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Ketamine

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5961. Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. (PubMed)

Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. To evaluate effects of infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses.Randomized clinical trial.40 horses.Horses were premedicated with xylazine and anesthetized with diazepam and ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained (...) by infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine and inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses) or by inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses). A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained by controlling the inhaled concentration of sevoflurane. Sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent movement in response to surgical stimulation. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoxemia and hypercarbia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic

2002 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5962. A comparison of ketamine and lidocaine spray with propofol for the insertion of laryngeal mask airway in children: a double-blinded randomized trial. (PubMed)

A comparison of ketamine and lidocaine spray with propofol for the insertion of laryngeal mask airway in children: a double-blinded randomized trial. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been used successfully as both a ventilatory device and a conduit for tracheal intubation. In this double-blinded, randomized study, we examined whether pretreatment with lidocaine spray, ketamine anesthesia, and LMA insertion could be used as airway management that could maintain spontaneous breathing (...) in children. After IV premedication with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg and glycopyrrolate 0.005 mg/kg, 90 patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 main groups for the administration of either propofol or ketamine: 40 patients received 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 mg/kg of propofol IV (n = 10 each), whereas 50 patients received 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 mg/kg of ketamine IV (n = 10 each). Only in the ketamine group was lidocaine spray applied to the oropharynx 1 min before anesthesia induction. After injection

2002 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5963. [The effect of ketamine on reducing postoperative agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric strabismus surgery]. (PubMed)

[The effect of ketamine on reducing postoperative agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric strabismus surgery]. We investigated the effect of ketamine on reducing postoperative agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Fifty-five children, 3-9 years of age, were randomly assigned to the following three groups; ketamine (group K, n = 18), pentazocine (group P, n = 19), and flurbiprofen axetil(group F, n = 18). Group K received ketamine (...) 1 mg.kg-1 intravenously, followed by infusion of ketamine 1 mg.kg-1.hr-1 during surgery, group P received pentazocine 0.2 mg.kg-1 intravenously after induction of anesthesia, and Group F received intravenous flurbiprofen axetil, 1 mg.kg-1 5 minutes before the end of surgery. Agitation (evaluated by Aono's four-point scale; AFPS) and awareness (evaluated by Steward score) were assessed just before tracheal extubation(T 1), 5 minutes after tracheal extubation(T 2), arrival at the ward(T 3), and 60

2002 Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5964. [Effect of propofol and propofol combined with ketamine on cardiovascular system]. (PubMed)

[Effect of propofol and propofol combined with ketamine on cardiovascular system]. To prevent blood pressure from reducing caused by injection of propofol.Thirty patients, ASA Grade I-II, were randomly allocated into one of the two groups: Group I (Group P, n = 15) and Group II (Group K + P, n = 15), the patients received 2 mg.kg-1 propofol in Group I and 1 mg.kg-1 ketamine before equal dose of propofol in Group II. Systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), mean blood

2000 Hunan yi ke da xue xue bao = Hunan yike daxue xuebao = Bulletin of Hunan Medical University Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5965. [Effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine in postoperative analgesia for hysterectomy and adnexectomy]. (PubMed)

[Effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine in postoperative analgesia for hysterectomy and adnexectomy]. To evaluate the efficacy of low dose ketamine (0.15 mg/Kg i.v.) as a pre-emptive pain relief after general anesthesia.Sixty-nine gynecological surgery patients were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind study. All received total intravenous anesthesia and were randomized to group A (n = 23) to receive preoperative ketamine, to group B (n = 23) to receive postoperative ketamine or to group (...) min) than in group A (6.68 +/- 3.64 min; p < 0.05) or in group C (8 +/- 4 min). The first analgesic dose was infused later in group B (45.24 +/- 16.16 min; p < 0.001) than in group A (26.45 +/- 11.65 min) or in group C (25.47 +/- 9.19 min). The pain scores at rest were similar. On the fifth day, pain upon movement was less intense for patients treated with ketamine (group A 12 [10-21] and group B 13.5 [2-22]) than in patients treated with placebo (group C 23 [15.5-36.75]) (p < 0.05 group C vs

2002 Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5966. Patient-controlled bupivacaine wound instillation following cesarean section: the lack of efficacy of adjuvant ketamine. (PubMed)

Patient-controlled bupivacaine wound instillation following cesarean section: the lack of efficacy of adjuvant ketamine. To assess the analgesic efficacy of ketamine when administered as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for patient-controlled wound instillation following cesarean section.Prospective, randomized, double-blind study.Large referral hospital.50 term parturients undergoing cesarean section.In all cases, a standard spinal anesthetic was administered. On completion of the surgery (...) , a multihole 20 G epidural catheter (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) was placed above the fascia such that the tip was sited at the point which demarcated 50% of the length of the surgical wound. Thereafter, the catheter was connected to a patient-controlled drug delivery device. The device was filled with either 0.125% bupivacaine (bupivacaine group) or 0.125% bupivacaine and ketamine (1 mg/mL) (bupivacaine-ketamine group). Postoperatively, wound instillation was performed via the patient-controlled

2002 Journal of clinical anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5967. A comparison of two different doses of ketamine with midazolam and midazolam alone as oral preanaesthetic medication on recovery after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children. (PubMed)

A comparison of two different doses of ketamine with midazolam and midazolam alone as oral preanaesthetic medication on recovery after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children. This investigation prospectively evaluated the effect of oral premedication of two different doses of ketamine with midazolam and midazolam alone on the recovery of children after sevoflurane anaesthesia.In a randomized, double-blind study, 79 children (aged 1-8 years, ASA physical status I or II) were assigned to receive one (...) of three premedications in a volume of 0.5 ml x kg(-1): group 1 received midazolam 0.5 mg x kg(-1) (MD); group 2 received midazolam 0.5 mg x kg(-1) with ketamine 1.8 mg x kg(-1) (MK-1); and group 3 received midazolam 0.5 mg x kg(-1) with ketamine 3 mg x kg(-1) (MK-2). The reactions of the children during administration were noted. Anaesthesia was induced by facemask with incremental sevoflurane administration. All children received alfentanil (15 micro g x kg(-1)). Tracheal intubation was facilitated

2002 Paediatric anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5968. Ketamine attenuates neutrophil activation after cardiopulmonary bypass. (PubMed)

Ketamine attenuates neutrophil activation after cardiopulmonary bypass. Surgery is associated with activation of neutrophils and their influx into affected tissue. The pathogenic role of superoxide production generated by activated neutrophils has been documented repeatedly. Ketamine suppresses neutrophil oxygen radical production in vitro. In the present study, we compared the effect of adding small-dose ketamine to opioids during the induction of general anesthesia on superoxide production (...) by neutrophils after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thirty-five patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to one of two groups and prospectively studied in a double-blinded manner. The patients received either ketamine 0.25 mg/kg or a similar volume of saline in addition to large-dose fentanyl anesthesia. Blood samples were drawn before the operation, immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass, 24 and 48 postoperative h, and on postoperative Days 3-6. Functional capacity of neutrophils

2002 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5969. Propofol-ketamine versus propofol-fentanyl for outpatient laparoscopy: comparison of postoperative nausea, emesis, analgesia, and recovery. (PubMed)

Propofol-ketamine versus propofol-fentanyl for outpatient laparoscopy: comparison of postoperative nausea, emesis, analgesia, and recovery. To compare postoperative nausea, emesis, analgesia, and recovery between propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl in outpatient laparoscopic tubal ligations with general anesthesia.Prospective, randomized, blinded study.Tertiary-care women's hospital.120 ASA physical status I and II ambulatory patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic tubal (...) ligation.Patients were randomized to two groups to receive either ketamine (1-1.5 mg/kg) or fentanyl (3-5 microg/kg).Measured variables included total dose of ketamine, fentanyl, propofol, and operating time. Vital signs, pain visual analog scale scores (VAS), nausea VAS, presence of emesis, treatment for nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, and presence of dreaming were recorded on postanesthesia care unit (PACU) admission, PACU discharge, stepdown unit admission, and hospital discharge. Results

2002 Journal of clinical anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5970. Can ketamine potentiate the analgesic effect of epidural morphine, preincisional or postincisional administration? (PubMed)

Can ketamine potentiate the analgesic effect of epidural morphine, preincisional or postincisional administration? A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of adding epidural ketamine to epidural morphine comparing between giving ketamine at preincisional time and postincisional time on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing gynecological operations. Eighty patients scheduled for gynecological operation under combined epidural-general anesthesia were randomly (...) divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received epidural morphine 3 mg before skin incision. Group 2 received epidural morphine 3 mg after skin incision. Group 3 received epidural morphine 3 mg and ketamine 30 mg before skin incision. Group 4 received epidural morphine 3 mg and ketamine 30 mg after skin incision. Lidocaine 2 per cent with epinephrine 1:200,000 was used as the main anesthetic agent during the operation in all groups. Postoperative analgesics were pethidine 1 mg/kg intramuscularly

2002 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5971. A comparative study on the analgesic effect of tramadol, tramadol plus magnesium, and tramadol plus ketamine for postoperative pain management after major abdominal surgery. (PubMed)

A comparative study on the analgesic effect of tramadol, tramadol plus magnesium, and tramadol plus ketamine for postoperative pain management after major abdominal surgery. We tested whether, after major abdominal surgery, the addition of magnesium or ketamine to tramadol for intravenous (IV) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) improved analgesia and lowered pain scores, compared to a PCA containing only tramadol.Sixty-six patients were allocated randomly to receive a PCA with tramadol alone (T (...) ), tramadol plus magnesium (TM) or tramadol plus ketamin (TK), in a double-blind randomized study. Postoperative analgesia was started when the verbal rating scale (VRS) score was 2 or more. Following a loading dose of the study solution (which contained 1 mg/kg tramadol), a background infusion of 0.4 mg/kg/h was started. Patients were allowed to use bolus doses of 0.2 mg/kg every 20 min without a time limit. Discomfort, sedation, pain scores, total and bolus PCA tramadol consumption, and side-effects

2002 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5972. Use of low doses of ketamine administered by constant rate infusion as an adjunct for postoperative analgesia in dogs. (PubMed)

Use of low doses of ketamine administered by constant rate infusion as an adjunct for postoperative analgesia in dogs. To compare indicators of postoperative pain and behavior in dogs with and without a low-dose ketamine infusion added to usual perioperative management.Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study.27 dogs undergoing forelimb amputation.Dogs were anesthetized with glycopyrrolate, morphine, propofol, and isoflurane. Thirteen dogs were treated with ketamine IV, as follows: 0.5 (...) evaluated their dogs' appetite, activity, and wound soreness on postoperative days 2, 3, and 4.Dogs that received ketamine infusions had significantly lower pain scores 12 and 18 hours after surgery and were significantly more active on postoperative day 3 than dogs that received saline solution infusions.Results suggest that perioperative administration of low doses of ketamine to dogs may augment analgesia and comfort in the postoperative surgical period.

2002 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5973. No enhancement of sensory and motor blockade by ketamine added to ropivacaine interscalene brachial plexus blockade. (PubMed)

No enhancement of sensory and motor blockade by ketamine added to ropivacaine interscalene brachial plexus blockade. Ketamine can enhance anesthetic and analgesic actions of a local anesthetic via a peripheral mechanism. The authors' goal was to determine whether or not ketamine added to ropivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus blockade prolongs postoperative analgesia. In addition, we wanted to determine the incidence of adverse-effects in patients undergoing hand surgery.Sixty adults (...) scheduled for forearm or hand surgery under the interscalene brachial plexus block were prospectively randomized to receive one of the solutions of the study. Group P received 0.5% ropivacaine 30 ml, group K received 0.5% ropivacaine 30 ml with 30 mg ketamine, and group C received 0.5% ropivacaine with 30 mg ketamine i.v. Loss of shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist flexion and loss of pinprick in the C4-7 sensory dermatomes were assessed at 1-min intervals. Adverse-effects were assessed every 5 min

2002 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5974. Two doses of oral ketamine, given with midazolam, for premedication in children. (PubMed)

Two doses of oral ketamine, given with midazolam, for premedication in children. Oral premedication is common practice in paediatric anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of premedication using oral ketamine, with midazolam.Clinical randomized and blind-study on 120 patients, aged between 2 and 6 years, listed for minor surgery. Patients were divided in three groups: first group (group MK1) received midazolam and ketamine at the doses of 0.3 mgxkg-1 and 1 mgxkg-1 (...) , respectively; the second (group MK2) received 0.3 mgxkg-1 of midazolam and 2 mgxkg-1 of ketamine; the control group 0.5 mgxkg-1 of midazolam (group M). Success of premedication was assessed by assigning 1-4 points to the quality of anxiolysis and sedation every 5 min after drug administration and then at the moment of separation from parents, entrance to theatre and response to mask induction of general anaesthesia.More patients were successfully premedicated in the MK2 group, statistical significance

2002 Minerva anestesiologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5975. Postdelivery of alfentanil and ketamine has no effect on intradermal capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. (PubMed)

Postdelivery of alfentanil and ketamine has no effect on intradermal capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. The predelivery of intravenous alfentanil (a mu opioid agonist) and ketamine (an -methyl d-aspartate antagonist) has recently been shown to decrease the secondary hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the postdelivery of intravenous alfentanil and ketamine on intradermal capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia.Double (...) -blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Five minutes after an intradermal capsaicin injection, alfentanil and ketamine infusions were administered for a target plasma concentration of 75 ng/ml for alfentanil and 150 ng/ml for ketamine or placebo equivalent using a computer-controlled infusion pump and maintained for the remainder of the study. The investigator recorded the magnitude of the pain score at the time of injection and at 5-minute intervals. Fifteen minutes after

2002 Clinical Journal of Pain Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5976. [Recovery from anaesthesia and incidence and intensity of postoperative nausea and vomiting following a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with S-(+)-ketamine/propofol compared to alfentanil/propofol]. (PubMed)

[Recovery from anaesthesia and incidence and intensity of postoperative nausea and vomiting following a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with S-(+)-ketamine/propofol compared to alfentanil/propofol]. Opioids contribute to postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). An intraoperative analgesia with S-(+)-ketamine will make opioid administration dispensable and may reduce postoperative analgesic requirements. The aim of the study was to record the incidence and intensity of PONV following (...) a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with S-(+)-ketamine/propofol (K/P) or alfentanil/propofol (A/P) as well as recovery from anaesthesia.A total of 145 patients received a TIVA with K/P or A/P. Recovery time,PONV, intensity of pain and overall acceptance of the delivered anaesthesia were recorded.Recovery times were prolonged in the K/P group. Both groups had a comparable incidence of PONV (26% and 22% for K/P vs A/P, respectively), the intensity was low in both groups with a VAS of <6/100 mm at all

2002 Der Anaesthesist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5977. Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up. (PubMed)

Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up. Seventy detoxified heroin-addicted patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving ketamine psychotherapy (KPT) involving two different doses of ketamine. The patients of the experimental group received existentially oriented psychotherapy in combination with a hallucinogenic ("psychedelic") dose of ketamine (2.0 mg/kg im). The patients of the control group received the same psychotherapy (...) combined with a low, non-hallucinogenic (non-psychedelic), dose of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg im). Both the psychotherapist and patient were blind to the dose of ketamine. The therapy included preparation for the ketamine session, the ketamine session itself, and the post session psychotherapy aimed to help patients to integrate insights from their ketamine session into everyday life. The results of this double blind randomized clinical trial of KPT for heroin addiction showed that high dose (2.0 mg/kg) KPT

2002 Journal of substance abuse treatment Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5978. Appropriate method of administration of propofol, fentanyl, and ketamine for patient-controlled sedation and analgesia during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. (PubMed)

Appropriate method of administration of propofol, fentanyl, and ketamine for patient-controlled sedation and analgesia during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate method for administering propofol, fentanyl, and ketamine (PFK) for patient-controlled sedation and analgesia (PCSA) during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL).Twenty-one unpremedicated patients were randomly assigned to three groups that received different drug

2000 Journal of anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5979. Use of low-dose ketamine hydrochloride in outpatient oral surgery. (PubMed)

Use of low-dose ketamine hydrochloride in outpatient oral surgery. This study compares the quality of anesthesia achieved with low-dose ketamine with that of methohexital sodium. In a double-blind study of 40 healthy adult patients undergoing a variety of minor oral surgical procedures, the anesthetic techniques were assessed with respect to the following parameters: patients' subjective evaluation of the anesthesia, the level of response to injection of local anesthetic, psychomotor ability (...) after surgery, recovery times, and the frequency of adverse effects. From these observations, it was deduced that when low-dose ketamine was used with diazepam, meperidine, and nitrous oxide, it proved to be a safe and effective supplement for minimizing pain, discomfort, and anxiety before injection of local anesthetic. Patients' appreciation of the level of anesthetic achieved, psychomotor ability, adverse reactions, and recovery time was not significantly different from the methohexital sodium

1990 Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology

5980. The effect of music on ketamine induced emergence phenomena. (PubMed)

The effect of music on ketamine induced emergence phenomena. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of music on emergence phenomena after ketamine anaesthesia. Fifty ASA 1 patients undergoing minor gynaecological procedures were randomly divided into two equal groups. Patients in the treated group were played music of their choice through headphones from 5 min before induction of anaesthesia to 15 min postoperatively. Although the incidence of emergence phenomena

1992 Anaesthesia

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