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Lead-Time Bias

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41. Selection bias

Selection bias Selection bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Selection bias occurs when individuals or groups in a study differ systematically from the population of interest leading to a systematic error in an association or outcome. Table of Contents Background Participants in research may differ systematically from the population of interest. For example, participants included in an influenza vaccine trial may be healthy young adults, whereas those who are most (...) likely to receive the intervention in practice may be elderly and have many comorbidities, and are therefore not representative. Similarly, in observational studies, conclusions from the research population may not apply to real-world people, as the observed effect may be exaggerated or it is not possible to assume an effect in those not included in the study. Selection bias can arise in studies because groups of participants may differ in ways other than the interventions or exposures under

2018 Catalogue of Bias

42. Recall bias

the GET-IT definition of this term" >retrospective cohort studies . In case-control studies, researchers must be careful to ask each study participant in the same way so as not to influence their responses. Bias in recall can be greater when the study participant has poorer recall in general, and when the time interval being asked about is longer. Other issues that influence recall include age, education, socioeconomic status and how important the disease is to the patient. Added to this, undesirable (...) habits such as smoking or eating unhealthy foods tend to be underreported, and are therefore subject to recall bias. Pre-existing beliefs may also impact on recall of previous events. Example Parents of children diagnosed with cancer may be more likely to recall infections earlier in the child’s life than parents of children without cancer. This may lead to observing an entirely or partially untrue association between childhood infection and disease. Recall can be particularly problematic when

2018 Catalogue of Bias

43. Previous opinion bias

at speed and with numerous colleagues previous opinion bias may introduce cognitive errors. Previous opinion bias has many similarities with confirmation bias, where initial or preconceived ideas about something lead to the collection of information that confirms a given view. Preventive steps To reduce uncertainty, health care professionals often consult colleagues for a second opinion. Minimise previous opinion bias can be reduced by asking open-ended questions: ‘Could you examine this patient – I (...) need a second opinion,’ and by not asking leading questions: ‘Could you confirm that….’. To reduce biases such as previous opinion bias, every researcher and healthcare practitioner must strive to observe and use the best available information, in the best possible way, being aware that one’s preconceptions can be misleading. Cite as Catalogue of Bias Collaboration, Heneghan C, Spencer EA. In: Catalogue of Bias 2017. Previous opinion bias. https://catalogofbias.org/biases/previous-opinion-bias

2018 Catalogue of Bias

44. Positive results bias

Positive results bias Positive results bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Positive results bias The tendency to submit, accept and publish positive results rather than non-significant or negative results. Table of Contents Background Positive results bias occurs because a considerable amount of research evidence goes unpublished, which contains more negative or null results than positive ones. This leads to spurious claims and overestimation of the results (...) of systematic reviews and can also be considered unethical. Non-publication of results can also lead to research wastage as researchers may unnecessarily repeat studies because the results are unpublished. Example A review of empirical studies and assessment of 300 systematic review found that trials with positive outcomes are twice as likely to be published, and published faster, compared with trials with negative outcomes (Song et al.). This review also found that there was ‘ It is also possible

2018 Catalogue of Bias

45. One-sided reference bias

One-sided reference bias One-sided reference bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website One-sided reference bias When authors restrict their references to only those works that support their position. Table of Contents Background One-sided reference bias occurs when a study author cites only publications that demonstrate one side of the picture of available evidence. This bias may arise when researchers cite publications that support their preconceptions or hypotheses (...) , ignoring evidence that does not support their view. This can happen in any study report, but a particular problem arises when this occurs in literature reviews, which are supposed to represent a comprehensive collection of all relevant information, along with description and appraisal of quality and content. The result can be a misrepresentation of the current totality of evidence and can lead to spurious claims or needless additional research. Example ‘Retrieving literature by scanning reference lists

2018 Catalogue of Bias

46. Prevalence-incidence (Neyman) bias

Prevalence-incidence (Neyman) bias Prevalence-incidence (Neyman) bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Prevalence-incidence (Neyman) bias Exclusion of individuals with severe or mild disease resulting in a systematic error in the estimated association or effect of an exposure on an outcome. Table of Contents Background Prevalence-incidence bias or Neyman’s bias occurs due to the timing of when cases are included in a research study. David Sackett wrote in 1979: “A late (...) look at those exposed (or affected) early will miss fatal and other short episodes, plus mild or ‘silent’ cases and cases in which evidence of exposure disappears with disease onset.” Excluding patients who have died will make the disease appear less severe. Excluding patients who have recovered will make the disease seem more severe. The Greater the time between exposure and investigation means more likelihood of individuals dying or recovering from the disease and therefore being excluded from

2018 Catalogue of Bias

47. Non-contemporaneous control bias

Non-contemporaneous control bias Non-contemporaneous control bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Non-contemporaneous control bias Differences in the timing of selection of case and controls within in a study influence exposures and outcomes resulting in biased estimates. Table of Contents Background If in a case-control study, cases are selected during one period and controls are selected during another period, then the relationships observed between exposures (...) and outcomes of interest might be affected. Changes in disease or diagnostic definitions, exposures over time and treatments could all contribute to non-contemporaneous bias. Case-control studies can use historical controls in their design. For practical reasons, this can be a useful approach since it avoids the need to collect new information for the control group. However, this risks introducing non-contemporaneous control bias as over time there may have been changing factors affecting controls

2018 Catalogue of Bias

48. Observer bias

of these differences might be systematic and lead to bias. Observation of objective data, such as death, is at much lower risk of observer bias. Biases in recording objective data may result from inadequate training in the use of measurement devices or data sources or unchecked bad habits. By recording subjective data, . Observers might be somewhat conscious of their own biases about a study or may be unaware of factors influencing their decisions when recording study information. are designed to provide (...) the fairest test of an intervention. However, if any part of the data collection process involves observation, observer bias can affect the measurement in the study. Example Observer bias has been repeatedly been documented in studies of blood pressure. Clinicians measuring participants blood pressure using mercury sphygmomanometers have been , readings to the nearest whole number. Observer bias may also occur if the researcher has a , leading to arbitrary adjustments of the readings. Impact Hróbjartsson

2018 Catalogue of Bias

49. Language bias

a biased assessment of a topic, and can lead to biased results in systematic reviews. Example A looked at the language used to publish the results of randomized controlled trials performed in German-speaking regions of Europe. The authors found that trials with statistically significant results were more likely to be published in English than in German. Impact Research looking at the effect of language bias on the findings of systematic reviews has not identified quantifiable evidence of language bias (...) Language bias Language bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Language bias Publication of research findings in a particular language. Table of Contents Background The English language has been the predominant language in medical research. Publication in other languages can sometimes be regarded as of secondary importance. Studies publishing positive results might also be more likely to publish in English. Reading and using only English language research could provide

2018 Catalogue of Bias

50. Mimicry bias

Mimicry bias Mimicry bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Mimicry bias An innocent exposure may become suspicious if, rather than causing disease, it causes a benign disorder which resembles the disease. Table of Contents Background When looking at how exposures relate to disease, it is important to be sure that the outcome being investigated is the true disease, and not a condition mimicking the disease, which could lead to false conclusions about the causes (...) of the disease of interest. Example The example that David Sackett referred to in his 1979 publication to is a study investigating the relationship between oral contraceptive use and hepatitis published by Morrison and colleagues in 1977. Among a group of women attending hospital, those with hepatitis were more likely to be users of oral contraceptives than women not with hepatitis. However, the authors suggest caution in interpreting this association and suggest that: Reporting bias also impact on our

2018 Catalogue of Bias

51. Hot stuff bias

Hot stuff bias Hot stuff bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Hot stuff bias When a topic is fashionable (‘hot’) investigators may be less critical in their approach to their research, and investigators and editors may not be able to resist the temptation to publish the results. Table of Contents Background Fashionable scientific areas induce a bandwagon effect, making it more likely that investigators will be keen to take part and more likely that their approach (...) will be less critical than it should be; they will, therefore, concentrate on trying to confirm the findings of others rather than trying to falsify them. Negative findings may be less likely to be published (see Publication bias ). In such cases, the positive predictive value becomes progressively smaller as more studies accumulate, making it less likely that the ; this may also be partly due to regression to the mean . Furthermore, the current popularity of a topic can affect how much publicity is given

2018 Catalogue of Bias

52. Informed presence bias

systematically different from those not in electronic health records (Goldstein 2016). Health records contain people with more medical encounters than the general population. When examining the electronic health records for associations between different conditions, this bias can lead to spurious associations. Example In electronic health records, the prevalence of depression among pregnant women might be seen to be greater than that of non-pregnant women. However, pregnant women attend medical services (...) Informed presence bias Informed presence bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Informed presence bias The presence of a person’s information in an electronic health record is affected by the person’s health status. Table of Contents Background The presence of a person’s record in an electronic health record database is not random but is usually a result of presenting to medical services for some condition or illness. People in electronic health records are therefore

2018 Catalogue of Bias

53. Wrong sample size bias

Wrong sample size bias Wrong sample size bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Wrong sample size bias When the wrong sample size is used in a study: small sample sizes often lead to chance findings, while large sample sizes are often statistically significant but not clinically relevant. Table of Contents Background Studies of human health use samples to obtain information on the whole relevant population and to represent the population of interest accurately. When (...) of statistically significant results, but these may not be important, if the effect size is small, or if the relationship is not clinically relevant to health. Large study sizes are much better than small, but appropriate caution is needed in interpreting the results of both, l arge sample size can magnify any bias that is present. Example In Ioannidis paper on ‘ ,’ he states that ‘the smaller the studies conducted in a scientific field, the less likely the research findings are to be true.’ As an example

2018 Catalogue of Bias

54. Verification bias

Verification bias Verification bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Verification bias when only a proportion of the study group receives confirmation of the diagnosis by the reference standard, or if some patients receive a different reference standard at the time of diagnosis. Table of Contents Background Verification bias (sometimes referred to as “work-up bias”) occurs during investigations of diagnostic test accuracy when there is a difference in testing strategy (...) (symptoms may have resolved in the interim). Impact showed that studies that relied on two or more reference standards to verify the results of the index test reported odds ratios that were on average 60% higher than studies that used a single reference standard. It is difficult to predict the magnitude and direction of the effect of verification bias on the results as its presence can lead to a test being more or less accurate. Studies, where the reference standard was an expensive and/or invasive test

2018 Catalogue of Bias

55. Priority and prejudice: does low socioeconomic status bias waiting time for endoscopy? A blinded, randomized survey. (PubMed)

Priority and prejudice: does low socioeconomic status bias waiting time for endoscopy? A blinded, randomized survey. An unwanted socioeconomic health gap is observed in Western countries with easily accessible, government-financed health care systems. Survival rates from several malignancies differ between socioeconomic clusters and the disparities remain after adjusting for major co-morbidities and health related behavior. The possibility of biased conduct among health care workers has been

2018 Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology

56. "Resuscitation Time Bias"-a Unique Challenge for Observational Cardiac Arrest Research. (PubMed)

"Resuscitation Time Bias"-a Unique Challenge for Observational Cardiac Arrest Research. Observational studies are prone to a number of biases. One of these is immortal time bias. In this manuscript, we discuss immortal time bias as it pertains to post-cardiac arrest research and describes a related bias which we term "resuscitation time bias". This bias can occur when studying exposures during cardiac arrest. In this unique situation, an exposure is more likely to occur the longer the cardiac (...) arrest continues. Since length of resuscitation is strongly associated with worse outcome, this will bias the results toward a harmful effect of the exposure. We discuss this bias and present methods to account for it.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2018 Resuscitation

57. Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias.

Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias. 29358033 2018 04 19 2018 04 19 1472-6491 36 3 2018 03 Reproductive biomedicine online Reprod. Biomed. Online Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias. 293 S1472-6483(17)30674-0 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.12.004 Alikani Mina M Fauser Bart C J M BCJM Anderson Richard R García-Velasco Juan Antonio JA Johnson Martin M eng Letter Comment 2017 12 26 Netherlands

2018 Reproductive biomedicine online

58. Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task (PubMed)

Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess (...) impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges.The aim of this study is to evaluate if pharmacological challenge models for impulsivity are biased by underlying differences in impulsivity phenotype.Extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes were selected in the 5-CSRTT, and dose

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2018 Psychopharmacology

59. Conversational Time Travel: Evidence of a Retrospective Bias in Real Life Conversations (PubMed)

Conversational Time Travel: Evidence of a Retrospective Bias in Real Life Conversations We examined mental time travel reflected onto individuals' utterances in real-life conversations using a naturalistic observation method: Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR, a portable audio recorder that periodically and unobtrusively records snippets of ambient sounds and speech). We introduced the term conversational time travel and examined, for the first time, how much individuals talked about (...) conversational time travel). Results were consistent across all samples and showed that participants talked about their personal past two to three times as much as their personal future (i.e., retrospective bias). This is in contrast to research showing a prospective bias in thinking behavior, based on self-report and experience-sampling methods. Findings are discussed in relation to the social functions of recalling the personal past (e.g., sharing memories to bond with others, to update each other

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

60. Association between time preference, present-bias and physical activity: implications for designing behavior change interventions. (PubMed)

Association between time preference, present-bias and physical activity: implications for designing behavior change interventions. The decision to initiate or maintain a healthy habit, such as physical activity involves a trade-off between a short-term cost, such as time and effort, which are commonly identified as barriers to physical activity, and a long-term health benefit. Research suggests that individual time preference may be associated with unhealthy behaviors. However, empirical (...) to measure the two components of time preference, namely present-bias and discount rate. Together with individual risk preferences, these three variables were jointly estimated by maximum likelihood. These three parameters were expressed as a linear function of the levels of physical activity while controlling for socio-demographic variables within the same maximum likelihood framework.Those who were present-biased and who had higher discount rates did significantly less physical activity than

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2018 BMC Public Health

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