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Lead-Time Bias

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181. Home-delivered attention bias modification training via smartphone to improve attention control in sub-clinical generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized, controlled multi-session experiment. (PubMed)

to engage in home-delivered attentional bias modification (HD-ABM); however, many problems related to these training systems have not yet been addressed.A total of 82 participants (61 women, mean age = 21.47 y) who received GAD diagnoses were randomly assigned to an HD-ABM (n = 30), placebo training (n = 30), or waiting list (n = 22) group. Both the HD-ABM and placebo groups were trained with the attention training application (through Android phones three times a day for four weeks).(1) All measures (...) Home-delivered attention bias modification training via smartphone to improve attention control in sub-clinical generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized, controlled multi-session experiment. Mogg and Bradley (2016) proposed that attentional bias (to threat stimuli) among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be associated with the top-down attention control process. Additionally, some scholars (e.g., Enock & McNally, 2013) have designed mobile applications to enable patients

2018 Journal of Affective Disorders

182. Potential selection bias in candidates for stereotactic radiotherapy for neovascular AMD. (PubMed)

Potential selection bias in candidates for stereotactic radiotherapy for neovascular AMD. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT, IRay) was able to reduce the need for intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF (IVI) in patients with neovascular AMD (nAMD) in a phase II randomized clinical trial. Certain morphologic characteristics, such as lesion size < 4 mm2 or lack of fibrosis, were associated with a better response. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate eligibility for SRT (...) ., macular comorbidity, vascular disease) and systemic comorbidity (e.g., dementia or tremor).Exclusion criteria were met by 255 patients (54.5%). Exclusion was most dominantly associated with lesion-associated criteria (80.0%) and less often with ocular (20.8%) or systemic (9.4%) comorbidity. A total of 213 patients (45.5%) fulfilled eligibility criteria. Eligible patients had a better VA at time of analysis (0.36 vs. 0.56 logMAR, p < 0.0001) and at baseline (0.38 vs. 0.56 logMAR, p < 0.0001) compared

2018 Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie

183. Proportional bias between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis varies based on sex in active adults consuming high- and low-carbohydrate diets. (PubMed)

Proportional bias between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis varies based on sex in active adults consuming high- and low-carbohydrate diets. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are common methods of body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Bias between DXA and single-frequency BIA was evaluated at 6 different time points in 48 active male and female adults consuming standardized (...) high- and low-carbohydrate diets. It was hypothesized that fixed and proportional biases exist between DXA and BIA but that the extent of bias does not differ based on sex. Substantial fixed bias was present for estimates obtained by DXA and BIA, and both men and women exhibited proportional bias for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). The magnitude of bias was greater in women, and only women exhibited proportional bias for body fat percentage. In individuals with less FM, the mean difference

2018 Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)

184. Adjusting for bias in unblinded randomized controlled trials. (PubMed)

Adjusting for bias in unblinded randomized controlled trials. It may not always be possible to blind participants of a randomized controlled trial for treatment allocation. As a result, estimators of the actual treatment effect may be biased. In this paper, we will extend a novel method, originally introduced in genetic research, for instrumental variable meta-analysis, adjusting for bias due to unblinding of trial participants. Using simulation studies, this novel method, "Egger Correction (...) for non-Adherence", is introduced and compared to the performance of the "intention-to-treat," "as-treated," and conventional "instrumental variable" estimators. Scenarios considered (time-varying) non-adherence, confounding, and between-study heterogeneity. The effect of treatment on a binary endpoint was quantified by means of a risk difference. In all scenarios with unblinded treatment allocation, the Egger Correction for non-Adherence method was the least biased estimator. However, unless

2018 Statistical methods in medical research

185. Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel cognitive bias modification intervention. (PubMed)

Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel cognitive bias modification intervention. Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking (...) differences across time points between the intervention groups for help-seeking stigma and readiness to change. At two-month follow-up, 25% of participants initiated mental health treatment (29.4% CBM-HS, 20.0% psychoeducation). Strikingly, across groups, there was a statistically significant reduction in help-seeking self-stigma (F[2.214,66.418] = 5.057, p = 0.007, ηp2 = 0.144) and perceived public stigma (F[3,90] = 6.614, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.181) from baseline to two-month follow-up, indicating large

2018 Behaviour research and therapy

186. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues? (PubMed)

Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues? The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving (...) in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e

2018 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

187. The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness During Attention Bias Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity. (PubMed)

The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness During Attention Bias Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity. Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy (...) , contingency awareness did not yield a differential effect on stress reactivity measured using both self-reports and skin conductance, within and across sessions. These results suggest that explicit ABM administration leads to greater initial learning during the training protocol while not differing from standard implicit administration in terms of off-line learning and stress reactivity.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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2018 Behavior therapy

188. Information-Pooling Bias in Collaborative Security Incident Correlation Analysis. (PubMed)

Information-Pooling Bias in Collaborative Security Incident Correlation Analysis. Incident correlation is a vital step in the cybersecurity threat detection process. This article presents research on the effect of group-level information-pooling bias on collaborative incident correlation analysis in a synthetic task environment.Past research has shown that uneven information distribution biases people to share information that is known to most team members and prevents them from sharing any (...) that participant teams were 3 times more likely to discuss security incidents commonly known to the majority. Unaided team collaboration was inefficient in finding associations between security incidents uniquely available to each member of the team. Visualizations that augment perceptual processing and recognition memory were found to mitigate the bias.The data suggest that (a) security analyst teams, when conducting collaborative correlation analysis, could be inefficient in pooling unique information from

2018 Human factors

189. The impact of negative mood state on sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia. (PubMed)

, 31 individuals with insomnia and 34 good sleepers were randomly assigned to a negative mood-inducing condition or a control condition. They then completed a visual probe task with three types of pictorial stimuli (general threat, sleep-related negative pictures and sleep-related positive pictures). Vigilance, maintenance and the overall bias indexes were calculated based on the reaction time. We found individuals with insomnia only showed a greater overall bias compared with good sleepers (...) The impact of negative mood state on sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia. Sleep-related attentional bias is thought to play a role in the maintenance of insomnia. However, this concept has been questioned by several studies that did not show the presence of sleep-related attentional bias in clinical insomnia or poor sleepers. Our goal in the present study was to test whether the mood state of individuals with insomnia affects the presence of sleep-related attentional bias. To this end

2018 Journal of sleep research

190. Effects of induced appearance-related interpretation bias: A test of the cognitive-behavioral model of body dysmorphic disorder. (PubMed)

reactivity (i.e., distress, appearance dissatisfaction, self-esteem, perceived physical attractiveness), exploring the causality predicted in cognitive-behavioral models.We used a modified version of the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP), assessing explicit (i.e., decision rates) and more implicit interpretation bias components (i.e., reaction times). Mentally healthy students (N = 112) were randomized to training conditions enhancing positive interpretation patterns (PT) vs. negative (...) interpretation patterns (NT) vs. a no-feedback control condition (CC). Stress reactivity was assessed during the Cyberball Paradigm.The PT showed a pre-post increase in adaptive bias patterns regarding decision and a differential pre-post decrease in reaction times for the rejection of negative interpretations, compared to the other groups. There were no condition-congruent post-training differences in stress reactivity. However, residual interpretation bias change was significantly correlated with state

2018 Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry

191. Cognitive Bias in Zoo Animals: An Optimistic Outlook for Welfare Assessment (PubMed)

optimistic judgements. Cognitive bias testing has only recently been applied to animals and represents a key milestone in welfare science: it is currently one of the only accurate methods available to measure welfare. The tests have been conducted on many farm, laboratory, and companion animal species, but have only been carried out in zoo settings a handful of times. The aims of this review are to evaluate the feasibility of cognitive bias testing in zoos and its potential as a tool for studying zoo (...) Cognitive Bias in Zoo Animals: An Optimistic Outlook for Welfare Assessment Cognitive bias testing measures how emotional states can affect cognitive processes, often described using the “glass half-full/half-empty” paradigm. Classical or operant conditioning is used to measure responses to ambiguous cues, and it has been reported across many species and contexts that an animal’s cognitive bias can be directly linked to welfare state, e.g., those in better welfare make more

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2018 Animals : an open access journal from MDPI

192. Calcium-sensing receptor residues with loss- and gain-of-function mutations are located in regions of conformational change and cause signalling bias (PubMed)

by leading to increased Ca2+i mobilization while decreasing ERK phosphorylation. Structural analysis of these five CaSR disease-switch residues together with four reported disease-switch residues revealed these residues to be located at conformationally active regions of the CaSR such as the extracellular dimer interface and transmembrane domain. Thus, our findings indicate that disease-switch residues are located at sites critical for CaSR activation and play a role in mediating signalling bias. (...) Calcium-sensing receptor residues with loss- and gain-of-function mutations are located in regions of conformational change and cause signalling bias The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a homodimeric G-protein-coupled receptor that signals via intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilisation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) to regulate extracellular calcium (Ca2+e) homeostasis. The central importance of the CaSR in Ca2+e homeostasis has been demonstrated

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2018 Human molecular genetics

193. Perceptions of newsworthiness are contaminated by a political usefulness bias (PubMed)

Perceptions of newsworthiness are contaminated by a political usefulness bias Are people's perceptions of the newsworthiness of events biased by a tendency to rate as more important any news story that seems likely to lead others to share their own political attitudes? To assess this, we created six pairs of hypothetical news stories, each describing an event that seemed likely to encourage people to adopt attitudes on the opposite side of a particular controversial issue (e.g. affirmative

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2018 Royal Society Open Science

194. The Discrimination Ratio derived from Novel Object Recognition tasks as a Measure of Recognition Memory Sensitivity, not Bias (PubMed)

recognition memory studies typically assess performance using signal detection theory derived measures; sensitivity (d') and bias (c). How DR relates to d' and c and whether they measure the same underlying cognitive mechanism is, however, unknown. We investigated the correspondence between DR (eye-tracking-determined), d' and c in a sample of 37 humans. We used dwell times during a visual paired comparison task (analogous to the NOR) to determine DR, and a separate single item recognition task to derive (...) The Discrimination Ratio derived from Novel Object Recognition tasks as a Measure of Recognition Memory Sensitivity, not Bias Translational recognition memory research makes frequent use of the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) paradigm in which animals are simultaneously presented with one new and one old object. The preferential exploration of the new as compared to the old object produces a metric, the Discrimination Ratio (DR), assumed to represent recognition memory sensitivity. Human

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2018 Scientific reports

195. Effect of underwater visual survey methodology on bias and precision of fish counts: a simulation approach (PubMed)

Effect of underwater visual survey methodology on bias and precision of fish counts: a simulation approach Bias in underwater visual census has always been elusive. In fact, the choice of sampling method and the behavioural traits of fish are two of the most important factors affecting bias, but they are still treated separately, which leads to arbitrarily chosen sampling methods. FishCensus, a two-dimensional agent-based model with realistic fish movement, was used to simulate problematic (...) behavioural traits in SCUBA diving visual census methods and understand how sampling methodology affects the precision and bias of counts. Using a fixed true density of 0.3 fish/m2 and a fixed visibility of 6 m, 10 counts were simulated for several combinations of parameters for transects (length, width, speed) and point counts (radius, rotation speed, time), generating trait-specific heatmaps for bias and precision. In general, point counts had higher bias and were less precise than transects. Fish

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2018 PeerJ

196. Exploiting a cognitive bias promotes cooperation in social dilemma experiments (PubMed)

Exploiting a cognitive bias promotes cooperation in social dilemma experiments The decoy effect is a cognitive bias documented in behavioural economics by which the presence of a third, (partly) inferior choice causes a significant shift in people's preference for other items. Here, we performed an experiment with human volunteers who played a variant of the repeated prisoner's dilemma game in which the standard options of "cooperate" and "defect" are supplemented with a new, decoy option (...) , "reward". We show that although volunteers rarely chose the decoy option, its availability sparks a significant increase in overall cooperativeness and improves the likelihood of success for cooperative individuals in this game. The presence of the decoy increased willingness of volunteers to cooperate in the first step of each game, leading to subsequent propagation of such willingness by (noisy) tit-for-tat. Our study thus points to decoys as a means to elicit voluntary prosocial action across

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2018 Nature communications

197. Spectrum effect and spectrum bias in the oscillometric ankle brachial index to diagnose peripheral arterial disease: Clinical implications. (PubMed)

in setting, diabetes, smoking status and age (univariate), and setting and diabetes (multivariate model). The positive likelihood ratio ranged from 5.0 to 89.1 in subgroups, leading to a spectrum bias in diabetic, smoking (both subgroups) and age (both subgroups). Therefore, a positive test ruled in differently the disease across subgroups, with a high rate of false positives in diabetic, smoking and >75-year-old patients. The negative likelihood ratio ranged from 0.09 to 0.39 in subgroups (...) Spectrum effect and spectrum bias in the oscillometric ankle brachial index to diagnose peripheral arterial disease: Clinical implications. The diagnostic performance of the oscillometric ankle brachial index (ABI) to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD) varies among populations, suggesting a spectrum effect. When this heterogeneity modifies post-test probabilities, a spectrum bias arises. This study evaluates the presence and influence of spectrum effect and spectrum bias on test

2018 Atherosclerosis

198. Evolution of bias and sample size in postoperative pain management trials after hip and knee arthroplasty. (PubMed)

Evolution of bias and sample size in postoperative pain management trials after hip and knee arthroplasty. Bias (systematic error) and small trial sample size (random error) may induce imprecise and exaggerated treatment effects in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). To avoid this, SPIRIT- and CONSORT-guidelines, and Cochrane Collaboration bias recommendations were developed. We investigated risk of bias and trial sample size development over time in postoperative pain trials.This study (...) was based on data from two systematic reviews regarding pain management after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). RCTs of analgesic interventions with a comparator control group were included. Primary outcomes were risk of bias and trial sample size developments over time. We calculated cumulated bias scores ranging from 0 to 14 based on Cochrane's seven bias domains (0 = low; 1 = unclear, 2 = high). Developments were evaluated with run and control charts. Further, we compared

2018 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

199. Assessing risk of bias in studies that evaluate health care interventions: recommendations in the misinformation age. (PubMed)

Assessing risk of bias in studies that evaluate health care interventions: recommendations in the misinformation age. Methods to assess the risk of bias in a way that is reliable, reproducible. and transparent to readers, have evolved over time. Viswanathan et al. recently provided updated recommendations for assessing risk of bias in systematic reviews of health care interventions. We comment on their recommendations and discuss new tools in development that we, as co-convenors (...) and coordinators of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group, are leading, which complement the methods recommended.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2018 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

200. Statistical Learning as a Predictor of Attention Bias Modification Outcome

Statistical Learning as a Predictor of Attention Bias Modification Outcome Statistical Learning as a Predictor of Attention Bias Modification Outcome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Statistical Learning as a Predictor of Attention Bias Modification Outcome The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03424967 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : February 7, 2018 Last Update Posted : February 7, 2018 Sponsor: Tel Aviv University Information provided by (Responsible Party

2018 Clinical Trials

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