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Lead-Time Bias

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101. 2018 EHRA Expert Consensus Statement on Lead Extraction: Recommendations on Definitions, Endpoints, Research Trial Design, and Data Collection Requirements for Clinical Scientific Studies and Registries: Endorsed by APHRS/HRS/LAHRS

of functional integrity Abandoned lead Lead left in place in the heart and not con- nected to a CIED. It may be functional or non-functional. ‘Redundant’ lead is some- times used to describe an abandoned lead Recall Firm’s removal or correction of a marketed product that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA) consider to be in violation of the laws it administers and against, which the agency would initiate legal action. Recall does not include a market withdrawal (...) without the use of specialized tools (other than a standard stylet) was used in 27% of patients in the ELECTRa registry, 4 and may be effective for leads with a short dwell time (i.e. time since implant 4 cm remainsinsitu). (12) Reimplantation (if applicable): access site, type of device (as this may affect total procedure and fluoroscopy durations). (13) Intra-operative complications (tachyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, pericardial bleeding etc.) and their management. If known, the location

2018 Heart Rhythm Society

102. Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children. (PubMed)

, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure.Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach.We included 14 studies involving 2643 children: 13 RCTs (involving 2565 children) and one quasi-RCT (...) of bias in all assessed domains. We rated two RCTs and one quasi-RCT as being at high risk of selection bias and six RCTs as being at high risk of attrition bias. For educational interventions, we rated the quality of evidence to be high for continuous blood lead levels and moderate for all other outcomes. For environmental interventions, we assessed the quality of evidence as moderate to low. National or international research grants or governments funded 12 studies, while the other 2 did not report

2016 Cochrane

103. The risk of bias in observational studies of exposures (ROBINS-E) tool: concerns arising from application to observational studies of exposures. (PubMed)

related to some critical sources of bias, such as exposure and funding source, are not assessed. ROBINS-E fails to discriminate between studies with a single risk of bias or multiple risks of bias. ROBINS-E is severely limited at determining whether confounders will bias study outcomes. The construct of co-exposures was difficult to distinguish from confounders. Applying ROBINS-E was time-consuming and confusing.Our experience suggests that the ROBINS-E tool does not meet the need for an international (...) The risk of bias in observational studies of exposures (ROBINS-E) tool: concerns arising from application to observational studies of exposures. Systematic reviews, which assess the risk of bias in included studies, are increasingly used to develop environmental hazard assessments and public health guidelines. These research areas typically rely on evidence from human observational studies of exposures, yet there are currently no universally accepted standards for assessing risk of bias

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2018 Systematic Reviews

104. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses. (PubMed)

Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses. Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid (...) of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews.In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group

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2016 Systematic reviews

105. Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate

Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Discover Portal Discover Portal Stopping biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis can lead to twice the relapse rate Published on 24 January 2018 doi: It seems safer to reduce the dose of biological drugs, rather than to stop them if people with rheumatoid arthritis and their doctors want to avoid relapse. Stopping (...) activity and often lead to remission. However, it is important not to remain on them at high doses due to infection risk and side effects. This review aimed to address the actual risk of relapse if stopping or reducing the dose of biological drugs. What did this study do? This systematic review and meta-analysis pooled the results of 15 randomised controlled trials and two non-randomised trials. It included 2,855 adults who had rheumatoid arthritis for less than a year to 13.6 years. Four trials were

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

106. Bruxism Is a Risk Factor for Implant Complications That May Ultimately Lead to Implant Failure

Bruxism Is a Risk Factor for Implant Complications That May Ultimately Lead to Implant Failure UTCAT3294, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Bruxism Is a Risk Factor for Implant Complications That May Ultimately Lead to Implant Failure Clinical Question In a patient receiving implants, is bruxism a significant contributor to implant failure? Clinical Bottom Line Patients with bruxism and treatment planned (...) concerned mechanical complications, which accounted for 2,590 implants. Evidence Search “bruxism AND implant failure” in PubMed Clinical Queries Comments on The Evidence Validity: Zhou/2016 used an electronic systematic literature search in MEDLINE and EmBase in November 2013 with no time and language restrictions. MeSH terms included words such as “teeth grinding” and “bruxomania” to expand search results. Quality of selected studies used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool, specifically assessing

2017 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

107. Does Using a Low Threshold for Venous Thromboembolism Testing in Pregnant Patients Lead to Low Diagnostic Yield?

Does Using a Low Threshold for Venous Thromboembolism Testing in Pregnant Patients Lead to Low Diagnostic Yield? TAKE-HOME MESSAGE In the emergency department (ED) setting, clinicians have a low threshold for testing pregnant patients for pulmonary embolism, which leads to lower rates of positive diagnostic test results for venous thromboembolism than in nonpregnant patients. Does Using a Low Threshold for Venous Thromboembolism Testing in Pregnant Patients Lead to Low Diagnostic Yield? EBEM (...) Commentators Manpreet Singh, MD Department of Emergency Medicine Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Torrance, CA Thomas Blair, MD White Memorial Medical Center Los Angeles, CA Alex Koyfman, MD Department of Emergency Medicine UT Southwestern Medical Center/Parkland Memorial Hospital Dallas, TX Results The majority of the included studies used an adequate refer- ence standard; however, two of them were determined to be at high risk for selection bias be- cause of prescreening based on risk strati?cation

2016 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

108. Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control

Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Discover Portal Discover Portal Diabetes self-management education leads to better blood sugar control Published on 23 March 2016 doi: Diabetes self-management education can lead to greater, and clinically important, reductions in blood sugar levels than usual care or other control treatments. Self-management programmes were most effective in people (...) with higher blood sugar levels to start with, and when they involved ten or more hours of contact time, although there was no indication that programmes running over a longer overall period of time were more effective. The interventions were very diverse so the optimal intervention duration, provider, or contact hours is not clear. This review did not study cost-effectiveness either, so it is not possible to give advice on how interventions compared to each other or which might deliver value for money

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

109. Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems

Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Discover Portal Discover Portal Transfusing blood at less severe levels of anaemia may lead to fewer heart problems Published on 2 August 2016 doi: For people with existing heart disease or stroke, a strategy of transfusing blood if anaemia is less severe, haemoglobin above 80g/L, led to fewer coronary syndromes. The strategy (...) syndrome (heart attack or unstable angina). Six of the trials were judged to be at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding of participants and staff, though this would have been hard to do. The pooling of overlapping cut-off values made comparison of the restrictive and liberal groups challenging. Also definitions of cardiovascular disease differed between trials. However, heterogeneity across trials was found to be low, increasing our confidence that the meta-analysis was valid. What did it find

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

110. Does comprehensive care lead to improved patient outcomes in acute care settings?

was produced using the Evidence Check methodology in response to specific questions from the commissioning agency. It is not necessarily a comprehensive review of all literature relating to the topic area. It was current at the time of production (but not necessarily at the time of publication). It is reproduced for general information and third parties rely upon it at their own risk. Does comprehensive care lead to improved patient outcomes in acute care settings? An Evidence Check rapid review brokered (...) Does comprehensive care lead to improved patient outcomes in acute care settings? An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. September 2015. Does comprehensive care lead to improved patient outcomes in acute care settings? An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. September 2015. This report was prepared by: Karen Grimmer

2016 Sax Institute Evidence Check

111. Bias due to selective inclusion and reporting of outcomes and analyses in systematic reviews of randomised trials of healthcare interventions. (PubMed)

Bias due to selective inclusion and reporting of outcomes and analyses in systematic reviews of randomised trials of healthcare interventions. Systematic reviews may be compromised by selective inclusion and reporting of outcomes and analyses. Selective inclusion occurs when there are multiple effect estimates in a trial report that could be included in a particular meta-analysis (e.g. from multiple measurement scales and time points) and the choice of effect estimate to include in the meta (...) , such as investigations of how frequently RCT outcome data is selectively included in systematic reviews based on the results, outcomes and analyses are discrepant between protocol and published review or non-significant outcomes are partially reported in the full text or summary within systematic reviews.Two review authors independently selected empirical studies for inclusion, extracted the data and performed a risk of bias assessment. A third review author resolved any disagreements about inclusion or exclusion

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2014 Cochrane

112. Quantifying Lead-Time Bias in Risk-Factor Studies of Cancer through Simulation (PubMed)

Quantifying Lead-Time Bias in Risk-Factor Studies of Cancer through Simulation Lead-time is inherent in early detection and creates bias in observational studies of screening efficacy, but its potential to bias effect estimates in risk factor studies is not always recognized. We describe a form of this bias that conventional analyses cannot address and develop a model to quantify it.Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data form the basis for estimates of age-specific preclinical (...) incidence, and log-normal distributions describe the preclinical duration distribution. Simulations assume a joint null hypothesis of no effect of either the risk factor or screening on the preclinical incidence of cancer, and then quantify the bias as the risk-factor odds ratio (OR) from this null study. This bias can be used as a factor to adjust observed OR in the actual study.For this particular study design, as average preclinical duration increased, the bias in the total-physical activity

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2013 Annals of Epidemiology

113. The time course of attentional bias in pain: a meta-analysis of eye tracking studies

The time course of attentional bias in pain: a meta-analysis of eye tracking studies Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing (...) and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title and abstract, followed by full-text screening

2019 PROSPERO

114. Gender bias in under-five mortality in low/middle-income countries (PubMed)

Gender bias in under-five mortality in low/middle-income countries Due to biological reasons, boys are more likely to die than girls. The detection of gender bias requires knowing the expected relation between male and female mortality rates at different levels of overall mortality, in the absence of discrimination. Our objective was to compare two approaches aimed at assessing excess female under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in low/middle-income countries.We compared the two approaches using (...) approach. Nevertheless, both models showed similar country rankings. The 13 countries with the highest and the 10 countries with the lowest rankings were the same according to both approaches. Differences in excess female mortality among world regions were significant, but not among country income groups.Both methods are useful for monitoring time trends, detecting gender-based inequalities and identifying and addressing its causes. The prescriptive approach seems to be more sensitive

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2017 BMJ global health

115. Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up (PubMed)

to observe and quantify bias to both the incidence proportion and HR in a birth cohort linkage study of reported child maltreatment. Failure to account for out-of-state emigration and low-quality linkage methods may induce bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child maltreatment which other researchers should be aware of. In this study multi-agency linkage did not lead to substantial increased detection of reported maltreatment. The ALCANLink methodology may be a practical approach for other (...) Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification

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2017 Injury epidemiology

116. Detecting and measuring alcohol attention bias in social drinkers: a meta-analysis of eye tracking and visual probe methodology

Detecting and measuring alcohol attention bias in social drinkers: a meta-analysis of eye tracking and visual probe methodology Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example

2019 PROSPERO

117. A machine learning aided systematic review and meta-analysis of attentional bias to somatosensory stimuli in chronic pain patients

A machine learning aided systematic review and meta-analysis of attentional bias to somatosensory stimuli in chronic pain patients Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record (...) , any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion

2019 PROSPERO

118. Has the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in surgical randomised trials changed? An updated systematic review

Has the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in surgical randomised trials changed? An updated systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated (...) files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example

2019 PROSPERO

119. Attention bias modification: a meta-analysis

Attention bias modification: a meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne (...) ") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening will be performed in two phases, namely initial screening based on title

2019 PROSPERO

120. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias (PubMed)

How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias The "shape bias" describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based on shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether (...) learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N=72) and adults' (N=240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than

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2016 Journal of experimental child psychology

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