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Japanese Encephalitis

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161. Immunogenicity & safety of a single dose of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA 14-14-2 in adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity & safety of a single dose of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA 14-14-2 in adults Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by mosquito-borne Flavivirus is one of the leading causes of viral encephalitis in Asia. Control strategies include vector control and human vaccination. Due to lack of immunization programmes in endemic regions, there are still high mortality and morbidity. A live-attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine (LAJEV) has been licensed and used in Asian countries

2016 The Indian journal of medical research

162. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010 After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies

2016 PloS one

163. The C Terminus of the Core β-Ladder Domain in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Is Flexible for Accommodation of Heterologous Epitope Fusion Full Text available with Trip Pro

The C Terminus of the Core β-Ladder Domain in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Is Flexible for Accommodation of Heterologous Epitope Fusion NS1 is the only nonstructural protein that enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where NS1 is glycosylated, forms a dimer, and is subsequently secreted during flavivirus replication as dimers or hexamers, which appear to be highly immunogenic to the infected host, as protective immunity can be elicited against homologous (...) flavivirus infections. Here, by using a trans-complementation assay, we identified the C-terminal end of NS1 derived from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which was more flexible than other regions in terms of housing foreign epitopes without a significant impact on virus replication. This mapped flexible region is located in the conserved tip of the core β-ladder domain of the multimeric NS1 structure and is also known to contain certain linear epitopes, readily triggering specific antibody responses

2016 Journal of virology

164. Comparison of the antigenic relationship between Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes 1 and 3 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of the antigenic relationship between Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes 1 and 3 The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype circulating in Korea has changed from G3 to G1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the antigenic relationship between the two genotypes by using antibody tests.Blood samples from 42 sows and 216 horses were collected, and their seroprevalence was monitored using the hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests. Antisera

2016 Clinical and experimental vaccine research

165. Establishment of an Algorithm Using prM/E- and NS1-Specific IgM Antibody-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Infections in Humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Establishment of an Algorithm Using prM/E- and NS1-Specific IgM Antibody-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Infections in Humans The front-line assay for the presumptive serodiagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections is the premembrane/envelope (prM/E)-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Due to antibody cross-reactivity, MAC-ELISA

2016 Journal of clinical microbiology

166. Dynamic changes in global microRNAome and transcriptome reveal complex miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in microglial cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamic changes in global microRNAome and transcriptome reveal complex miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in microglial cells Microglia cells in the brain play essential role during Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) infection and may lead to change in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA profile. These changes may together control disease outcome. Using Affymetrix microarray platform, we profiled cellular miRNA and mRNA expression at multiple time points during viral

2016 Scientific reports

167. Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus Japanese Encephalitis (JE), caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavi-virus, is the most significant aetiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. It has resulted in epidemics of encephalitis in the Indian subcontinent. Here, we report a case of 36-year-old female who presented with a short history of fever and headache followed by altered sensorium. Funduscopic examination revealed Papilloedema. Pyogenic or viral (...) meningoencephalitis along with complicated malaria were kept as initial differential diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain revealed involvement of posterior limb of internal capsule and bilateral thalami in the form of haemorrhagic encephalitis along with obstructive hydrocephalus. Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) serology (IgM ELISA) showed JE as the causative agent. Despite extensive literature search, we could not find a case of JE reported with hydrocephalus as a complication. This case highlights

2016 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

168. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination

2016 Scientific reports

169. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles Full Text available with Trip Pro

A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we (...) showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged

2016 Viruses

170. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the M Protein Attenuates Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mammalian Hosts Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the M Protein Attenuates Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mammalian Hosts Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) membrane (M) protein plays important structural roles in the processes of fusion and maturation of progeny virus during cellular infection. The M protein is anchored in the viral membrane, and its ectodomain is composed of a flexible N-terminal loop and a perimembrane helix. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on residue 36 of JEV M

2016 Journal of virology

171. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental

2016 Veterinary Research

172. Pathogenic and Genotypic Characterization of a Japanese Encephalitis Virus Isolate Associated with Reproductive Failure in an Indian Pig Herd Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pathogenic and Genotypic Characterization of a Japanese Encephalitis Virus Isolate Associated with Reproductive Failure in an Indian Pig Herd India is endemic to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and recurrent outbreaks occur mainly in rice growing areas. Pigs are considered to be the amplifying host for JEV and infection in gestating pigs results in reproductive failure. Most studies conducted on JEV infection in Indian pigs have been serological surveys and very little is known about JEV (...) genotypes circulating in pigs. So the potential risk posed by pigs in JEV transmission and the genetic relationship between viruses circulating in pigs, mosquitoes and humans is poorly understood.This study was conducted in pigs with a history of reproductive failure characterized by stillborn piglets with neuropathological lesions. Japanese encephalitis (JE) suspected brain specimens inoculated intracerebrally into mice and Vero cells resulted in successful isolation of JEV/SW/IVRI/395A/2014

2016 PloS one

173. Vector-free transmission and persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vector-free transmission and persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a main cause of severe viral encephalitis in humans, has a complex ecology, composed of a cycle involving primarily waterbirds and mosquitoes, as well as a cycle involving pigs as amplifying hosts. To date, JEV transmission has been exclusively described as being mosquito-mediated. Here we demonstrate that JEV can be transmitted between pigs in the absence of arthropod vectors

2016 Nature communications

174. Establishment of the 3rd national standard for lot release testing of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Establishment of the 3rd national standard for lot release testing of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) in Korea In Korea, 2 inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines from Nakayama-NIH and Beijing-1 strain have been utilized to date. The 1(st) national standard for lot release testing of the JE vaccine was established in 2002. The 2(nd) national standard, established in 2007, is currently in use for JE vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) potency testing. However, the supply (...) , the potency of the new national standard material was determined to be 2.69 neutralizing-antibody titer (log10) per vial. Therefore, the newly established national standard material is expected to be used for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine lot release in Korea.

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

175. MicroRNA-33a-5p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A1 Full Text available with Trip Pro

MicroRNA-33a-5p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Targeting Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A1 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a typical mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for acute encephalitis and meningitis in humans. However, the molecular mechanism for JEV pathogenesis is still unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as gene regulators. They are directly or indirectly involved in many cellular functions owing to their ability (...) , is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The roles of cellular miRNAs during JEV infections are widely unexplored. The present study explores a novel role of miR-33a-5p as a negative regulator of JEV replication. We found EEF1A1 as a direct target of miR-33a-5p. We also demonstrated that EEF1A1 interacts with and stabilize the components of JEV replicase complex, which positively regulates JEV replication. These findings suggest a new insight into the molecular mechanism

2016 Journal of virology

176. Pre-cut Filter Paper for Detecting Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus IgM from Dried Cerebrospinal Fluid Spots Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-cut Filter Paper for Detecting Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus IgM from Dried Cerebrospinal Fluid Spots The use of filter paper as a simple, inexpensive tool for storage and transportation of blood, 'Dried Blood Spots' or Guthrie cards, for diagnostic assays is well-established. In contrast, there are a paucity of diagnostic evaluations of dried cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spots. These have potential applications in low-resource settings, such as Laos, where laboratory facilities for central (...) nervous system (CNS) diagnostics are only available in Vientiane. In Laos, a major cause of CNS infection is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). We aimed to develop a dried CSF spot protocol and to evaluate its diagnostic performance using the World Health Organisation recommended anti-JEV IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (JEV MAC-ELISA).Sample volumes, spotting techniques and filter paper type were evaluated using a CSF-substitute of anti-JEV IgM positive serum diluted

2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

177. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014 Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China.Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial

2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

178. Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes

2016 Virus Evolution

179. Transcriptional regulation of miR-15b by c-Rel and CREB in Japanese encephalitis virus infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transcriptional regulation of miR-15b by c-Rel and CREB in Japanese encephalitis virus infection MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well known to play diverse roles in viral infection at the level of posttranscriptional repression. However, much less is understood about the mechanism by which miRNAs are regulated during viral infection. It is likely that both host and virus contain factors to modulate miRNA expression. Here we report the up-regulation of microRNA-15b (miR-15b) in vitro upon infection (...) with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Analysis of miR-15b precursor, pri-miR-15b and pre-miR-15b, suggest that the regulation occurs transcriptionally. Further, we identified the transcriptional regulatory region of miR-15b that contains consensus binding motif for NF-κB subunit c-Rel and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which are known as transcription factor to regulate gene expression. By promoter fusion and mutational analyses, we demonstrated that c-Rel and CREB bind directly

2016 Scientific reports

180. Recombinant Measles AIK-C Vaccine Strain Expressing the prM-E Antigen of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recombinant Measles AIK-C Vaccine Strain Expressing the prM-E Antigen of Japanese Encephalitis Virus An inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, which induces neutralizing antibodies, has been used for many years in Japan. In the present study, the JEV prM-E protein gene was cloned, inserted at the P/M junction of measles AIK-C cDNA, and an infectious virus was recovered. The JEV E protein was expressed in B95a cells infected with the recombinant virus. Cotton rats were inoculated

2016 PloS one

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