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Lactation Suppression

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1. NHERF1 is Required for Localization of PMCA2 and Suppression of Early Involution in the Female Lactating Mammary Gland. (PubMed)

NHERF1 is Required for Localization of PMCA2 and Suppression of Early Involution in the Female Lactating Mammary Gland. Prior studies have demonstrated that the calcium pump, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2), mediates calcium transport into milk and prevents mammary epithelial cell death during lactation. PMCA2 also regulates cell proliferation and cell death in breast cancer cells, in part by maintaining the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2/HER2 within specialized plasma membrane domains (...) epithelial cells. Similar to PMCA2, NHERF1 expression is rapidly reduced by milk stasis after weaning. Examining lactating NHERF1 knockout (KO) mice showed that NHERF1 contributes to the proper apical location of PMCA2, for proper apical-basal polarity in luminal epithelial cells, and that it participates in the suppression of Stat3 activation and the prevention of premature mammary gland involution. Additionally, we found that PMCA2 also interacts with the closely related scaffolding molecule, NHERF2

2019 Endocrinology

2. Inhibiting Glycine Decarboxylase Suppresses Pyruvate-to-Lactate Metabolism in Lung Cancer Cells (PubMed)

Inhibiting Glycine Decarboxylase Suppresses Pyruvate-to-Lactate Metabolism in Lung Cancer Cells Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression (...) and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention. Here, we show that GLDC-shAON treatment is able to suppress lung cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The carbon-13 MRS results indicated that the conversion of pyruvate into lactate in GLDC-shAON-treated tumor tissues was significantly reduced, when

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2018 Frontiers in oncology

3. D-lactic Acidosis: Successful Suppression of D-lactate-Producing <i>Lactobacillus</i> by Probiotics. (PubMed)

D-lactic Acidosis: Successful Suppression of D-lactate-Producing Lactobacillus by Probiotics. Intestinal microbiota composition in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) is an important factor influencing the clinical outcome. An increase of D-lactate-producing bacteria can lead to D-lactic acidosis, also referred to as D-lactate encephalopathy, with severe neurologic impairment. Antibiotic treatments for D-lactic acidosis in children with SBS offer often only short-term relief. Here (...) , we present the case of a boy with SBS who developed recurrent episodes of D-lactic acidosis even under continuous cycling antibiotic treatment. Microbiological analyses were used to detect the presence of D-lactate-producing Lactobacillus species in the stool samples. A probiotic cocktail was introduced to alter the intestinal microbiota. During follow-up under treatment with probiotics, the patient remained stable, and there was no additional need for antibiotic therapy for more than a year

2018 Pediatrics

4. Upregulation of lactate-inducible snail protein suppresses oncogene-mediated senescence through p16INK4a inactivation (PubMed)

Upregulation of lactate-inducible snail protein suppresses oncogene-mediated senescence through p16INK4a inactivation The preferential use of aerobic glycolysis by tumor cells lead to high accumulation of lactate in tumor microenvironment. Clinical evidence has linked elevated lactate concentration with cancer outcomes. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of lactate in cellular senescence and tumor progression remain elusive.The function of Snail in lactate-induced EMT in lung cancer (...) cells was explored by wound healing assay and cell invasion assay. The qRT-PCR and dual luciferase reporter assay were performed to investigate how lactate regulates Snail expression. The level of TGF-β1 in culture supernatant of cells was measured by ELISA for its correlation with extracellular levels of lactate. Ras activity assay and SA-β-gal activity assay were established to determine the effect of lactate on oncogene-induced senescence in human lung epithelial cells. ChIP assays were conducted

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2018 Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR

5. Somatostatin-somatostatin receptor 2 signaling mediates LH pulse suppression in lactating rats. (PubMed)

Somatostatin-somatostatin receptor 2 signaling mediates LH pulse suppression in lactating rats. Follicular development and ovulation are profoundly suppressed during lactation in mammals. This suppression is suggested to be mainly due to the suckling-induced inhibition of kisspeptin gene (Kiss1) expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and consequent inhibition of pulsatile GnRH/LH release. We examined whether central somatostatin (SST) signaling mediates the suckling-induced suppression (...) in the ARC. Furthermore, a central injection of an SSTR2 antagonist caused a significant increase in pulsatile LH release in lactating rats. Double labeling of Sstr2 and the neurokinin B gene, as a marker for ARC KNDy neurons, showed Sstr2 expression was abundantly detected in the ARC, but few KNDy neurons coexpressed Sstr2 in lactating rats. Taken together, these findings suggest the suckling-induced activation of SST-SSTR2 signaling mediates, at least in part, the suppression of pulsatile LH secretion

2018 Endocrinology

6. Suppression of FIP200 and autophagy by tumor-derived lactate promotes naïve T cell apoptosis and affects tumor immunity (PubMed)

Suppression of FIP200 and autophagy by tumor-derived lactate promotes naïve T cell apoptosis and affects tumor immunity Naïve T cells are poorly studied in cancer patients. We report that naïve T cells are prone to undergo apoptosis due to a selective loss of FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) in ovarian cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. This results in poor antitumor immunity via autophagy deficiency, mitochondria overactivation, and high reactive oxygen species (...) production in T cells. Mechanistically, loss of FIP200 disables the balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members via enhanced argonaute 2 (Ago2) degradation, reduced Ago2 and microRNA1198-5p complex formation, less microRNA1198-5p maturation, and consequently abolished microRNA1198-5p-mediated repression on apoptotic gene Bak1 Bcl-2 overexpression and mitochondria complex I inhibition rescue T cell apoptosis and promoted tumor immunity. Tumor-derived lactate translationally

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2017 Science immunology

7. Immune Modulating Therapies in Pregnancy and Lactation

Immune Modulating Therapies in Pregnancy and Lactation Immune Modulating Therapies in Pregnancy and Lactation - ACOG Menu ▼ Immune Modulating Therapies in Pregnancy and Lactation Page Navigation ▼ Number 776 Committee on Obstetric Practice Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Obstetric Practice in collaboration with committee member Alison G. Cahill, MD, MSCI, and the Society (...) by those organizations. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this published product. Immune Modulating Therapies in Pregnancy and Lactation ABSTRACT: Because autoimmune conditions occur more often among women of childbearing age, continuation of these medications during pregnancy is often considered to optimize disease management in the woman and pregnancy outcomes, without placing

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

8. Pharmacological lactation suppression with D2 receptor agonists and risk of postpartum psychosis: A systematic review. (PubMed)

Pharmacological lactation suppression with D2 receptor agonists and risk of postpartum psychosis: A systematic review. It has been suggested that D2 receptor agonists commonly used postpartum for the physiological suppression of lactation, such as bromocriptine and cabergoline, may increase the risk of illness onset or relapse in women where there is a predisposition for or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or postpartum psychosis. This is based on two lines of reasoning: current (...) psychotic illnesses, when used to suppress lactation during the early postpartum period.A systematic review of the literature was undertaken of electronic databases, including: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO from 1950 to 2015 using keywords.Eight case reports, three case series and a pharmacovigilance survey were identified.Whilst D2 receptor agonists appear to increase the risk of triggering psychosis in previously well mothers and those previously diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

2016 The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology

9. Lactation Suppression

Lactation Suppression Lactation Suppression Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lactation Suppression Lactation (...) Suppression Aka: Lactation Suppression , Lactation Discontinuation From Related Chapters II. Indications Discontinuation of III. Course Engorgement resolves within 1 week May result in low grade fever IV. Management: General Methods Symptomatic Engorgement Relief Ice packs held to Frozen Cabbage Leaves inside bra Tight bra (no longer recommended) V. Precautions Avoid Medications (e.g. ) for suppression Risk of Risk of Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling

2018 FP Notebook

10. Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A. (PubMed)

Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A. Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF (...) ) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth

2016 American Journal of Chinese Medicine

11. Suppression of lactate dehydrogenase A compromises tumor progression by downregulation of the Warburg effect in glioblastoma (PubMed)

Suppression of lactate dehydrogenase A compromises tumor progression by downregulation of the Warburg effect in glioblastoma Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer cells, which show a unique metabolic phenotype known as the Warburg effect. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme in the glycolytic process, executes the final step by conversion of lactate into pyruvate. However, little is known about the roles of LDHA in human glioblastoma (GBM). In this study, we

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2016 Neuroreport

12. Effect of lactate administration on brain lactate levels during hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

Effect of lactate administration on brain lactate levels during hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. Administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulatory responses, as seen in patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), presumably because lactate can substitute for glucose as a brain fuel. Here, we examined whether lactate administration, in a dose sufficient to impair awareness of hypoglycemia, affects brain lactate (...) to hypoglycemia were considerably suppressed in NAH. Infusion of lactate increased brain lactate levels modestly, but comparably, in both groups (mean increase in NAH w|lac: 0.12 ± 0.05 µmol/g and in IAH w|lac: 0.06 ± 0.04 µmol/g). The modest increase in brain lactate may suggest that the excess of lactate is immediately metabolized by the brain, which in turn may explain the suppressive effects of lactate on awareness of hypoglycemia observed in patients with NAH.

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2018 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

13. Safety in Lactation: Diuretics

, short half life, high protein binding) . Loop diuretics (includes bumetanide, furosemide, torasemide) Loop diuretics may suppress lactation, although this is largely theoretical. Levels in milk of currently available loop diuretics have not been determined, but are likely to be too low to affect the infant. Monitor infant’s weight to determine adequate milk production. Furosemide preferred (most experience of use, short half life, high protein binding, low oral bioavailability) . Potassium-sparing (...) diuretics and aldosterone antagonists (includes amiloride, eplerenone, spironolactone, triamterene) The indications for this group of drugs vary, for which spironolactone may not always be a suitable alternative. Amiloride and triamterene are normally used in conjunction with thiazide or loop diuretics, the risks of which must also be taken into account. The diuretic action of these drugs is probably too weak to suppress lactation. Acting Co-Director, West Midlands Medicines Information Service & UK

2017 Specialist Pharmacy Services

14. Low adherence to Option B+ antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women and lactating mothers in eastern Tanzania. (PubMed)

Low adherence to Option B+ antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women and lactating mothers in eastern Tanzania. Adherence to option B+ antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vital to a successful implementation of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) program. Further studies show that optimal viral suppression is also crucial for a successful PMTCT program, however barriers to adherence exist and differ among populations and particularly within few years of its adoption in Tanzania (...) . This study therefore aimed at investigating the level and predictors of adherence to ART option B+ among pregnant and lactating women in rural and urban settings of eastern Tanzania.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 305 pregnant women and lactating mothers on Option B+ regime from six health facilities located in rural and urban settings in Morogoro region in eastern Tanzania. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, as well

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2019 PLoS ONE

15. Treatments for suppression of lactation. (PubMed)

Treatments for suppression of lactation. Various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions have been used to suppress lactation after childbirth and relieve associated symptoms. Despite the large volume of literature on the subject, there is currently no universal guideline on the most appropriate approach for suppressing lactation in postpartum women.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions used for suppression of lactation in postpartum women (who have not breastfed (...) lactation symptoms in the first postpartum week. No evidence currently exists to indicate whether nonpharmacologic approaches are more effective than no treatment. Presently, there is insufficient evidence to address the side effects of methods employed for suppressing lactation. When women desire treatment, bromocriptine may be considered where it is registered for lactation suppression in those without predisposition to its major side effects of public concerns. Large randomised trials are needed

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2009 Cochrane

16. Cabergoline: a review of its use in the inhibition of lactation for women living with HIV. (PubMed)

D2 agonist and ergot derivative that inhibits prolactin secretion and suppresses physiologic lactation when given as a single oral dose of 1 mg after delivery. Cabergoline is at least as effective as bromocriptine for lactation inhibition with success rates between 78% and 100%. Transient, mild to moderate adverse events to cabergoline are described in clinical trials. Few drug interactions exist as cabergoline is neither a substrate nor an inducer/inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (...) Cabergoline: a review of its use in the inhibition of lactation for women living with HIV. In developed countries, breastfeeding is not recommended for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLWH). However, lactation symptoms can be distressing for women who choose not to breastfeed. There is currently no universal guideline on the most appropriate options for prevention or reduction of lactation symptoms amongst WLWH. This review describes the evidence base for using cabergoline

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2019 Journal of the International AIDS Society

17. Jugular arginine infusion relieves lipopolysaccharide-triggered inflammatory stress and improves immunity status of lactating dairy cows. (PubMed)

this tendency. These results indicated that jugular Arg infusion (18 g/d) has protective effects on relieving inflammatory stress and improving immunity status triggered by LPS. In conclusion, Arg could attenuate inflammatory stress and improve milk performance of lactating dairy cows. This protective effect may be due to the ability of Arg to suppress LPS effects and improve immunity status.Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Jugular arginine infusion relieves lipopolysaccharide-triggered inflammatory stress and improves immunity status of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of jugular l-Arg infusion on performance and immune function during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows (multiparous, 608.8 ± 31.5 kg) at mid-lactation were randomly assigned to 5-d jugular infusions of control (saline), Arg (3 g/h), LPS (0.033 μg/kg

2018 Journal of dairy science

18. Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) (PubMed)

in lactating otters. Cortisol release was lower under resource limitation and suppression during lactation was only evident under resource limitation. Lactation and resource limitation were associated with alterations in thyroid hormones. Immune responses and total antioxidant capacity were not reduced by lactation or resource limitation. Southern sea otters exhibited higher concentrations of antioxidants, immunoglobulins, and thyroid hormones than northern sea otters. These data provide evidence (...) Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) Lactation is the most energetically demanding stage of reproduction in female mammals. Increased energetic allocation toward current reproduction may result in fitness costs, although the mechanisms underlying these trade-offs are not well understood. Trade-offs during lactation may include reduced energetic allocation to cellular maintenance

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2018 Ecology and evolution

19. Adaptive Modifications of Maternal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Lactation and Salsolinol as a New Player in this Phenomenon (PubMed)

aspects. Finally, data from the experiments in sheep are presented, indicating a new regulatory factor of the HPA axis-salsolinol-which typical role was revealed in lactation. It is suggested that this dopamine derivative is involved in both maintaining basal and suppressing stress-induced HPA axis activities in lactating dams. (...) Adaptive Modifications of Maternal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Lactation and Salsolinol as a New Player in this Phenomenon Both basal and stress-induced secretory activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are distinctly modified in lactating females. On the one hand, it aims to meet the physiological demands of the mother, and on the other hand, the appropriate and stable plasma cortisol level is one of the essential factors for the proper offspring

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2018 International journal of endocrinology

20. Long non-coding RNA CRYBG3 regulates glycolysis of lung cancer cells by interacting with lactate dehydrogenase A (PubMed)

Long non-coding RNA CRYBG3 regulates glycolysis of lung cancer cells by interacting with lactate dehydrogenase A Cancer cells usually utilize glucose as a carbon source for aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. And a high rate of glycolysis has been observed in lung cancer cells. The growing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important players in lung cancer initiation and progression. However, the correlation between lncRNAs and glycolysis (...) remains unclear. In this study, we recognized a lncRNA, LNC CRYBG3, which can interact with lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a vital enzyme of glycolysis, is highly upregulated in both clinical lung cancer tissues and in vitro cultured lung cancer cell lines. A positive correlation between the expression level of LNC CRYBG3 and LDHA expression levels is observed. In another hand, LNC CRYBG3 is a regulator of glycolysis and its overexpression promoted the uptake of glucose and the production of lactate

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2018 Journal of Cancer

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