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Lead-Time Bias

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1. Quantifying lead time bias when estimating patient survival in preemptive living kidney donor transplantation. (PubMed)

Quantifying lead time bias when estimating patient survival in preemptive living kidney donor transplantation. Preemptive kidney transplantation is the preferred initial renal replacement therapy, by avoiding dialysis and reportedly maximizing patient survival. Lead time bias may account for some or all of the observed survival advantage, but the impact of this has not been quantified. Using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry, we included adult recipients (...) of living donor kidney transplants during 1998-2017. Patients were transplanted preemptively (n = 1435) or after receiving up to 6 months of dialysis (n = 712). We created a matched cohort using propensity scores, and accounted for lead time (dialysis and estimated predialysis) using left-truncated Cox models with the primary outcome of patient survival. The median eGFR at transplantation was 6.9 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in the non-pre-emptive, and 9.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in the preemptive group

2019 American Journal of Transplantation

2. Lead-I ECG devices for detecting symptomatic atrial fibrillation using single time point testing in primary care

quality. For patient selection, the EAG judged that all 9 studies had an unclear risk of bias and a high level of concern for applicability (because none were done in a population who had symptoms). For 1 study there was limited information available in the Lead-I ECG devices for detecting symptomatic atrial fibrillation using single time point testing in primary care (DG35) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights (...) Lead-I ECG devices for detecting symptomatic atrial fibrillation using single time point testing in primary care L Lead-I ECG de ead-I ECG devices for detecting vices for detecting symptomatic atrial fibrillation using symptomatic atrial fibrillation using single time point testing in primary care single time point testing in primary care Diagnostics guidance Published: 8 May 2019 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/dg35 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Diagnostics Guidance

3. Impact of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Etiology and Liver Function on the Benefit of Surveillance: a Novel Approach for the Adjustment of Lead-time Bias. (PubMed)

Impact of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Etiology and Liver Function on the Benefit of Surveillance: a Novel Approach for the Adjustment of Lead-time Bias. Surveillance reportedly has benefit on survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even after adjustment for lead-time bias. However, previous adjustment for lead-time bias using tumour volume doubling time (TVDT) had inherent problem in accuracy. We evaluated survival benefit of HCC surveillance with newly developed approach (...) for adjusting lead-time bias. In addition, survival benefit was evaluated according to HCC aetiology and liver function.A total of 3899 patients were studied. TVDT was calculated in 255 study patients with ≥2 tumour size measurements before the diagnosis of HCC. Adjusted survival time was calculated based on TVDT, as the time from when HCC was assumed to be 5 mm to death or last follow-up. Survival rates based on this adjusted survival time were compared between the surveillance and nonsurveillance groups

2018 Liver International

4. Does lead-time bias have a place in court?

Does lead-time bias have a place in court? Does lead-time bias have a place in court? Does lead-time bias have a place in court? | | January 3, 2017 46 Shares In 2014, a jury in Massachusetts awarded in damages to the daughter of a Bostonian lady who died from lung cancer at 47 for a missed cancer on a chest X-ray. The verdict reminds me of the words of John Bradford, a heretic who was burned at the stake: “There, but for the grace of God, go I.” Many radiologists will sympathize with both (...) . This is known as “lead-time bias,” where early detection means more time knowing that one has the cancer, not more time one is alive. This means that had the nodule been seen on the patient’s initial chest X-ray she would probably — though not certainly — not have survived much beyond 47. Lead-time bias is a fundamental concept in the statistics of screening. Physicians have it drilled in them. Recognition of this artifact curbs therapeutic and screening optimism. Why does lead-time bias not enter

2017 KevinMD blog

5. Effect of glomerular filtration rate at dialysis initiation on survival in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: what is the effect of lead-time bias? (PubMed)

Effect of glomerular filtration rate at dialysis initiation on survival in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: what is the effect of lead-time bias? Current clinical guidelines recommend to initiate dialysis in the presence of symptoms or signs attributable to kidney failure, often with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 5-10 mL/min/1.73 m2. Little evidence exists about the optimal kidney function to start dialysis. Thus far, most observational studies have been limited by lead (...) -time bias. Only a few studies have accounted for lead-time bias, and showed contradictory results. We examined the effect of GFR at dialysis initiation on survival in chronic kidney disease patients, and the role of lead-time bias therein. We used both kidney function based on 24-hour urine collection (measured GFR [mGFR]) and estimated GFR (eGFR).A total of 1,143 patients with eGFR data at dialysis initiation and 852 patients with mGFR data were included from the NECOSAD cohort. Cox regression

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2017 Clinical epidemiology

6. Pioglitazone (brand name: Actos) and bladder cancer: A new type "time-related bias"

-Turner C, Maduakor CA, Singh S, Loke YK. Thiazolidinediones and associated risk of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Aug; 78(2): 258-73. 26) ENCePP Guide on Methodological Standards in Pharmacoepidemiology. http://www.encepp.eu/standards_and_guidances/methodologicalGuide4_2 _2_2.shtml 27) van Walraven C, Davis D, Forster AJ, Wells GA. Time-dependent bias was common in survival analyses published in leading clinical journals. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004 Jul (...) Pioglitazone (brand name: Actos) and bladder cancer: A new type "time-related bias" Page xvi · MED CHECK - TIP August 2016/ Vol.2 No.5 -The Informed Prescriber C N o 5 M ED HECK A u g u s t 2 0 1 6 Be careful with serious bias in epidemiologic studies Symptoms after HPV vaccine and "frailty exclusion bias" Actos (pioglitazone) and bladder cancer: "time-related bias" of a new type Editorial: Epidemiologists and biostatisticians, be honest ! Adverse Reactions Symptoms after HPV vaccine: Typical

2016 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

7. Lead-Time Bias and Interhospital Transfer after Injury: Trauma Center Admission Vital Signs Underpredict Mortality in Transferred Trauma Patients. (PubMed)

Lead-Time Bias and Interhospital Transfer after Injury: Trauma Center Admission Vital Signs Underpredict Mortality in Transferred Trauma Patients. Admission physiology predicts mortality after injury, but may be improved by resuscitation before transfer. This phenomenon, which has been termed lead-time bias, may lead to underprediction of mortality in transferred patients and inaccurate benchmarking in centers receiving large numbers of transfer patients. We sought to determine the impact (...) of transfer patients seen by a center, the greater the difference in center-level mortality predicted by the 2 models (β -0.044; 95% CI -0.044 to -0.0043; p ≤ 0.001).Trauma center vital signs underestimate mortality in transfer patients and may lead to incorrect estimates of expected mortality. Where possible, benchmarking efforts should use referring hospital vital signs to risk-adjust IHT patients.Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2016 Journal of the American College of Surgeons

8. Lead-Time Bias

Lead-Time Bias Lead-Time Bias Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lead-Time Bias Lead-Time Bias Aka: Lead-Time Bias (...) diagnosis falsely appears to prolong survival Screened and unscreened patients each survive 7 years Screened patients know diagnosis 2 years earlier IV. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lead-Time Bias." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Epidemiology About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point

2018 FP Notebook

9. Interior renovation of a general practitioner office leads to a perceptual bias on patient experience for over one year. (PubMed)

Interior renovation of a general practitioner office leads to a perceptual bias on patient experience for over one year. Measuring patient experience is key when assessing quality of care but can be biased: A perceptual bias occurs when renovations of the interior design of a general practitioner (GP) office improves how patients assessed quality of care. The aim was to assess the length of perceptual bias and if it could be reproduced after a second renovation.A GP office with 2 GPs (...) (p = 0.068). Results were unchanged in the multivariate model.Interior renovation of a GP office probably causes a perceptual bias for >1 year that improves how patients rate quality of care. This bias could be reproduced after a second renovation strengthening a possible causal relationship. These findings imply to appropriately time measurement of patient experience to at least one year after interior renovation of GP practices to avoid environmental changes influences the estimates when

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2018 PLoS ONE

10. Forcing dichotomous disease classification from reference standards leads to bias in diagnostic accuracy estimates: A simulation study. (PubMed)

Forcing dichotomous disease classification from reference standards leads to bias in diagnostic accuracy estimates: A simulation study. The objective of this study was to study the impact of ignoring uncertainty by forcing dichotomous classification (presence or absence) of the target disease on estimates of diagnostic accuracy of an index test.We evaluated the bias in estimated index test accuracy when forcing an expert panel to make a dichotomous target disease classification for each (...) , and the true values of index test sensitivity and specificity.In this simulation, forcing expert panels to make a dichotomous decision on target disease classification in the presence of uncertainty leads to biased estimates of index test accuracy. Empirical studies are needed to demonstrate whether this bias can be reduced by assigning a probability of target disease presence for each individual, or using advanced statistical methods to account for uncertainty in target disease classification.Copyright ©

2019 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

11. Real-Time Signaling Assays Demonstrate Somatostatin Agonist Bias for Ion Channel Regulation in Somatotroph Tumor Cells (PubMed)

Real-Time Signaling Assays Demonstrate Somatostatin Agonist Bias for Ion Channel Regulation in Somatotroph Tumor Cells Acromegaly is a neuroendocrine disorder caused by excess secretion of GH by somatotroph tumor cells. It is often treated with somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 2 agonists, which suppress GH secretion. SOM230 is a somatostatin analogue that targets multiple SSTRs and was recently approved for patients with treatment-resistant acromegaly. Previous reports indicate that SOM230 may (...) function as a biased agonist, suggesting that its ability to selectively activate SSTR-dependent signaling events may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. To better understand how SOM230 modulates Sstr2A function, which is the most commonly expressed SSTR in somatotrophs, we used real-time assays to study SOM230-dependent signaling in rat pituitary tumor cells. We observed that SOM230 suppressed cAMP production in a Gαi-dependent manner, similar to conventional Sstr2A agonists. However, it did

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2018 Journal of the Endocrine Society

12. Catalogue of bias: attrition bias

Catalogue of bias: attrition bias Catalogue of bias: attrition bias | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search (...) for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Catalogue of bias: attrition bias Article Text EBM Learning Catalogue of bias: attrition bias Statistics from Altmetric.com You do not have access to the full text of this article, the first page of the of this article appears above. Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

13. Catalogue of bias: observer bias

Catalogue of bias: observer bias Catalogue of bias: observer bias | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search (...) for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Catalogue of bias: observer bias Article Text EBM Learning Catalogue of bias: observer bias Statistics from Altmetric.com You do not have access to the full text of this article, the first page of the of this article appears above. Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

14. Catalogue of bias: allocation bias

Catalogue of bias: allocation bias Catalogue of bias: allocation bias | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search (...) for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Catalogue of bias: allocation bias Article Text EBM Learning Catalogue of bias: allocation bias Statistics from Altmetric.com You do not have access to the full text of this article, the first page of the of this article appears above. Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

15. Social exclusion leads to attentional bias to emotional social information: Evidence from eye movement. (PubMed)

Social exclusion leads to attentional bias to emotional social information: Evidence from eye movement. Social exclusion has many effects on individuals, including the increased need to belong and elevated sensitivity to social information. Using a self-reporting method, and an eye-tracking technique, this study explored people's need to belong and attentional bias towards the socio-emotional information (pictures of positive and negative facial expressions compared to those of emotionally (...) -neutral expressions) after experiencing a brief episode of social exclusion. We found that: (1) socially-excluded individuals reported higher negative emotions, lower positive emotions, and stronger need to belong than those who were not socially excluded; (2) compared to a control condition, social exclusion caused a longer response time to probe dots after viewing positive or negative face images; (3) social exclusion resulted in a higher frequency ratio of first attentional fixation on both

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2017 PLoS ONE

16. Prevalence of time-related bias in pharmacoepidemiology studies on the use of anti-emetics, antifungal, and antibiotic medications during pregnancy: a systematic review

Prevalence of time-related bias in pharmacoepidemiology studies on the use of anti-emetics, antifungal, and antibiotic medications during pregnancy: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability (...) for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Timing and effect measures Timing and effect measures Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address: Context and rationale Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria

2019 PROSPERO

17. Immortal Time Bias in Observational Studies of Time-to-Event Outcomes: Assessing Effects of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Using the National Cancer Database (PubMed)

Immortal Time Bias in Observational Studies of Time-to-Event Outcomes: Assessing Effects of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Using the National Cancer Database The objectives of this study are to illustrate the effects of immortal time bias (ITB) using an oncology outcomes database and quantify through simulations the magnitude and direction of ITB when different analytical techniques are used. A cohort of 11 626 women who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent mastectomy (...) dependent on landmark timing. Appropriate statistical approaches that account for ITB are critical to minimize bias when examining relationships between receipt of PMRT and survival.

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2018 Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center

18. Three risk of bias tools lead to opposite conclusions in observational research synthesis. (PubMed)

Three risk of bias tools lead to opposite conclusions in observational research synthesis. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement and compare the performance of three different instruments in assessing risk of bias (RoB) of comparative cohort studies included in a health psychology meta-analysis.Three tools were applied to 28 primary studies included in the selected meta-analysis: the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, quality of cohort studies (Q-Coh), and risk of bias in nonrandomized studies (...) of interventions (ROBINS-I).Interrater agreement varied greatly from tool to tool. For overall RoB, 75% of the studies were rated as low RoB with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, 11% of the studies with Q-Coh, and no study was found to be at low RoB using ROBINS-I. No influence of quality ratings on the meta-analysis results was found for any of the tools.Assessing RoB using the three tools may lead to opposite conclusions, especially at low and high levels of RoB. Domain-based tools (Q-Coh and ROBINS-I) provide

2018 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

19. Storage of blood samples at or above 33℃ leads to rapid appearance of appreciable systemic bias in platelet and mean corpuscular volume related parameters: an important pre-analytical factor in tropical conditions. (PubMed)

Storage of blood samples at or above 33℃ leads to rapid appearance of appreciable systemic bias in platelet and mean corpuscular volume related parameters: an important pre-analytical factor in tropical conditions. There is scant documentation of the stability of common haematological parameters on storage of blood samples under tropical conditions. K2EDTA samples in multiple vials were taken from 20 healthy blood donors, baseline readings taken, and stored at 33°C and 37°C. Readings from (...) the stored vials were taken after 1, 3 and 6 h. The percent change against the baseline readings at each time point for each storage temperature was calculated. Platelet counts showed an unacceptable shift within 1 h at 37°C and 3 h at 33°C; red cell volume related parameters showed an unacceptable shift within 3 h at 37°C and 6 h at 33°C. Haemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular haemoglobin remained stable for 6 h at both temperatures. The unacceptable change

2018 Tropical Doctor

20. Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and Risk of Preterm Birth in Studies of HIV-infected Pregnant Women: The Role of Selection Bias. (PubMed)

Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and Risk of Preterm Birth in Studies of HIV-infected Pregnant Women: The Role of Selection Bias. Women who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy are reported to have lower risk of preterm birth compared with those who enter pregnancy care already receiving ART. We hypothesize this association can be largely attributed to selection bias.We simulated a cohort of 1000 preconceptional, HIV-infected women, where half were randomly (...) ) analysis); and (2) an observational study, where women who deliver before initiating ART were excluded (the naïve analysis). We explored the impact of later ART initiation and gestational age measurement error on our findings.Preconception ART initiation was not associated with preterm birth in ITT analyses. Risk ratios (RRs) for the effect of preconception ART initiation were RR = 1.10 (preterm), RR = 1.41 (very preterm), and RR = 5.01 (extreme preterm) in naïve analyses. Selection bias increased

2019 Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

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