent measure of negative

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2019 Psychological Medicine

125. Using risk of bias domains to identify opportunities for improvement in food- and nutrition-related research: An evaluation of research type and design, year of publication, and source of funding. (PubMed)

Using risk of bias domains to identify opportunities for improvement in food- and nutrition-related research: An evaluation of research type and design, year of publication, and source of funding. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to identify opportunities for improvement in food and nutrition research by examining risk of bias (ROB) domains.Ratings were extracted from critical appraisal records for 5675 studies used in systematic reviews conducted by three organizations. Variables (...) research (p<0.005). Performance ROB domain ratings started significantly improving in 2000; others improved after 1990 (p<0.001). Research designs with higher ROB were nonrandomized intervention and time series designs compared to RCT and prospective cohort designs respectively (p<0.001).Opportunities for improvement in food and nutrition research are in the Selection, Performance, and Detection ROB domains.

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2018 PLoS ONE

126. Racial bias in implicit danger associations generalizes to older male targets. (PubMed)

Racial bias in implicit danger associations generalizes to older male targets. Across two experiments, we examined whether implicit stereotypes linking younger (~28-year-old) Black versus White men with violence and criminality extend to older (~68-year-old) Black versus White men. In Experiment 1, participants completed a sequential priming task wherein they categorized objects as guns or tools after seeing briefly-presented facial images of men who varied in age (younger versus older (...) ) and race (Black versus White). In Experiment 2, we used different face primes of younger and older Black and White men, and participants categorized words as 'threatening' or 'safe.' Results consistently revealed robust racial biases in object and word identification: Dangerous objects and words were identified more easily (faster response times, lower error rates), and non-dangerous objects and words were identified less easily, after seeing Black face primes than after seeing White face primes

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2018 PLoS ONE

127. Rammya Mathew: Acknowledging clinician bias in shared decision making

Rammya Mathew: Acknowledging clinician bias in shared decision making Rammya Mathew: Acknowledging clinician bias in shared decision making - The BMJ ---> A piece of improvement work I’ve been involved in has thrown up some questions for me around anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). indicates that we are undertreating people with AF in terms of anticoagulation, and as a result, they are unnecessarily being put at risk of having a stroke. [1] Looking at this in more detail, it seems (...) ’ lives). I discussed this issue with a colleague and we had quite differing views on the matter, and as a result, our approach to counselling patients was also very different. Below are four different approaches I’ve heard being used when counselling patients around anticoagulation in AF, all of which are similar, but there are slight nuances in the way the facts are presented, which may lead the patient to make a decision one way or the other: Doctor A —”the presenter of facts” Your risk of stroke

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2018 The BMJ Blog

128. Peer-to-peer lending and bias in crowd decision-making. (PubMed)

Peer-to-peer lending and bias in crowd decision-making. Peer-to-peer lending is hypothesized to help equalize economic opportunities for the world's poor. We empirically investigate the "flat-world" hypothesis, the idea that globalization eventually leads to economic equality, using crowdfinancing data for over 660,000 loans in 220 nations and territories made between 2005 and 2013. Contrary to the flat-world hypothesis, we find that peer-to-peer lending networks are moving away from flatness

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2018 PLoS ONE

129. A mathematical model of case-ascertainment bias: Applied to case-control studies nested within a randomized screening trial. (PubMed)

A mathematical model of case-ascertainment bias: Applied to case-control studies nested within a randomized screening trial. When some individuals are screen-detected before the beginning of the study, but otherwise would have been diagnosed symptomatically during the study, this results in different case-ascertainment probabilities among screened and unscreened participants, referred to here as lead-time-biased case-ascertainment (LTBCA). In fact, this issue can arise even in risk-factor (...) studies nested within a randomized screening trial; even though the screening intervention is randomly allocated to trial arms, there is no randomization to potential risk-factors and uptake of screening can differ by risk-factor strata. Under the assumptions that neither screening nor the risk factor affects underlying incidence and no other forms of bias operate, we simulate and compare the underlying cumulative incidence and that observed in the study due to LTBCA. The example used

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2018 PLoS ONE

130. Evidence of bias during liver transplant evaluation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis patients. (PubMed)

Evidence of bias during liver transplant evaluation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis patients. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients and a major source of post-transplant mortality. We sought to examine the effect of comorbidities on listing for orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) in NASH patients.In this retrospective cohort study, we included all patients (n = 955) referred to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (...) were model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (OR 1.04, P = 0.01), HCC (OR 2.16, P = 0.01), and diagnosis of non-NASH cirrhosis (OR 2.56, P = 0.003) while controlling for comorbidities. NASH patients declined for OLT died primarily from their liver disease and were not more likely to die from CVD than non-NASH patients. There was no difference in outcomes of NASH vs non-NASH patients on the waitlist and post-transplant.This study demonstrates potential bias against NASH patients referred

2019 Liver International

131. Peer Review Bias: A Critical Review. (PubMed)

this bias. It is time to improve the quality, transparency, and accountability of the peer review system.Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Peer Review Bias: A Critical Review. Various types of bias and confounding have been described in the biomedical literature that can affect a study before, during, or after the intervention has been delivered. The peer review process can also introduce bias. A compelling ethical and moral rationale necessitates improving the peer review process. A double-blind peer review system is supported on equipoise and fair-play principles. Triple- and quadruple-blind systems have also been described

2019 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

132. Improving the performance of lexicon-based review sentiment analysis method by reducing additional introduced sentiment bias. (PubMed)

bias leads to poor performance of sentiment analysis. To deal with this problem, we propose a novel sentiment bias processing strategy which can be applied to the lexicon-based sentiment analysis method. Weight and threshold parameters learned from a small training set are introduced into the lexicon-based sentiment scoring formula, and then the formula is used to classify the reviews. In this paper, a completed sentiment classification framework is proposed. SentiWordNet (SWN) is used (...) Improving the performance of lexicon-based review sentiment analysis method by reducing additional introduced sentiment bias. Sentiment analysis is widely studied to extract opinions from user generated content (UGC), and various methods have been proposed in recent literature. However, these methods are likely to introduce sentiment bias, and the classification results tend to be positive or negative, especially for the lexicon-based sentiment classification methods. The existence of sentiment

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2018 PLoS ONE

133. Gender differences in authorships are not associated with publication bias in an evolutionary journal. (PubMed)

of authorship and editorial outcome were biased according to gender and geographic location in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Such potential bias may contribute to inequality in the field. We found patterns of gender differences in authorship, but this was unrelated to the editorial decision of whether to publish the manuscript. Female first-authors (the lead role) were six times less likely to be named as the corresponding author than male first-authors, and female first-authors were more likely (...) Gender differences in authorships are not associated with publication bias in an evolutionary journal. The loss of talented women from senior academic positions has partly resulted from a lower number of published papers and the accompanying reduced visibility of female compared to male scientists. The reasons for these gender-differences in authorship is unclear. One potential reason is a bias in the editorial and review process of scientific journals. We investigated whether patterns

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2018 PLoS ONE

134. Reducing effects of dispersal on the bias of 2-sample mark-recapture estimators of stream fish abundance. (PubMed)

) of abundance estimates is poorly understood, especially in small populations. Estimation methods permitting dispersal exist but, for logistical reasons, often are infeasible for routine assessments in streams. The purpose of this paper is to extend available results regarding effects of dispersal on the bias of Chapman's estimator as applied to reach-scale studies of stream fish abundance. We examine for the first time the joint effects of dispersal and sampling variation on the bias of this estimator (...) Reducing effects of dispersal on the bias of 2-sample mark-recapture estimators of stream fish abundance. The 2-sample mark-recapture method with Chapman's estimator is often used by inland fishery managers to estimate the reach-scale abundance of stream fish. An important assumption of this method is that no dispersal into or out of the study reach occurs between the two samples. Violations of this assumption are probably common in practice, but their effect on bias (systematic error

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2018 PLoS ONE

135. Amza Ali: Overcoming bias against research from low income countries

Amza Ali: Overcoming bias against research from low income countries Amza Ali: Overcoming bias against research from lower income countries - The BMJ ---> Each of us is on a lifelong search for legitimacy and authenticity. Often this takes place through the lens of our career and vocation. I am a senior UK- and US-trained neurologist, and a business and management academic. I work in Jamaica — a developing country. Over the years I have had experiences which have made me question legitimacy (...) and authenticity in the context of international academic medicine . Physicians from developing countries not only have to cope with language differences, but also with concealed or even overt biases and, at times, limited expectations of academic capacity. An insightful colleague once said to me that she felt that second-language differences impose the perception of a 15-point drop in IQ in most native listeners. Years ago at an international academic meeting, I personally experienced the pronounced loss

2018 The BMJ Blog

136. Jamie Kirkham: Mitigating the problem of outcome reporting bias

. This selective non-reporting of outcomes in clinical studies can lead to bias when outcome results are selected based on knowledge of the results, and has been shown to affect the conclusions of . This form of bias is commonly referred to as outcome reporting bias. Since the turn of the millennium, a number of groundbreaking initiatives have been launched to mitigate the problem of outcome reporting bias. Perhaps the single greatest advance to help detect and deter outcome reporting bias is trial (...) , and is facilitating the development and application of such standardised sets of core outcomes for clinical trials involving people with specific conditions . Despite these warnings, I hope that such initiatives (and here I name only a few) or the combinations of these efforts will reduce the issue of poorly reported outcome data, which can lead to outcome reporting bias. However, taking a more pessimistic view, it is unlikely that these initiatives will completely eradicate this problem, and it remains a concern

2018 The BMJ Blog

137. Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. (PubMed)

Exploring attentional bias towards threatening faces in chimpanzees using the dot probe task. Primates have evolved to rapidly detect and respond to danger in their environment. However, the mechanisms involved in attending to threatening stimuli are not fully understood. The dot-probe task is one of the most widely used experimental paradigms to investigate these mechanisms in humans. However, to date, few studies have been conducted in non-human primates. The aim of this study (...) was to investigate whether the dot-probe task can measure attentional biases towards threatening faces in chimpanzees. Eight adult chimpanzees participated in a series of touch screen dot-probe tasks. We predicted faster response times towards chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces and faster response times towards faces of high threat intensity (scream) than low threat intensity (bared teeth). Contrary to prediction, response times for chimpanzee threatening faces relative to neutral faces did

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2018 PLoS ONE

138. Is there a gender bias in the advancement to SAGES leadership? (PubMed)

Is there a gender bias in the advancement to SAGES leadership? The proportion of women in surgery has risen significantly yet there remains gender discrepancies in upper leadership positions in academia. Specialty societies play an important role in academic advancement but the progression of women in surgical societies has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences in advancement within the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic (...) Surgeons (SAGES) leadership.A retrospective audit of all SAGES committee members (CM) from 1992 to 2018 was performed. The overall membership gender distribution was available from 2010 to 2018. Leadership positions included Committee Chair/Co-chair, Board of Governors, and Executive Committee. Three phenomena were investigated: "pipeline," by determining the change in women CMs compared to overall membership over time; "sticky floors," by comparing advancement beyond CM by gender; "glass-ceiling

2019 Surgical endoscopy

139. Risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) showed low inter-rater reliability and challenges in its application. (PubMed)

Risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) showed low inter-rater reliability and challenges in its application. to assess the inter-rater reliability (IRR) and usability of the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool (ROBINS-I).cross sectional study. Five raters independently applied ROBINS-I to the non-randomized cohort studies in three systematic reviews on vaccines, opiate abuse, and rehabilitation. We calculated Fleiss' Kappa for multiple raters (...) as a measure of IRR and discussed the application of ROBINS-I to identify difficulties and possible reasons for disagreement.31 studies were included (195 evaluations). IRRs were slight for overall judgment (IRR 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and individual domains (from 0.04, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.12 for the domain "selection of reported results" to 0.18, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.26 for the domain "deviation from intended interventions"). Mean time to apply the tool was 27.8 minutes (SD 12.6) per study. The main

2019 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

140. A Qualitative Study of New York Medical Student Views on Implicit Bias Instruction: Implications for Curriculum Development. (PubMed)

at times resist this instruction. Little guidance exists to overcome this resistance and to engage students in implicit bias instruction; instruction over time could lead to eventual skill development that is necessary to mitigate the influence of implicit bias on clinical practice behaviors.To explore student perceptions of challenges and opportunities when participating in implicit bias instruction.We conducted a qualitative study that involved 11 focus groups with medical students across each (...) A Qualitative Study of New York Medical Student Views on Implicit Bias Instruction: Implications for Curriculum Development. For at least the past two decades, medical educators have worked to improve patient communication and health care delivery to diverse patient populations; despite efforts, patients continue to report prejudice and bias during their clinical encounters. Targeted instruction in implicit bias recognition and management may promote the delivery of equitable care, but students

2019 Journal of General Internal Medicine

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