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Lachman Test

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1. Triaxial accelerometer can quantify the Lachman test similarly to standard arthrometers. (PubMed)

Triaxial accelerometer can quantify the Lachman test similarly to standard arthrometers. To assess the relationship between the KiRA triaxial accelerometer and the KT-1000 measurements in the intact, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient, and ACL reconstructed knee joint for the quantification of the Lachman test. Moreover, the intra- and inter-examiner repeatability of the KiRA device will be determined. It was hypothesized that the side-to-side difference of the anterior tibial (...) with no history of ACL lesion. Lachman test has been performed at manual-maximum load on both sides, the involved and the contralateral and analyzed with the two different devices.The KiRA device in terms of side-to-side difference resulted not statistically different from the measurement of the KT-1000 arthrometer for the three study groups (n.s): Group_A: (4 ± 2 mm KiRA, 4 ± 2 mm KT1000), Group_B: (4 ± 2 mm KiRA, 4 ± 2 mm KT-1000), Group_C: (4 ± 2 mm KiRA, 4 ± 2 mm KT-1000), an excellent intra- (ICC = 0.88

2018 Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

2. Diagnostic Tools for Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: GNRB, Lachman Test, and Telos (PubMed)

Diagnostic Tools for Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: GNRB, Lachman Test, and Telos The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of the GNRB arthrometer (Genourob), Lachman test, and Telos device (GmbH) in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and to evaluate the accuracy of each diagnostic tool according to the length of time from injury to examination.From September 2015 to September 2016, 40 cases of complete ACL rupture were reviewed. We divided the time from (...) injury to examination into three periods of 10 days each and analyzed the diagnostic tools according to the time frame.An analysis of the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that all diagnostic tools were fairly informative. The GNRB showed a higher AUC than other diagnostic tools. In 10 cases assessed within 10 days after injury, the GNRB showed statistically significant side-to-side difference in laxity (p<0.001), whereas the Telos test and Lachman test

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2018 Knee surgery & related research

3. Evaluation of the accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests with KT1000 ın the follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament surgery (PubMed)

Evaluation of the accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests with KT1000 ın the follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament surgery Ligament laxity measurement is clinically valuable to diagnose the injury and also to compare the laxity before and after surgical procedure. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of the Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests to evaluate the knee examination with the KT1000 arthrometer after the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in early follow-up (...) period. Fourty ACL reconstructed knees were examined with the Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests, and KT1000 arthrometer with compariable intact knee of the same patients. Physical emanination findings were compared with the KT1000 arthrometer with each power. Spearman correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used for the evaluation of relations between parameters. Significance was evaluated in P<0.1 and P<0.05. The mean age was 28.18±6.21 yr, and the mean follow-up

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2016 Journal of exercise rehabilitation

4. Lachman Test

Lachman Test Lachman Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lachman Test Lachman Test Aka: Lachman Test , Lachman's Test (...) II. Indications Assessment for III. See Also ( ) IV. Efficacy Lachman Test is most sensitive test for Positive Test: 42 (very predictive) Negative Test: 0.1 References V. Technique: Patient position in 10 to 20 degrees flexion VI. Technique: Examiner position Non-dominant hand Stabilizes distal femur Standard Dominant hand positioning Grasps back of proximal tibia posteriorly Hold slightly below popliteal space Place Thumb over joint line anterolaterally Apply slightly above tibial plateau

2018 FP Notebook

5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Conditioning Required to Prevent an Abnormal Lachman and Pivot Shift After ACL Reconstruction: A Robotic Study of 3 ACL Graft Constructs. (PubMed)

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Conditioning Required to Prevent an Abnormal Lachman and Pivot Shift After ACL Reconstruction: A Robotic Study of 3 ACL Graft Constructs. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft conditioning protocols to decrease postoperative increases in anterior tibial translation and pivot-shift instability have not been established.To determine what ACL graft conditioning protocols should be performed at surgery to decrease postoperative graft elongation after ACL (...) reconstruction.Controlled laboratory study.A 6 degrees of freedom robotic simulator evaluated 3 ACL graft constructs in 7 cadaver knees for a total of 19 graft specimens. Knees were tested before and after ACL sectioning and after ACL graft conditioning protocols before reconstruction. The ACL grafts consisted of a 6-strand semitendinosus-gracilis TightRope, bone-patellar tendon-bone TightRope, and bone-patellar tendon-bone with interference screws. Two graft conditioning protocols were used: (1) graft board tensioning

2019 American Journal of Sports Medicine

6. Factors Associated With High-Grade Lachman, Pivot Shift, and Anterior Drawer at the Time of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (PubMed)

collected. Patients with high-grade Lachman (difference from contralateral side >10 mm), pivot-shift (International Knee Documentation Committee grade 3+), or anterior drawer (difference from contralateral side >10 mm) tests were identified by physical examination under anesthesia before ACL reconstruction. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate whether chronicity of the ACL injury, patient age, sex, body mass index, generalized ligamentous laxity, and presence of meniscal tears were (...) associated with increased odds of high-grade laxity, while we controlled for examining surgeon.Patients with chronic tears (>6 months from injury) had greater than twice the odds of having high-grade Lachman, pivot-shift, and anterior drawer tests (all P < .001) relative to patients with acute tears (<3 months from injury). Generalized ligamentous laxity (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; P < .001) and the presence of medial (OR, 1.63; P < .001) or lateral (OR, 1.41; P = .013) meniscus tears were associated

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2016 Arthroscopy

7. Effect of Acl Reconstruction Graft Size on Simulated Lachman Testing: A Finite Element Analysis (PubMed)

Effect of Acl Reconstruction Graft Size on Simulated Lachman Testing: A Finite Element Analysis ACL reconstructions are frequently performed following ACL injury. The most common treatment is single bundle reconstruction. While ACL reconstructions have been studied clinically and experimentally, quantitative information regarding the local biomechanics the knee following ACL reconstruction is generally lacking. Specifically, the role of graft size on joint stability and soft tissue injury (...) propensity is currently unknown.Therefore, a non-linear contact finite element model was developed to systematically evaluate the relationship between ACL graft size and knee joint biomechanics following ACL reconstruction. A simulated Lachman maneuver was utilized to assess knee joint laxity, meniscal stress, in situ graft loading, and peak articular cartilage contact pressure for ACL graft sizes between 5 and 9 mm, as well as an ACL-deficient knee. The model was validated by corroboration

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2013 The Iowa orthopaedic journal

8. Lachman Test

Lachman Test Lachman Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lachman Test Lachman Test Aka: Lachman Test , Lachman's Test (...) II. Indications Assessment for III. See Also ( ) IV. Efficacy Lachman Test is most sensitive test for Positive Test: 42 (very predictive) Negative Test: 0.1 References V. Technique: Patient position in 10 to 20 degrees flexion VI. Technique: Examiner position Non-dominant hand Stabilizes distal femur Standard Dominant hand positioning Grasps back of proximal tibia posteriorly Hold slightly below popliteal space Place Thumb over joint line anterolaterally Apply slightly above tibial plateau

2015 FP Notebook

9. The contribution of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle to the Lachman test: a cadaver investigation. (PubMed)

The contribution of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle to the Lachman test: a cadaver investigation. The clinical diagnosis of a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is still subject to debate. Little is known about the contribution of each ACL bundle during the Lachman test. We investigated this using six fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs. Screws were placed in the femora and tibiae as fixed landmarks for digitisation of the bone positions. The femur was secured (...) horizontally in a clamp. A metal hook was screwed to the tibial tubercle and used to apply a load of 150 N directed anteroposteriorly to the tibia to simulate the Lachman test. The knees then received constant axial compression and 3D knee kinematic data were collected by digitising the screw head positions in 30° flexion under each test condition. Measurements of tibial translation and rotation were made, first with the ACL intact, then after sequential cutting of the ACL bundles, and finally after

2012 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery British Volume

10. Reliability and Diagnostic Accuracy of an Alternate Lachman's Test Performed in a Prone Position

Reliability and Diagnostic Accuracy of an Alternate Lachman's Test Performed in a Prone Position Reliability and Diagnostic Accuracy of an Alternate Lachman's Test Performed in a Prone Position - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one (...) or more studies before adding more. Reliability and Diagnostic Accuracy of an Alternate Lachman's Test Performed in a Prone Position The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01301014 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : February 23, 2011 Last Update Posted : May 17, 2016 Sponsor

2011 Clinical Trials

11. The Use of an Electromagnetic Measurement System for Anterior Tibial Displacement During the Lachman Test. (PubMed)

The Use of an Electromagnetic Measurement System for Anterior Tibial Displacement During the Lachman Test. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitative anterior/posterior values during the Lachman test by an electromagnetic measurement system and to compare data with KT-1000 arthrometric measurements (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), as well as the measurement of radiologic laxity by dynamic radiographs.We used an electromagnetic device to quantitatively evaluate anterior knee displacements (...) . We tested 82 knees in 41 patients (30 isolated anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]-deficient, 11 ACL-reconstructed, and 41 contralateral ACL-intact knees). Anterior displacements during the Lachman test were calculated by the electromagnetic measurement system and fluoroscopic measurement, and anterior displacements were also measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer. Anterior/posterior displacements measured by these methods were compared, and correlations were assessed.In ACL-deficient knees, mean

2011 Arthroscopy

12. ACL injury: How do the physical examination tests compare? (PubMed)

ACL injury: How do the physical examination tests compare? Three physical examination tests are most commonly used to evaluate cruciate ligament injury. The best known and most frequently used technique is the anterior drawer test. The other 2 tests, the Lachman test and the pivot shift test, are more difficult to perform and are used less often, especially by physicians untrained in their use. In addition, there is a relatively new diagnostic test: the lever sign test. The aim of our article

2018 Journal of Family Practice

13. Does the Lever Sign Test Have Added Value for Diagnosing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures? (PubMed)

the reliability and diagnostic value of the lever sign test.Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.A total of 94 patients were recruited between November 2014 and July 2016. Patients were included if they were at least 16 years old, suffered from knee trauma, and had indications for knee arthroscopic surgery. Lever sign, anterior drawer, Lachman, and pivot-shift test outcomes were examined by an orthopaedic/trauma surgeon and a physical therapist. A test-retest design was used to investigate (...) interrater reliability. Moreover, the lever sign test outcomes, alone and in combination with the other diagnostic tests, were compared with arthroscopic results, which served as the gold standard for the test's diagnostic value.The lever sign test and pivot-shift test had kappa values exceeding 0.80 for interrater reliability. The kappa values for the anterior drawer test and Lachman test were 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. The lever sign test showed the highest specificity (100%) and the lowest

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2018 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

14. Critical Analysis of the Lever Test for Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency. (PubMed)

Critical Analysis of the Lever Test for Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency. To critically analyze the "lever test" in detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to compare its accuracy with the Lachman, anterior drawer (AD), and pivot shift tests.From June 2014 to June 2015, 91 subjects were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were subjects aged 16 to 60 years, presenting after a knee injury with subjective swelling, or an objective effusion and an uninjured normal (...) contralateral knee for comparison. Exclusion criteria included previous knee ligamentous reconstruction, fracture of the distal femur or proximal tibia, bilateral knee injuries, or known cruciate ligament tear. The Lachman, AD, pivot shift, and lever tests were performed in the office by 2 board-certified orthopaedic surgeons with patient awake. Examiners were blinded to the presence or absence of ACL injury. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine injury. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy

2017 Arthroscopy

15. Accuracy of the Lever Sign Test in the Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries (PubMed)

injuries, as compared to MRI. We also aimed to determine the accuracy of the lever sign test compared with 3 other tests (anterior drawer, Lachman, and pivot shift) when performed by providers of various training levels, and with the patient awake or under anesthesia.Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.We evaluated patients with a chief concern of acute (≤4 weeks) knee pain seen between October 2014 and January 2015, with a thorough history, physical examination, and standard radiographs (...) Accuracy of the Lever Sign Test in the Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries The lever sign test is a new physical examination tool to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Preliminary results suggest almost 100% sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute and chronic complete ACL tears and clinically significant partial tears as compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the lever sign test for the diagnosis of acute ACL

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2017 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

16. Diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for common knee disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

databases until January 2016. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR.Seventeen reviews were included with mean AMSTAR score of 5.5 ± 2.3. Based on six SR, only the Lachman test for ACL injuries is diagnostically valid when individually performed (Likelihood ratio (LR+):10.2, LR-:0.2). Based on two SR, the Ottawa Knee Rule is a valid screening tool for knee fractures (LR-:0.05). Based on one SR, the EULAR criteria had a post-test probability of 99% for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (...) . Based on two SR, a complete physical examination performed by a trained health provider was found to be diagnostically valid for ACL, PCL and meniscal injuries as well as for cartilage lesions.When individually performed, common physical tests are rarely able to rule in or rule out a specific knee disorder, except the Lachman for ACL injuries. There is low-quality evidence concerning the validity of combining history elements and physical tests.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2016 Physical therapy in sport : official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine

17. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review. (PubMed)

inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality (...) Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review. Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests

2016 Manual therapy

18. Biomechanical Assessment of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee: A Secondary Restraint in Simulated Tests of the Pivot Shift and of Anterior Stability. (PubMed)

Biomechanical Assessment of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee: A Secondary Restraint in Simulated Tests of the Pivot Shift and of Anterior Stability. Injury to the lateral capsular tissues of the knee may accompany rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A distinct lateral structure, the anterolateral ligament, has been identified, and reconstruction strategies for this tissue in combination with ACL reconstruction have been proposed. However, the biomechanical function (...) of the anterolateral ligament is not well understood. Thus, this study had two research questions: (1) What is the contribution of the anterolateral ligament to knee stability in the ACL-sectioned knee? (2) Does the anterolateral ligament bear increased load in the absence of the ACL?Twelve cadaveric knees from donors who were a mean (and standard deviation) of 43 ± 15 years old at the time of death were loaded using a robotic manipulator to simulate clinical tests of the pivot shift and anterior stability

2016 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

19. Relationship between the pivot shift and Lachman tests: a cadaver study. (PubMed)

Relationship between the pivot shift and Lachman tests: a cadaver study. While the Lachman and pivot shift tests have been used clinically for decades to assess the anterior cruciate ligament, the relationship between the two has undergone limited experimental study. The goal of this study was to evaluate biomechanical relationships between the Lachman and pivot shift tests in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and reconstructed knees.Knee kinematics during simulated pivot-shift testing (...) series of tests for individual specimens, pivot shift magnitude was plotted versus laxity for each knee by incrementally loosening the anterior cruciate ligament graft.Linear correlations between pivot shift magnitude and absolute laxity for anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees were weak. When the unfixed grafts were tensioned to match anteroposterior laxities of the intact knees, changes in pivot shift were better correlated with corresponding changes in anteroposterior laxity (r(2) = 0.53

2010 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

20. The arthroscopical and radiological corelation of lever sign test for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture (PubMed)

The arthroscopical and radiological corelation of lever sign test for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the lever sign test and the widely used basic tests of the Lachman, anterior drawer and pivot shift tests, both under anaesthesia and without anaesthesia, according to the gold standard diagnostic arthroscopic results in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The study included 117 (...) patients, diagnosed with ACL tear which was definitively determined during an arthroscopic surgical procedure applied. Before anaesthesia and while under anaesthesia, the Lachman, anterior drawer, pivot shift and lever sign tests were applied to all patients. Evaluation was made of MR images for each patient and documented. The patients comprised 96 males and 21 females, witha mean age of 25.8 ± 5.9 years (range, 17-45 years). Total tear was determined in 82 cases, anteromedial (AM) bundle in 14

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2015 SpringerPlus

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