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Lead-Time Bias

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61. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study. (PubMed)

Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study. Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach (...) such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias.Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods

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2017 BMC medical research methodology

62. Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. (PubMed)

Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. 28098654 2019 03 25 2019 03 25 1530-0293 45 2 2017 02 Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. e242-e243 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002162 Brent Andrew J AJ Department of Microbiology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom. eng Letter Comment United States Crit Care Med 0355501 0090 (...) -3493 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Anti-Infective Agents AIM IM Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):1907-15 26121073 Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb;45(2):e243-e244 28098655 Anti-Bacterial Agents Anti-Infective Agents Bias Humans Sepsis Shock, Septic 2017 1 19 6 0 2017 1 19 6 0 2019 3 26 6 0 ppublish 28098654 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002162 00003246-201702000-00060

2017 Critical Care Medicine

63. Patients with Staged Bilateral Total Joint Arthroplasty in Registries: Immortal Time Bias and Methodological Options. (PubMed)

underwent staged (at any time) bilateral TJA. The logical fallacy leading to immortal time bias is explained through a simple artificial data example. The cumulative incidences of revision and death are computed by subgroup analysis and by landmark analysis based on hip replacement data from the Dutch Arthroplasty Register and on simulated data sets.For patients who underwent unilateral TJA, subgroup analysis can lead to an overestimate of the cumulative incidence of death and an underestimate (...) of the cumulative incidence of revision. The reverse conclusion holds for patients who underwent staged bilateral TJA. Analysis of these patients can lead to an underestimate of the cumulative incidence of death and an overestimate of the cumulative incidence of revision. Immortal time bias can be prevented by using landmark analysis.When examining arthroplasty registry data, patients who underwent staged bilateral TJA should be analyzed with caution. An appropriate statistical method to address the research

2017 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

64. Estimating the effect of immortal-time bias in urologic research: a case example of testosterone-replacement therapy. (PubMed)

Estimating the effect of immortal-time bias in urologic research: a case example of testosterone-replacement therapy. To quantify the effect of immortal-time bias in an observational study examining the effect of cumulative testosterone exposure on mortality.We used a population-based matched cohort study of men aged ≥66 years, newly treated with testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT), and matched-controls from 2007 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada to quantify the effects of immortal-time bias. We (...) used generalised estimating equations to determine the association between cumulative TRT exposure and mortality. Results produced by models using time-fixed and time-varying exposures were compared. Further, we undertook a systematic review of PubMed to identify studies addressing immortal-time bias or time-varying exposures in the urological literature and qualitatively summated these.Among 10 311 TRT-exposed men and 28 029 controls, the use of a time-varying exposure resulted in the attenuation

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2017 BJU international

65. Normalization with Corresponding Naïve Tissue Minimizes Bias Caused by Commercial Reverse Transcription Kits on Quantitative Real-Time PCR Results. (PubMed)

Normalization with Corresponding Naïve Tissue Minimizes Bias Caused by Commercial Reverse Transcription Kits on Quantitative Real-Time PCR Results. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for expression analysis. Designed to improve reproducibility and sensitivity, commercial kits are commonly used for the critical step of cDNA synthesis. The present study was designed to determine the impact of these kits. mRNA from mouse brains were pooled

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2016 PLoS ONE

66. Time Order as Psychological Bias (PubMed)

Time Order as Psychological Bias Incorrectly perceiving the chronology of events can fundamentally alter people's understanding of the causal structure of the world. For example, when astronomers used the "eye and ear" method to locate stars, they showed systematic interindividual errors. In the current study, we showed that temporal-order perception may be considered a psychological bias that attention can modulate but not fully eradicate. According to Titchener's law of prior entry, attention (...) prioritizes the perception of an event and thus can help compensate for possible interindividual differences in the perceived timing of an event by normalizing perception in time. In a longitudinal study, we tested the stability of participants' temporal-order perception across and within sensory modalities, together with the magnitude of the participants' prior-entry effect. All measurements showed the persistence of stable interindividual variability. Crucially, the magnitude of the prior-entry effect

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2017 Psychological science

67. Variation in the Intensity of Selection on Codon Bias over Time Causes Contrasting Patterns of Base Composition Evolution in Drosophila (PubMed)

Variation in the Intensity of Selection on Codon Bias over Time Causes Contrasting Patterns of Base Composition Evolution in Drosophila Four-fold degenerate coding sites form a major component of the genome, and are often used to make inferences about selection and demography, so that understanding their evolution is important. Despite previous efforts, many questions regarding the causes of base composition changes at these sites in Drosophila remain unanswered. To shed further light (...) suggest that the observed AT-biased substitution pattern in both lineages is probably due to an ancestral reduction in selection intensity, and is unlikely to be the result of an increase in mutational bias towards AT alone. By using two polymorphism-based methods for estimating selection coefficients over different timescales, we show that the selection intensity on codon usage has been rather stable in D. simulans in the recent past, but the long-term estimates in D. melanogaster are much higher

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2017 Genome biology and evolution

68. In Response to: Meta-Analysis of time to antimicrobial therapy in sepsis: Confounding as well as bias (PubMed)

In Response to: Meta-Analysis of time to antimicrobial therapy in sepsis: Confounding as well as bias 28098655 2018 11 13 1530-0293 45 2 2017 Feb Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. The authors reply. e243-e244 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002178 Sterling Sarah A SA Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Medicine, Jackson, MS. Puskarich Michael A MA Jones Alan E AE eng K23 GM113041 GM NIGMS NIH HHS United States Journal Article United States Crit Care

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2017 Critical Care Medicine

69. Reducing alcohol-related interpretive bias in negative affect situations: Using a scenario-based Cognitive Bias Modification training paradigm. (PubMed)

drinking. It was hypothesized that a single-session Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) training condition (compared to a sham condition) would lead to less alcohol-related interpretations of negative affect situations, and less alcohol consumption while being in a negative mood state. The most pronounced effects were expected in individuals who drink alcohol to cope with anxiety. Moderate to heavy drinking university students (N = 134) were randomly assigned to a CBM-I or a sham (...) Reducing alcohol-related interpretive bias in negative affect situations: Using a scenario-based Cognitive Bias Modification training paradigm. Problematic alcohol use is associated with drinking alcohol to reduce negative mood states (negative reinforcement motive). Further, heavy drinking individuals tend to interpret ambiguous situations as alcohol-related (interpretive bias). The current experimental study aimed to examine the role of alcohol-related interpretive biases in negative-affect

2019 Addictive behaviors

70. The Problem with Mechanistic Risk of Bias Assessments in Evidence Synthesis of Observational Studies and a Practical Alternative: Assess the Impact of Specific Sources of Potential Bias. (PubMed)

subjective approach. Mechanistic risk of bias assessments focus on assessing whether specific biases are present but fail to provide insights into the direction, magnitude, and relative importance of individual biases. Such assessments naively treat all potential biases as equally important threats to validity and equally important across all research topics, potentially leading to inappropriate conclusions about the overall strength of the available evidence. Instead, risk of bias assessments should (...) The Problem with Mechanistic Risk of Bias Assessments in Evidence Synthesis of Observational Studies and a Practical Alternative: Assess the Impact of Specific Sources of Potential Bias. Systematic reviews routinely characterize the trustworthiness of individual studies by evaluating risk of bias, often by mechanistically applying standardized algorithms. However, such instruments prioritize the repeatability of the process over a more thoughtful and informative, but necessarily somewhat more

2019 American Journal of Epidemiology

71. The strong focus on positive results in abstracts may cause bias in systematic reviews: a case study on abstract reporting bias. (PubMed)

The strong focus on positive results in abstracts may cause bias in systematic reviews: a case study on abstract reporting bias. Research articles tend to focus on positive findings in their abstract, especially if multiple outcomes have been studied. At the same time, search queries in databases are generally limited to the abstract, title and keywords fields of an article. Negative findings are therefore less likely to be detected by systematic searches and to appear in systematic reviews. We (...) aim to assess the occurrence of this 'abstract reporting bias' and quantify its impact in the literature on the association between diesel exhaust exposure (DEE) and bladder cancer.We set up a broad search query related to DEE and cancer in general. Full-texts of the articles identified in the search output were manually scanned. Articles were included if they reported, anywhere in the full-text, the association between DEE and bladder cancer. We assume that the use of a broad search query

2019 Systematic reviews

72. The effect of local sequence context on mutational bias of leading and lagging strand genes (PubMed)

The effect of local sequence context on mutational bias of leading and lagging strand genes All organisms must replicate their genetic information accurately to ensure its faithful transmission. DNA polymerase errors provide an important source of genetic variation that can drive evolution. Understanding the origins of genetic variation will inform our understanding of evolution and the development of genetic diseases. A number of factors have been proposed to influence mutagenesis [1-10]. Here (...) higher mutation rate for head-on genes can be explained by differing sequence composition between the leading and lagging strands and the error bias for DNA polymerase in specific sequence contexts. Therefore, we find local sequence context is the major determinant of mutagenesis in bacteria.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2016 Current biology : CB

73. Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in Their Implicit Racial Bias (PubMed)

Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in Their Implicit Racial Bias Virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's body by a life-sized virtual one. Such embodiment results in a perceptual illusion of body ownership over the virtual body (VB). Previous research has shown that the form of the VB can influence implicit attitudes. In particular, embodying White people in a Black virtual body is associated with an immediate decrease (...) in their implicit racial bias against Black people. We tested whether the reduction in implicit bias lasts for at least 1 week and whether it is enhanced by multiple exposures. Two experiments were carried out with a total of 90 female participants where the virtual body was either Black or White. Participants were required to follow a virtual Tai Chi teacher who was either Asian or European Caucasian. Each participant had 1, 2, or 3 exposures separated by days. Implicit racial bias was measured 1 week before

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2016 Frontiers in human neuroscience

74. Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods? (PubMed)

Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods? Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies (...) , corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce

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2016 Nutrients

75. Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation (PubMed)

Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation Our brain compensates sensory uncertainty by combining multisensory information derived from an event, and by integrating the current sensory signal with the prior knowledge about the statistical structure of previous events. There is growing evidence that both strategies are statistically optimal; however, how these two stages of information integration interact and shape an optimal percept remains an open question (...) increases as the uncertainty increases, and that the multisensory timing improves both the timing sensitivity and the central tendency bias compared to the unisensory timing. Computational models indicate that the optimal multisensory integration precedes the optimal integration of prior information causing the central tendency. Our findings suggest that our brain incorporates the multisensory information and prior knowledge in a statistically optimal manner to realize precise and accurate timing

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2018 Scientific reports

76. The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence

The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional (...) time a meta-analysis is conducted, it will likely contain more trials with positive findings than those with negative findings and the estimated pooled effect size is likely to be exaggerated. This is a type of publication bias. When decision makers make a recommendation based on evidence affected by publication bias, this action is supported by likely exaggerated benefit. Therefore, the balance of benefit and harm that led to the recommended action is likely distorted. Decision makers acknowledge

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2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

77. The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias

The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers (...) of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias Article Text EBM analysis The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias Free Lars Jørgensen

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

78. Estimation of loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable versus inoperable lung cancer: Adjusting quality-of-life and lead-time bias for utility of surgery. (PubMed)

Estimation of loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable versus inoperable lung cancer: Adjusting quality-of-life and lead-time bias for utility of surgery. This study attempts to quantify the difference in loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable and inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).A cohort consisting of 1652 pathologically verified NSCLC patients with performance status 0-1 was monitored for 7 years (2005-2011 (...) , after adjustment for QoL and lead-time bias.The utility gained from surgical operation for operable lung cancer is substantial, even after adjustment for lead-time bias. Future studies should compare screening programs with treatment strategies when carrying out cost-utility assessments to improve patients' values.Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

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2014 Lung Cancer

79. Estimation of lead-time bias and its impact on the outcome of surveillance for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

Estimation of lead-time bias and its impact on the outcome of surveillance for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Lead-time is the time by which diagnosis is anticipated by screening/surveillance with respect to the symptomatic detection of a disease. Any screening program, including surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is subject to lead-time bias. Data regarding lead-time for HCC are lacking. Aims of the present study were to calculate lead-time and to assess its (...) was 32.7% in semiannually surveilled patients, 25.2% in annually surveilled patients, and 12.2% in symptomatic patients (p<0.001). In a 10-year follow-up perspective, the median lead-time calculated for all surveilled patients was 6.5 months (7.2 for semiannual and 4.1 for annual surveillance). Lead-time bias accounted for most of the surveillance benefit until the third year of follow-up after HCC diagnosis. However, even after lead-time adjustment, semiannual surveillance maintained a survival

2014 Journal of Hepatology

80. The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit

The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your (...) user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit Article Text Methods The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit Statistics from Altmetric.com You do not have access to the full text of this article, the first page

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2017 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

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