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Lead-Time Bias

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81. Frailty exclusion bias?A theoretical basis and practical influences on Nagoya City Study

if the time window had been prolonged to 24 and/or 48 months in Donegan’s study?Papers that reported association or with data suggesting association: 6. Geier et al and 7. Baril et al both are free from frailty exclusion bias 6. Geier et al ·Using the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) database, Geier et al reported positive and significant associations between HPV vaccines use and serious autoimmune adverse events (SAAE): ·odds ratios (95%CI) were: gastroenteritis:?4.6 (1.3-18.5), arthritis (...) py of CNS demyelinating diseases in the non-vaccinated group (4.7 or 5.8) is very high compared with that of multiple sclerosis including optic neuritis (1.0) in the general population of the same age group (women aged 15 to 24 years) in France [ref]. 7. This suggest that non-vaccinated group had included frail girls at the time of inclusion. Therefore “Frailty exclusion bias” or “healthy vaccinee effect” may not be completely excluded in this French pharmacovigilance study. (Even if it is taken

2016 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

82. A Time-Walk Correction Method for PET Detectors Based on Leading Edge Discriminators (PubMed)

A Time-Walk Correction Method for PET Detectors Based on Leading Edge Discriminators The leading edge timing pick-off technique is the simplest timing extraction method for PET detectors. Due to the inherent time-walk of the leading edge technique, corrections should be made to improve timing resolution, especially for time-of-flight PET. Time-walk correction can be done by utilizing the relationship between the threshold crossing time and the event energy on an event by event basis (...) . In this paper, a time-walk correction method is proposed and evaluated using timing information from two identical detectors both using leading edge discriminators. This differs from other techniques that use an external dedicated reference detector, such as a fast PMT-based detector using constant fraction techniques to pick-off timing information. In our proposed method, one detector was used as reference detector to correct the time-walk of the other detector. Time-walk in the reference detector

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2017 IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences

83. Is there hindsight bias without real hindsight? Conjectures are sufficient to elicit hindsight bias. (PubMed)

over time and affected participants' reproductions of their earlier estimates. We replicated this finding in a controlled lab experiment (N = 94) and found a comparable magnitude of conjecture-based and knowledge-based hindsight bias. These findings demonstrate hindsight distortions in the absence of definite knowledge and extend theoretical assumptions about the prerequisites of hindsight bias in the context of events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved). (...) Is there hindsight bias without real hindsight? Conjectures are sufficient to elicit hindsight bias. After learning about an event, people often mistakenly believe to have predicted what happened all along (hindsight bias). However, what if what has happened is not known, but subject to conjecture? Could conjectures, in the absence of knowledge about the event, elicit the same bias and make people believe they "conjectured it all along", too? We examined this question in 2 studies. Immediately

2018 Journal of experimental psychology. Applied

84. Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain

Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain UTCAT3349, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain. Clinical Question For a patient (...) included split-mouth design. All included studies provided sufficient follow-up. Statistical significance was noted consistently across studies for ridge preservation. For interventional studies, the methodological quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias, as adapted by Chambrone et al. Observed outcomes were significantly superior when compared with natural healing as noted: HBL/B: −2.9 ± 2.7 mm; HBL/L: −2.1 ± 2.5 mm; TWR: 51.92 ± 40.31

2019 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

85. The effectiveness of interventions for remediation of lead-contaminated soil to prevent or reduce lead exposure

The effectiveness of interventions for remediation of lead-contaminated soil to prevent or reduce lead exposure Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files (...) or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Example: Screening

2019 PROSPERO

86. T2* Mapping for Hip Joint Cartilage Assessment: Pre-MRI Exercise and Time of Imaging Do Not Bias the T2* Measurement in Asymptomatic Volunteers (PubMed)

T2* Mapping for Hip Joint Cartilage Assessment: Pre-MRI Exercise and Time of Imaging Do Not Bias the T2* Measurement in Asymptomatic Volunteers Objective To identify if the time of day and pre-imaging exercise matter while performing T2* mapping of hip joint cartilage at 3 T. Design Nine asymptomatic healthy volunteers (mean age 27.4 ± 4.0 years) with no obvious morphological evidence of cartilage damage were enrolled. The MRI protocol included a double-echo steady state (DESS) sequence (...) for morphological cartilage assessment and a multi-echo data image combination sequence for the T2* measurement. T2* values were obtained between 8 and 11 a.m., between 3 and 6 p.m., and after 50 knee-bends at several time points of each measurement (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes). Results We observed no differences ( P = 0.47) between the T2* values obtained in the morning (T2* = 22.9 ± 3.0 ms) and those measured in the afternoon (T2* = 23.2 ± 3.2 ms). We also observed no statistically significant differences

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2016 Cartilage

87. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities (PubMed)

Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently (...) in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender

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2016 Frontiers in psychology

88. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes (PubMed)

Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces (...) no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

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2016 Science advances

90. Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions. (PubMed)

Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions. The clustering of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in some individuals is often interpreted as the result of common risk factors rather than biological interactions between different types of HPV. The intraindividual correlation between times-at-risk for all HPV infections (...) is not generally considered in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies measuring associations between 2 HPV types. When we assumed no interactions, the model predicted that studies would estimate odds ratios and incidence rate ratios greater than 1 between HPV types even after complete adjustment for sexual behavior. We demonstrated that this residual association is due to correlation between the times

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2016 American Journal of Epidemiology

91. Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses. (PubMed)

Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses. Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when researchers deviate from simple principles that guide the design and analysis of randomized experiments. We review a framework to describe and prevent biases, including immortal time bias, that result from a failure to align start of follow-up, specification

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2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

92. Single time point comparisons in longitudinal randomized controlled trials: power and bias in the presence of missing data. (PubMed)

Single time point comparisons in longitudinal randomized controlled trials: power and bias in the presence of missing data. The primary analysis in a longitudinal randomized controlled trial is sometimes a comparison of arms at a single time point. While a two-sample t-test is often used, missing data are common in longitudinal studies and decreases power by reducing sample size. Mixed models for repeated measures (MMRM) can test treatment effects at specific time points, have been shown (...) to give unbiased estimates in certain missing data contexts, and may be more powerful than a two sample t-test.We conducted a simulation study to compare the performance of a complete-case t-test to a MMRM in terms of power and bias under different missing data mechanisms. Impact of within- and between-person variance, dropout mechanism, and variance-covariance structure were all considered.While both complete-case t-test and MMRM provided unbiased estimation of treatment differences when data were

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2016 BMC medical research methodology

93. The impact of healthcare visit timing on reported pertussis cough duration: Selection bias and disease pattern from reported cases in Michigan, USA, 2000-2010. (PubMed)

The impact of healthcare visit timing on reported pertussis cough duration: Selection bias and disease pattern from reported cases in Michigan, USA, 2000-2010. Pertussis is a potentially serious respiratory illness characterized by cough of exceptionally long duration of up to approximately100 days. While macrolide antibiotics are an effective treatment, there is an ongoing debate whether they also shorten the length of cough symptoms. We investigated whether public health surveillance data (...) from the observed surveillance data and truncated week-by-week to evaluate the effects of bias associated with stratification on timing of antibiotics.Cases presenting for medical evaluation later in the clinical course were more likely to have experienced delayed antibiotic therapy and longer average cough duration. A comparable magnitude of increasing cough duration was also observed in the simulated data. By stratifying on initial medical visit, selection bias effects based on timing

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2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

94. The lag-time approach improved drug-outcome association estimates in presence of protopathic bias. (PubMed)

The lag-time approach improved drug-outcome association estimates in presence of protopathic bias. Protopathic bias is a systematic error which occurs when measured exposure status may be affected by the latent onset of the target outcome. In this article, we aimed to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the lag-time approach to address this type of bias.The lag-time approach consists in excluding from exposure assessment the period immediately preceding the outcome detection date (...) ) of short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs, an asthma reliever medication) during the 90 days before the ED admission date was associated with an increased risk of the outcome [odds ratio (OR): 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72, 2.22]. This paradoxical finding may be explained by protopathic bias, as SABA use prior the ED admission may be affected by preceding respiratory distress. Indeed, when a 120-day period preceding the ED admission was ignored from drug exposure assessment (lag time), SABAs were

2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

95. Beta blockers and cancer prognosis - The role of immortal time bias: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Beta blockers and cancer prognosis - The role of immortal time bias: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Findings from experimental and observational studies have suggested beneficial effects of beta blocker (BB) use on cancer survival. Nevertheless, results have been inconclusive and there have been concerns that the observed associations might have resulted from immortal time bias (ITB). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize existing evidence, paying particular

2016 Cancer Treatment Reviews

96. Erratum to: Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Erratum to: Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis. 27306030 2018 11 13 1471-2288 16 1 2016 Jun 15 BMC medical research methodology BMC Med Res Methodol Erratum to: Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis. 71 Lueza Béranger B Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Service de biostatistique et

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2016 BMC medical research methodology

97. Systematic Bias in Meta-Analyses of Time to Antimicrobial in Sepsis Studies.

Systematic Bias in Meta-Analyses of Time to Antimicrobial in Sepsis Studies. 26974458 2016 07 14 2018 12 02 1530-0293 44 4 2016 Apr Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. Systematic Bias in Meta-Analyses of Time to Antimicrobial in Sepsis Studies. e234-5 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001512 Kumar Anand A Sections of Critical Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology/Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. eng Letter Comment

2016 Critical Care Medicine

98. Influenced from the start: anchoring bias in time trade-off valuations (PubMed)

as anchoring bias. The aim of the study was to explore the potential anchoring effect and its magnitude in TTO experiments.A total of 1249 respondents valued 8 EQ-5D health states in a Web study. We used the lead time TTO (LT-TTO) which allows eliciting negative and positive values with a uniform method. Respondents were randomized to 11 different SPs. Anchoring bias was assessed using OLS regression with SP as the independent variable. In a secondary experiment, we compared two different SPs in the UK EQ (...) Influenced from the start: anchoring bias in time trade-off valuations The de facto standard method for valuing EQ-5D health states is the time trade-off (TTO), an iterative choice procedure. The TTO requires a starting point (SP), an initial offer of time in full health which is compared to a fixed offer of time in impaired health. From the SP, the time in full health is manipulated until preferential indifference. The SP is arbitrary, but may influence respondents, an effect known

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2016 Quality of Life Research

99. In Response to: Systematic Bias in Meta-analyses of Time to Antimicrobial in Sepsis Studies (PubMed)

In Response to: Systematic Bias in Meta-analyses of Time to Antimicrobial in Sepsis Studies 26974459 2016 07 14 2018 12 02 1530-0293 44 4 2016 Apr Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. The authors reply. e235-6 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001550 Sterling Sarah A SA Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, School of Medicine, Jackson, MS. Puskarich Michael A MA Jones Alan E AE eng K23 GM113041 GM NIGMS NIH HHS United States Letter Research Support, N.I.H

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2016 Critical Care Medicine

100. Comparison of Statistical Approaches for Dealing With Immortal Time Bias in Drug Effectiveness Studies. (PubMed)

Comparison of Statistical Approaches for Dealing With Immortal Time Bias in Drug Effectiveness Studies. In time-to-event analyses of observational studies of drug effectiveness, incorrect handling of the period between cohort entry and first treatment exposure during follow-up may result in immortal time bias. This bias can be eliminated by acknowledging a change in treatment exposure status with time-dependent analyses, such as fitting a time-dependent Cox model. The prescription time (...) -distribution matching (PTDM) method has been proposed as a simpler approach for controlling immortal time bias. Using simulation studies and theoretical quantification of bias, we compared the performance of the PTDM approach with that of the time-dependent Cox model in the presence of immortal time. Both assessments revealed that the PTDM approach did not adequately address immortal time bias. Based on our simulation results, another recently proposed observational data analysis technique, the sequential

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2016 American Journal of Epidemiology

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