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81. Safety & Efficacy of Zirconium Silicate in Chronic Kidney Disease or Moderate Kidney Dysfunction With Mild Hyperkalemia

a highly effective method of birth control. Exclusion Criteria: Pseudohyperkalemia such as excessive fist clinching hemolyzed blood specimen, severe leukocytosis or thrombocytosis. Subjects treated with lactulose, xifaxan or other non-absorbed antibiotics for hyperammonemia within the last 7 days. Subjects treated with resins (such as sevelamer acetate, calcium acetate or calcium carbonate, lanthanum carbonate, Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS; e.g. Kayexalate®) within the last 7 days. Subjects

2011 Clinical Trials

82. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report (Full text)

Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we

2011 NDT Plus PubMed abstract

83. Hyperkalemia (Full text)

, and/or the addition of a (such as or ). Sodium and (combined as Kayexalate) are occasionally used on an ongoing basis to maintain lower serum levels of potassium though the safety of long-term use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate for this purpose is not well understood. High dietary sources include such as , and , fruits such as , and nuts. Treatment [ ] Emergency lowering of potassium levels is needed when new arrhythmias occur at any level of potassium in the blood, or when potassium levels exceed 6.5 mmol/l (...) while temporising measures are instituted or there is no response to these measures. Potassium can bind to agents in the gastrointestinal tract. Sodium with (Kayexalate) has been approved for this use and can be given by mouth or rectally. However, careful clinical trials to demonstrate the effectiveness of sodium polystyrene are lacking, and use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate, particularly if with high sorbitol content, is uncommonly but convincingly with . There are no systematic studies (>6

2012 Wikipedia PubMed abstract

84. Timing of Dialysis Initiation: The Billion Dollar Question

can take all these "preventative" medications. I attended conferences where presenters said that they will keep their patients on an ACEi or ARB even till near ESRD by using Kayexalate to prevent hyperkalemia. Try to convince a patient to take kayexalate everyday! Others recommend to stop ACEi or ARB near ESRD to allow for some improvement in eGFR to help affording the patients few extra months off dialysis. Yes, Not every patient is suitable for dialysis and that is something our Nephrology

2011 Renal Fellow Network

85. Evaluation of RLY5016 in Heart Failure Patients

of polymer-based drugs (e.g. Renagel, Kayexalate, Welchol, Colestid), other phosphate binders or potassium binders, calcium supplements, antacids (eg TUMS, Maalox), or their anticipated need during study participation Use of aldosterone antagonist in the last 30 days prior to baseline, unless was discontinued due to hyperkalemia Use of potassium sparing medication and/or potassium supplements in the last 30 days prior to baseline Use of any investigational medication, 30 days or 5 half-lives whichever

2009 Clinical Trials

86. Colonic necrosis due to sodium polystyrene sulfate (Kayexalate) (Full text)

Colonic necrosis due to sodium polystyrene sulfate (Kayexalate) 19751641 2009 10 08 2018 11 13 1532-8171 27 6 2009 Jul The American journal of emergency medicine Am J Emerg Med Colonic necrosis due to sodium polystyrene sulfate (Kayexalate). 753.e1-2 10.1016/j.ajem.2008.10.002 Bomback Andrew S AS Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Woosley John T JT

2009 The American journal of emergency medicine PubMed abstract

87. What is the best treatment for hyperkalaemia in a preterm infant?

Hu et al, 1999, Taiwan VLBW infants (n = 40) with non-oliguric hyperkalaemia were randomly assigned to receive regular insulin (R/I) infusion (n=20) or kayexalate resin enema (n=20) RCT (level 1b) Evaluation of efficacy of glucose/insulin infusion vs kayexalate in treatment of hyperkalaemia in VLBW infants Significant shorter duration of hyperkalaemia and lower incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage noted in R/I group. No difference in peak potassium level or incidence of cardiac dysrhythmias (...) between the 2 groups Use of early continuous R/I therapy for the treatment of hyperkalaemia in VLBW infants is more effective than kayexalate in decreasing the duration of hyperkalaemia anddecreasing the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage Malone et al, 1991, USA ELBW preterm neonates (n=12) with hyperkalaemia were randomly assigned to receive insulin/dextrose (I/D) infusion (n=7) or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (n=5) PRCT (level 1b) Comparison of glucose and insulin infusion with rectal

2008 BestBETS

88. VA NEPHRON-D: Diabetes iN Nephropathy Study

, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Type 2 diabetes Albuminuria >300mg/gram creatinine Stage 2 or 3 CKD (eGFR 30 to <90 mg/min/1.73m*2 ) Able to give informed consent Telephone contact available Exclusion Criteria: History of intolerance to ACEI or ARB Serum potassium level >5.5 meq/L Receiving sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) Pregnancy, breast feeding, planning to become pregnant or sexually active and not using birth

2007 Clinical Trials

89. Paracetamol Oral Paediatric Suspension at 4.8% : Study of Acceptability and Safety.

or one of the ingredients of the study product Presenting a hepatocellular failure. Presenting a fructose intolerance. Presenting a serious concomitant disease, such as cancer, immune deficiency or a serious renal, hepatic cardiac, neurological, psychiatric or metabolic disease. Presenting a history of significant biological anomalies. Treated with Kayexalate® (sodium polystyrene sulphonate) Not covered by a social security regime. Whose parents are incapable of understanding Who cannot come back

2007 Clinical Trials

90. Pulmonary disease due to aspiration of food and other particulate matter: a clinicopathologic study of 59 cases diagnosed on biopsy or resection specimens. (Abstract)

in combination with multinucleated giant cells, acute bronchopneumonia/bronchiolitis, and/or suppurative granulomas. Foreign material was identified in all cases, including most commonly vegetable or food remnants (54 cases), and less often talc or microcrystalline cellulose (7), crospovidone (4), and kayexalate (2). Particulate matter aspiration pneumonia is a more common cause of lung infiltrates and nodules than generally appreciated. The diagnosis should be suspected when multinucleated giant cells

2007 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

91. Reported medication use in the neonatal intensive care unit: data from a large national data set. (Abstract)

, ethacrynic acid, insulin, lidocaine, metolazone, milrinone, inhaled nitric oxide, nitroglycerin, octreotide, pancuronium, phenytoin, sodium nitroprusside, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane acetate buffer, and tolazoline. Several of these drugs (eg, amphotericin B and bumetanide) were used primarily for extremely premature neonates, and this usage might explain the high mortality rates for the population of neonates treated with these medications. Other medications

2006 Pediatrics

92. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) aspiration (Full text)

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) aspiration In this short report we illustrate a case of extensive sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) aspiration as an immediate cause of death in a terminally ill patient. SPS is a cation exchange resin utilized to decrease potassium levels in patients with renal failure. When administered rectally in conjunction with sorbitol, colonic necrosis and perforation have been documented. On the other hand, oral administration can be complicated by aspiration

2008 Diagnostic pathology PubMed abstract

93. Glucose and insulin infusion versus kayexalate for the early treatment of non-oliguric hyperkalemia in very-low-birth-weight infants. (Abstract)

Glucose and insulin infusion versus kayexalate for the early treatment of non-oliguric hyperkalemia in very-low-birth-weight infants. Forty very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with non-oliguric hyperkalemia in the first few days after birth were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups, regular insulin (RI) infusion group and kayexalate resin enema group. Therapy was administered when serum potassium level was greater than 6 mEq/L. None of these infants received blood (...) transfusion during this study course. In RI group (n = 20), the ratio of infusion glucose to regular insulin was 10-15 gm glucose to 1 unit RI, and the glucose infusion rate was maintained at least 6 mg/Kg/min. In Kayexalate group (n = 20), the dose of Kayexalate was 1 gm/Kg body weight given rectally every four hours. All treatment discontinued after the serum potassium level returned to normal for 6 hours. The mean gestational ages were 27.4 +/- 1.8 weeks in RI group and 28.4 +/- 2.4 weeks in Kayexalate

2000 Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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