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Lead-Time Bias

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61. In Response to: Meta-Analysis of time to antimicrobial therapy in sepsis: Confounding as well as bias (PubMed)

In Response to: Meta-Analysis of time to antimicrobial therapy in sepsis: Confounding as well as bias 28098655 2018 11 13 1530-0293 45 2 2017 Feb Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. The authors reply. e243-e244 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002178 Sterling Sarah A SA Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Medicine, Jackson, MS. Puskarich Michael A MA Jones Alan E AE eng K23 GM113041 GM NIGMS NIH HHS United States Journal Article United States Crit Care

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2017 Critical Care Medicine

62. Reducing alcohol-related interpretive bias in negative affect situations: Using a scenario-based Cognitive Bias Modification training paradigm. (PubMed)

drinking. It was hypothesized that a single-session Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) training condition (compared to a sham condition) would lead to less alcohol-related interpretations of negative affect situations, and less alcohol consumption while being in a negative mood state. The most pronounced effects were expected in individuals who drink alcohol to cope with anxiety. Moderate to heavy drinking university students (N = 134) were randomly assigned to a CBM-I or a sham (...) Reducing alcohol-related interpretive bias in negative affect situations: Using a scenario-based Cognitive Bias Modification training paradigm. Problematic alcohol use is associated with drinking alcohol to reduce negative mood states (negative reinforcement motive). Further, heavy drinking individuals tend to interpret ambiguous situations as alcohol-related (interpretive bias). The current experimental study aimed to examine the role of alcohol-related interpretive biases in negative-affect

2019 Addictive behaviors

63. The effect of local sequence context on mutational bias of leading and lagging strand genes (PubMed)

The effect of local sequence context on mutational bias of leading and lagging strand genes All organisms must replicate their genetic information accurately to ensure its faithful transmission. DNA polymerase errors provide an important source of genetic variation that can drive evolution. Understanding the origins of genetic variation will inform our understanding of evolution and the development of genetic diseases. A number of factors have been proposed to influence mutagenesis [1-10]. Here (...) higher mutation rate for head-on genes can be explained by differing sequence composition between the leading and lagging strands and the error bias for DNA polymerase in specific sequence contexts. Therefore, we find local sequence context is the major determinant of mutagenesis in bacteria.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2016 Current biology : CB

64. Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in Their Implicit Racial Bias (PubMed)

Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in Their Implicit Racial Bias Virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's body by a life-sized virtual one. Such embodiment results in a perceptual illusion of body ownership over the virtual body (VB). Previous research has shown that the form of the VB can influence implicit attitudes. In particular, embodying White people in a Black virtual body is associated with an immediate decrease (...) in their implicit racial bias against Black people. We tested whether the reduction in implicit bias lasts for at least 1 week and whether it is enhanced by multiple exposures. Two experiments were carried out with a total of 90 female participants where the virtual body was either Black or White. Participants were required to follow a virtual Tai Chi teacher who was either Asian or European Caucasian. Each participant had 1, 2, or 3 exposures separated by days. Implicit racial bias was measured 1 week before

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2016 Frontiers in human neuroscience

65. Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods? (PubMed)

Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods? Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies (...) , corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce

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2016 Nutrients

66. Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation (PubMed)

Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation Our brain compensates sensory uncertainty by combining multisensory information derived from an event, and by integrating the current sensory signal with the prior knowledge about the statistical structure of previous events. There is growing evidence that both strategies are statistically optimal; however, how these two stages of information integration interact and shape an optimal percept remains an open question (...) increases as the uncertainty increases, and that the multisensory timing improves both the timing sensitivity and the central tendency bias compared to the unisensory timing. Computational models indicate that the optimal multisensory integration precedes the optimal integration of prior information causing the central tendency. Our findings suggest that our brain incorporates the multisensory information and prior knowledge in a statistically optimal manner to realize precise and accurate timing

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2018 Scientific reports

67. The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence

The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence The effect of publication bias magnitude and direction on the certainty in evidence | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional (...) time a meta-analysis is conducted, it will likely contain more trials with positive findings than those with negative findings and the estimated pooled effect size is likely to be exaggerated. This is a type of publication bias. When decision makers make a recommendation based on evidence affected by publication bias, this action is supported by likely exaggerated benefit. Therefore, the balance of benefit and harm that led to the recommended action is likely distorted. Decision makers acknowledge

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2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

68. Estimation of loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable versus inoperable lung cancer: Adjusting quality-of-life and lead-time bias for utility of surgery. (PubMed)

Estimation of loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable versus inoperable lung cancer: Adjusting quality-of-life and lead-time bias for utility of surgery. This study attempts to quantify the difference in loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with operable and inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).A cohort consisting of 1652 pathologically verified NSCLC patients with performance status 0-1 was monitored for 7 years (2005-2011 (...) , after adjustment for QoL and lead-time bias.The utility gained from surgical operation for operable lung cancer is substantial, even after adjustment for lead-time bias. Future studies should compare screening programs with treatment strategies when carrying out cost-utility assessments to improve patients' values.Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

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2014 Lung Cancer

69. Estimation of lead-time bias and its impact on the outcome of surveillance for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

Estimation of lead-time bias and its impact on the outcome of surveillance for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Lead-time is the time by which diagnosis is anticipated by screening/surveillance with respect to the symptomatic detection of a disease. Any screening program, including surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is subject to lead-time bias. Data regarding lead-time for HCC are lacking. Aims of the present study were to calculate lead-time and to assess its (...) was 32.7% in semiannually surveilled patients, 25.2% in annually surveilled patients, and 12.2% in symptomatic patients (p<0.001). In a 10-year follow-up perspective, the median lead-time calculated for all surveilled patients was 6.5 months (7.2 for semiannual and 4.1 for annual surveillance). Lead-time bias accounted for most of the surveillance benefit until the third year of follow-up after HCC diagnosis. However, even after lead-time adjustment, semiannual surveillance maintained a survival

2014 Journal of Hepatology

70. The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit

The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your (...) user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit Article Text Methods The Maimed Martian, credible intervals and bias against benefit Statistics from Altmetric.com You do not have access to the full text of this article, the first page

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2017 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

71. Frailty exclusion bias?A theoretical basis and practical influences on Nagoya City Study

if the time window had been prolonged to 24 and/or 48 months in Donegan’s study?Papers that reported association or with data suggesting association: 6. Geier et al and 7. Baril et al both are free from frailty exclusion bias 6. Geier et al ·Using the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) database, Geier et al reported positive and significant associations between HPV vaccines use and serious autoimmune adverse events (SAAE): ·odds ratios (95%CI) were: gastroenteritis:?4.6 (1.3-18.5), arthritis (...) py of CNS demyelinating diseases in the non-vaccinated group (4.7 or 5.8) is very high compared with that of multiple sclerosis including optic neuritis (1.0) in the general population of the same age group (women aged 15 to 24 years) in France [ref]. 7. This suggest that non-vaccinated group had included frail girls at the time of inclusion. Therefore “Frailty exclusion bias” or “healthy vaccinee effect” may not be completely excluded in this French pharmacovigilance study. (Even if it is taken

2016 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

72. A Time-Walk Correction Method for PET Detectors Based on Leading Edge Discriminators (PubMed)

A Time-Walk Correction Method for PET Detectors Based on Leading Edge Discriminators The leading edge timing pick-off technique is the simplest timing extraction method for PET detectors. Due to the inherent time-walk of the leading edge technique, corrections should be made to improve timing resolution, especially for time-of-flight PET. Time-walk correction can be done by utilizing the relationship between the threshold crossing time and the event energy on an event by event basis (...) . In this paper, a time-walk correction method is proposed and evaluated using timing information from two identical detectors both using leading edge discriminators. This differs from other techniques that use an external dedicated reference detector, such as a fast PMT-based detector using constant fraction techniques to pick-off timing information. In our proposed method, one detector was used as reference detector to correct the time-walk of the other detector. Time-walk in the reference detector

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2017 IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences

73. Is there hindsight bias without real hindsight? Conjectures are sufficient to elicit hindsight bias. (PubMed)

over time and affected participants' reproductions of their earlier estimates. We replicated this finding in a controlled lab experiment (N = 94) and found a comparable magnitude of conjecture-based and knowledge-based hindsight bias. These findings demonstrate hindsight distortions in the absence of definite knowledge and extend theoretical assumptions about the prerequisites of hindsight bias in the context of events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved). (...) Is there hindsight bias without real hindsight? Conjectures are sufficient to elicit hindsight bias. After learning about an event, people often mistakenly believe to have predicted what happened all along (hindsight bias). However, what if what has happened is not known, but subject to conjecture? Could conjectures, in the absence of knowledge about the event, elicit the same bias and make people believe they "conjectured it all along", too? We examined this question in 2 studies. Immediately

2018 Journal of experimental psychology. Applied

74. Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain

Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain UTCAT3349, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Using Platelet Rich Fibrin During Socket Preservation Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss and Leads to Faster Soft-tissue Healing Along With Decreased Post-operative Pain. Clinical Question For a patient (...) included split-mouth design. All included studies provided sufficient follow-up. Statistical significance was noted consistently across studies for ridge preservation. For interventional studies, the methodological quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias, as adapted by Chambrone et al. Observed outcomes were significantly superior when compared with natural healing as noted: HBL/B: −2.9 ± 2.7 mm; HBL/L: −2.1 ± 2.5 mm; TWR: 51.92 ± 40.31

2019 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

75. T2* Mapping for Hip Joint Cartilage Assessment: Pre-MRI Exercise and Time of Imaging Do Not Bias the T2* Measurement in Asymptomatic Volunteers (PubMed)

T2* Mapping for Hip Joint Cartilage Assessment: Pre-MRI Exercise and Time of Imaging Do Not Bias the T2* Measurement in Asymptomatic Volunteers Objective To identify if the time of day and pre-imaging exercise matter while performing T2* mapping of hip joint cartilage at 3 T. Design Nine asymptomatic healthy volunteers (mean age 27.4 ± 4.0 years) with no obvious morphological evidence of cartilage damage were enrolled. The MRI protocol included a double-echo steady state (DESS) sequence (...) for morphological cartilage assessment and a multi-echo data image combination sequence for the T2* measurement. T2* values were obtained between 8 and 11 a.m., between 3 and 6 p.m., and after 50 knee-bends at several time points of each measurement (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes). Results We observed no differences ( P = 0.47) between the T2* values obtained in the morning (T2* = 22.9 ± 3.0 ms) and those measured in the afternoon (T2* = 23.2 ± 3.2 ms). We also observed no statistically significant differences

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2016 Cartilage

76. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities (PubMed)

Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently (...) in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender

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2016 Frontiers in psychology

77. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes (PubMed)

Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces (...) no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

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2016 Science advances

79. Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions. (PubMed)

Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions. The clustering of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in some individuals is often interpreted as the result of common risk factors rather than biological interactions between different types of HPV. The intraindividual correlation between times-at-risk for all HPV infections (...) is not generally considered in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies measuring associations between 2 HPV types. When we assumed no interactions, the model predicted that studies would estimate odds ratios and incidence rate ratios greater than 1 between HPV types even after complete adjustment for sexual behavior. We demonstrated that this residual association is due to correlation between the times

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2016 American Journal of Epidemiology

80. Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses. (PubMed)

Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses. Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when researchers deviate from simple principles that guide the design and analysis of randomized experiments. We review a framework to describe and prevent biases, including immortal time bias, that result from a failure to align start of follow-up, specification

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2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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