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Lead-Time Bias

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41. Observer bias

of these differences might be systematic and lead to bias. Observation of objective data, such as death, is at much lower risk of observer bias. Biases in recording objective data may result from inadequate training in the use of measurement devices or data sources or unchecked bad habits. By recording subjective data, . Observers might be somewhat conscious of their own biases about a study or may be unaware of factors influencing their decisions when recording study information. are designed to provide (...) the fairest test of an intervention. However, if any part of the data collection process involves observation, observer bias can affect the measurement in the study. Example Observer bias has been repeatedly been documented in studies of blood pressure. Clinicians measuring participants blood pressure using mercury sphygmomanometers have been , readings to the nearest whole number. Observer bias may also occur if the researcher has a , leading to arbitrary adjustments of the readings. Impact Hróbjartsson

2018 Catalogue of Bias

42. Language bias

a biased assessment of a topic, and can lead to biased results in systematic reviews. Example A looked at the language used to publish the results of randomized controlled trials performed in German-speaking regions of Europe. The authors found that trials with statistically significant results were more likely to be published in English than in German. Impact Research looking at the effect of language bias on the findings of systematic reviews has not identified quantifiable evidence of language bias (...) Language bias Language bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Language bias Publication of research findings in a particular language. Table of Contents Background The English language has been the predominant language in medical research. Publication in other languages can sometimes be regarded as of secondary importance. Studies publishing positive results might also be more likely to publish in English. Reading and using only English language research could provide

2018 Catalogue of Bias

43. Mimicry bias

Mimicry bias Mimicry bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Mimicry bias An innocent exposure may become suspicious if, rather than causing disease, it causes a benign disorder which resembles the disease. Table of Contents Background When looking at how exposures relate to disease, it is important to be sure that the outcome being investigated is the true disease, and not a condition mimicking the disease, which could lead to false conclusions about the causes (...) of the disease of interest. Example The example that David Sackett referred to in his 1979 publication to is a study investigating the relationship between oral contraceptive use and hepatitis published by Morrison and colleagues in 1977. Among a group of women attending hospital, those with hepatitis were more likely to be users of oral contraceptives than women not with hepatitis. However, the authors suggest caution in interpreting this association and suggest that: Reporting bias also impact on our

2018 Catalogue of Bias

44. Hot stuff bias

Hot stuff bias Hot stuff bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Hot stuff bias When a topic is fashionable (‘hot’) investigators may be less critical in their approach to their research, and investigators and editors may not be able to resist the temptation to publish the results. Table of Contents Background Fashionable scientific areas induce a bandwagon effect, making it more likely that investigators will be keen to take part and more likely that their approach (...) will be less critical than it should be; they will, therefore, concentrate on trying to confirm the findings of others rather than trying to falsify them. Negative findings may be less likely to be published (see Publication bias ). In such cases, the positive predictive value becomes progressively smaller as more studies accumulate, making it less likely that the ; this may also be partly due to regression to the mean . Furthermore, the current popularity of a topic can affect how much publicity is given

2018 Catalogue of Bias

45. Informed presence bias

systematically different from those not in electronic health records (Goldstein 2016). Health records contain people with more medical encounters than the general population. When examining the electronic health records for associations between different conditions, this bias can lead to spurious associations. Example In electronic health records, the prevalence of depression among pregnant women might be seen to be greater than that of non-pregnant women. However, pregnant women attend medical services (...) Informed presence bias Informed presence bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Informed presence bias The presence of a person’s information in an electronic health record is affected by the person’s health status. Table of Contents Background The presence of a person’s record in an electronic health record database is not random but is usually a result of presenting to medical services for some condition or illness. People in electronic health records are therefore

2018 Catalogue of Bias

46. Wrong sample size bias

Wrong sample size bias Wrong sample size bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Wrong sample size bias When the wrong sample size is used in a study: small sample sizes often lead to chance findings, while large sample sizes are often statistically significant but not clinically relevant. Table of Contents Background Studies of human health use samples to obtain information on the whole relevant population and to represent the population of interest accurately. When (...) of statistically significant results, but these may not be important, if the effect size is small, or if the relationship is not clinically relevant to health. Large study sizes are much better than small, but appropriate caution is needed in interpreting the results of both, l arge sample size can magnify any bias that is present. Example In Ioannidis paper on ‘ ,’ he states that ‘the smaller the studies conducted in a scientific field, the less likely the research findings are to be true.’ As an example

2018 Catalogue of Bias

47. Verification bias

Verification bias Verification bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Verification bias when only a proportion of the study group receives confirmation of the diagnosis by the reference standard, or if some patients receive a different reference standard at the time of diagnosis. Table of Contents Background Verification bias (sometimes referred to as “work-up bias”) occurs during investigations of diagnostic test accuracy when there is a difference in testing strategy (...) (symptoms may have resolved in the interim). Impact showed that studies that relied on two or more reference standards to verify the results of the index test reported odds ratios that were on average 60% higher than studies that used a single reference standard. It is difficult to predict the magnitude and direction of the effect of verification bias on the results as its presence can lead to a test being more or less accurate. Studies, where the reference standard was an expensive and/or invasive test

2018 Catalogue of Bias

48. Priority and prejudice: does low socioeconomic status bias waiting time for endoscopy? A blinded, randomized survey. (PubMed)

Priority and prejudice: does low socioeconomic status bias waiting time for endoscopy? A blinded, randomized survey. An unwanted socioeconomic health gap is observed in Western countries with easily accessible, government-financed health care systems. Survival rates from several malignancies differ between socioeconomic clusters and the disparities remain after adjusting for major co-morbidities and health related behavior. The possibility of biased conduct among health care workers has been

2018 Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology

49. "Resuscitation Time Bias"-a Unique Challenge for Observational Cardiac Arrest Research. (PubMed)

"Resuscitation Time Bias"-a Unique Challenge for Observational Cardiac Arrest Research. Observational studies are prone to a number of biases. One of these is immortal time bias. In this manuscript, we discuss immortal time bias as it pertains to post-cardiac arrest research and describes a related bias which we term "resuscitation time bias". This bias can occur when studying exposures during cardiac arrest. In this unique situation, an exposure is more likely to occur the longer the cardiac (...) arrest continues. Since length of resuscitation is strongly associated with worse outcome, this will bias the results toward a harmful effect of the exposure. We discuss this bias and present methods to account for it.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2018 Resuscitation

50. Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias.

Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias. 29358033 2018 04 19 2018 04 19 1472-6491 36 3 2018 03 Reproductive biomedicine online Reprod. Biomed. Online Response from the Editors: time-lapse systems for ART - meta-analyses and the issue of bias. 293 S1472-6483(17)30674-0 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.12.004 Alikani Mina M Fauser Bart C J M BCJM Anderson Richard R García-Velasco Juan Antonio JA Johnson Martin M eng Letter Comment 2017 12 26 Netherlands

2018 Reproductive biomedicine online

51. Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task (PubMed)

Differences in trait impulsivity do not bias the response to pharmacological drug challenge in the rat five-choice serial reaction time task Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess (...) impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges.The aim of this study is to evaluate if pharmacological challenge models for impulsivity are biased by underlying differences in impulsivity phenotype.Extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes were selected in the 5-CSRTT, and dose

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2018 Psychopharmacology

52. Conversational Time Travel: Evidence of a Retrospective Bias in Real Life Conversations (PubMed)

Conversational Time Travel: Evidence of a Retrospective Bias in Real Life Conversations We examined mental time travel reflected onto individuals' utterances in real-life conversations using a naturalistic observation method: Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR, a portable audio recorder that periodically and unobtrusively records snippets of ambient sounds and speech). We introduced the term conversational time travel and examined, for the first time, how much individuals talked about (...) conversational time travel). Results were consistent across all samples and showed that participants talked about their personal past two to three times as much as their personal future (i.e., retrospective bias). This is in contrast to research showing a prospective bias in thinking behavior, based on self-report and experience-sampling methods. Findings are discussed in relation to the social functions of recalling the personal past (e.g., sharing memories to bond with others, to update each other

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

53. Association between time preference, present-bias and physical activity: implications for designing behavior change interventions. (PubMed)

Association between time preference, present-bias and physical activity: implications for designing behavior change interventions. The decision to initiate or maintain a healthy habit, such as physical activity involves a trade-off between a short-term cost, such as time and effort, which are commonly identified as barriers to physical activity, and a long-term health benefit. Research suggests that individual time preference may be associated with unhealthy behaviors. However, empirical (...) to measure the two components of time preference, namely present-bias and discount rate. Together with individual risk preferences, these three variables were jointly estimated by maximum likelihood. These three parameters were expressed as a linear function of the levels of physical activity while controlling for socio-demographic variables within the same maximum likelihood framework.Those who were present-biased and who had higher discount rates did significantly less physical activity than

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2018 BMC Public Health

54. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study. (PubMed)

Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study. Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach (...) such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias.Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods

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2017 BMC medical research methodology

55. Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. (PubMed)

Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. 28098654 2019 03 25 2019 03 25 1530-0293 45 2 2017 02 Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. Meta-Analysis of Time to Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis: Confounding as Well as Bias. e242-e243 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002162 Brent Andrew J AJ Department of Microbiology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom. eng Letter Comment United States Crit Care Med 0355501 0090 (...) -3493 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Anti-Infective Agents AIM IM Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):1907-15 26121073 Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb;45(2):e243-e244 28098655 Anti-Bacterial Agents Anti-Infective Agents Bias Humans Sepsis Shock, Septic 2017 1 19 6 0 2017 1 19 6 0 2019 3 26 6 0 ppublish 28098654 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002162 00003246-201702000-00060

2017 Critical Care Medicine

56. Patients with Staged Bilateral Total Joint Arthroplasty in Registries: Immortal Time Bias and Methodological Options. (PubMed)

underwent staged (at any time) bilateral TJA. The logical fallacy leading to immortal time bias is explained through a simple artificial data example. The cumulative incidences of revision and death are computed by subgroup analysis and by landmark analysis based on hip replacement data from the Dutch Arthroplasty Register and on simulated data sets.For patients who underwent unilateral TJA, subgroup analysis can lead to an overestimate of the cumulative incidence of death and an underestimate (...) of the cumulative incidence of revision. The reverse conclusion holds for patients who underwent staged bilateral TJA. Analysis of these patients can lead to an underestimate of the cumulative incidence of death and an overestimate of the cumulative incidence of revision. Immortal time bias can be prevented by using landmark analysis.When examining arthroplasty registry data, patients who underwent staged bilateral TJA should be analyzed with caution. An appropriate statistical method to address the research

2017 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

57. Estimating the effect of immortal-time bias in urologic research: a case example of testosterone-replacement therapy. (PubMed)

Estimating the effect of immortal-time bias in urologic research: a case example of testosterone-replacement therapy. To quantify the effect of immortal-time bias in an observational study examining the effect of cumulative testosterone exposure on mortality.We used a population-based matched cohort study of men aged ≥66 years, newly treated with testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT), and matched-controls from 2007 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada to quantify the effects of immortal-time bias. We (...) used generalised estimating equations to determine the association between cumulative TRT exposure and mortality. Results produced by models using time-fixed and time-varying exposures were compared. Further, we undertook a systematic review of PubMed to identify studies addressing immortal-time bias or time-varying exposures in the urological literature and qualitatively summated these.Among 10 311 TRT-exposed men and 28 029 controls, the use of a time-varying exposure resulted in the attenuation

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2017 BJU international

58. Normalization with Corresponding Naïve Tissue Minimizes Bias Caused by Commercial Reverse Transcription Kits on Quantitative Real-Time PCR Results. (PubMed)

Normalization with Corresponding Naïve Tissue Minimizes Bias Caused by Commercial Reverse Transcription Kits on Quantitative Real-Time PCR Results. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for expression analysis. Designed to improve reproducibility and sensitivity, commercial kits are commonly used for the critical step of cDNA synthesis. The present study was designed to determine the impact of these kits. mRNA from mouse brains were pooled

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2016 PLoS ONE

59. Time Order as Psychological Bias (PubMed)

Time Order as Psychological Bias Incorrectly perceiving the chronology of events can fundamentally alter people's understanding of the causal structure of the world. For example, when astronomers used the "eye and ear" method to locate stars, they showed systematic interindividual errors. In the current study, we showed that temporal-order perception may be considered a psychological bias that attention can modulate but not fully eradicate. According to Titchener's law of prior entry, attention (...) prioritizes the perception of an event and thus can help compensate for possible interindividual differences in the perceived timing of an event by normalizing perception in time. In a longitudinal study, we tested the stability of participants' temporal-order perception across and within sensory modalities, together with the magnitude of the participants' prior-entry effect. All measurements showed the persistence of stable interindividual variability. Crucially, the magnitude of the prior-entry effect

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2017 Psychological science

60. Variation in the Intensity of Selection on Codon Bias over Time Causes Contrasting Patterns of Base Composition Evolution in Drosophila (PubMed)

Variation in the Intensity of Selection on Codon Bias over Time Causes Contrasting Patterns of Base Composition Evolution in Drosophila Four-fold degenerate coding sites form a major component of the genome, and are often used to make inferences about selection and demography, so that understanding their evolution is important. Despite previous efforts, many questions regarding the causes of base composition changes at these sites in Drosophila remain unanswered. To shed further light (...) suggest that the observed AT-biased substitution pattern in both lineages is probably due to an ancestral reduction in selection intensity, and is unlikely to be the result of an increase in mutational bias towards AT alone. By using two polymorphism-based methods for estimating selection coefficients over different timescales, we show that the selection intensity on codon usage has been rather stable in D. simulans in the recent past, but the long-term estimates in D. melanogaster are much higher

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2017 Genome biology and evolution

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