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Japanese Encephalitis

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81. Prevalence and risk factors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in livestock and companion animal in high-risk areas in Malaysia (PubMed)

Prevalence and risk factors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in livestock and companion animal in high-risk areas in Malaysia Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during

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2017 Tropical animal health and production

82. Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and mortality (PubMed)

Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and mortality Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by JEV is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine secretion, microglia activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuronal death, all of which contribute to the vicious cycle of inflammatory damage. There are currently no effective treatments for JE

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2017 Stem cell research & therapy

83. Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis (PubMed)

Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis is a flaviviral disease that is endemic to the South, Southeast Asia, and Asia Oceania regions. Given that about 60% of the world's population (about 7.4 billion) resides in this region (about 4.4 billion), this disease poses a significant threat to global health. Active vaccination campaigns conducted in endemic countries have led to a decrease in the number of reported cases over the years. In this article, we strive to briefly (...) highlight recent advances in understanding the role of microRNAs in disease pathology, focus on providing brief summaries of recent clinical trials in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics, and review the current prophylactic strategies.

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2017 F1000Research

84. GRP78 Is an Important Host Factor for Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry and Replication in Mammalian Cells (PubMed)

GRP78 Is an Important Host Factor for Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry and Replication in Mammalian Cells Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia with potential to become a global pathogen. Here, we identify glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as an important host protein for virus entry and replication. Using the plasma membrane fractions from mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cells, mass spectroscopy analysis (...) titers. Our results indicate that GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperon of the HSP70 family, is a novel host factor involved at multiple steps of the JEV life cycle and could be a potential therapeutic target.IMPORTANCE Recent years have seen a rapid spread of mosquito-borne diseases caused by flaviviruses. The flavivirus family includes West Nile, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika viruses, which are major threats to public health with potential to become global pathogens. JEV is the major

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2017 Journal of virology

85. Crystal structure of full-length Zika virus NS5 protein reveals a conformation similar to Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 (PubMed)

Crystal structure of full-length Zika virus NS5 protein reveals a conformation similar to Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 The rapid spread of the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic across various countries in the American continent poses a major health hazard for the unborn fetuses of pregnant women. To date, there is no effective medical intervention. The nonstructural protein 5 of Zika virus (ZIKV-NS5) is critical for ZIKV replication through the 5'-RNA capping and RNA polymerase activities (...) present in its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) and C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, respectively. The crystal structure of the full-length ZIKV-NS5 protein has been determined at 3.05 Å resolution from a crystal belonging to space group P21212 and containing two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure is similar to that reported for the NS5 protein from Japanese encephalitis virus and suggests opportunities for structure-based drug design targeting either

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2017 Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology communications

86. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: Immunogenicity, protective efficacy, effectiveness, and impact on the burden of disease (PubMed)

Japanese encephalitis vaccines: Immunogenicity, protective efficacy, effectiveness, and impact on the burden of disease Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious public health concern in most of Asia. The disease is caused by JE virus (JEV), a flavivirus transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Several vaccines have been developed to control JE in endemic areas as well as to protect travelers and military personnel who visit or are commissioned from non-endemic to endemic areas. The vaccines include

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

87. The molecular determinants governing the immunogenicity of Japanese encephalitis live attenuated vaccines (PubMed)

The molecular determinants governing the immunogenicity of Japanese encephalitis live attenuated vaccines In the course of isolating the attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA14-14-2, two attenuated strains SA14-9-7 and SA14-5-3 were also obtained that elicited low antibody responses in humans (<10% and 62%, respectively) and exerted much weaker immune protection in animal challenge experiments. However, the reason for these differences remains unknown. In order to understand why SA14-14-2 (...) is superior to SA14-9-7 and SA14-5-3, we employed a reverse genetics method to identify the key mutations in the virus genome that determine the immunogenicity of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis viruses. We first sequenced the full genomic sequences of SA14-9-7 and SA14-5-3 and found mutations that changed four amino-acid base pairs when compared to the envelope gene of SA14-14-2. We mutated the genome of SA14-14-2 to generate these mutations both singly (E-177, E-264, E-279 and E-315

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2017 Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy

88. Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS5 Inhibits Type I Interferon (IFN) Production by Blocking the Nuclear Translocation of IFN Regulatory Factor 3 and NF-κB (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS5 Inhibits Type I Interferon (IFN) Production by Blocking the Nuclear Translocation of IFN Regulatory Factor 3 and NF-κB The type I interferon (IFN) response is part of the first-line defense against viral infection. To initiate replication, viruses have developed powerful evasion strategies to counteract host IFN responses. In the present study, we found that the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS5 protein could inhibit double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-β (...) the induction of type I IFN by targeting KPNA3 and KPNA4.IMPORTANCE JEV is the major cause of viral encephalitis in South and Southeast Asia, with high mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the severe pathogenesis are poorly understood. The ability of JEV to counteract the host innate immune response is potentially one of the mechanisms responsible for JEV virulence. Here we demonstrate the ability of JEV NS5 to interfere with the dsRNA-induced nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB

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2017 Journal of virology

89. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4 Promotes Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Suppressing Autophagy in Human Neuroblastoma Cells (PubMed)

E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4 Promotes Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Suppressing Autophagy in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes the most prevalent viral encephalitis in Asia. Since JEV is a neurotropic virus, it is important to identify key molecules that mediate JEV infection in neuronal cells and to investigate their underlying mechanisms. In this study, the critical role of Nedd4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase

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2017 Scientific reports

90. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Exploits Dopamine D2 Receptor-phospholipase C to Target Dopaminergic Human Neuronal Cells (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Exploits Dopamine D2 Receptor-phospholipase C to Target Dopaminergic Human Neuronal Cells Despite the availability of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the re-emerging virus remains a clinically important pathogen that causes acute encephalitis and permanent neuropsychiatric sequels. JEV highly targets dopaminergic neuron-rich brain regions including the thalamus and midbrain. The molecular mechanism contributing to the high susceptibility

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

91. Hypothermia due to limbic system involvement and longitudinal myelitis in a case of Japanese encephalitis: a case report from India (PubMed)

Hypothermia due to limbic system involvement and longitudinal myelitis in a case of Japanese encephalitis: a case report from India Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious encephalitis prevalent in Asia. It usually presents with fever, headache, convulsions and extrapyramidal symptoms. Limbic system involvement and hypothermia though common in autoimmune encephalitis have never been reported in JE. We report a case of an 18-year-old girl with no previous comorbidities who presented to us

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2017 International journal of general medicine

92. Single-Round Infectious Particle Antiviral Screening Assays for the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (PubMed)

Single-Round Infectious Particle Antiviral Screening Assays for the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome that contains a big open reading frame (ORF) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTRs). Nearly 30,000 JE cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in East Asia. Although the JEV genotype III vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other

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2017 Viruses

93. Production of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antigens in Plants Using Bamboo Mosaic Virus-Based Vector (PubMed)

Production of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antigens in Plants Using Bamboo Mosaic Virus-Based Vector Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is among the major threats to public health in Asia. For disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against JEV is in urgent need. In this study, we produced a plant-made JEV vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (CVP) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) for epitope presentation. The chimeric virus

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

94. Tubacin, an HDAC6 Selective Inhibitor, Reduces the Replication of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus via the Decrease of Viral RNA Synthesis (PubMed)

Tubacin, an HDAC6 Selective Inhibitor, Reduces the Replication of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus via the Decrease of Viral RNA Synthesis Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, annually causes over 30,000 Japanese Encephalitis (JE) cases in East and Southeast Asia. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate lysine acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins, regulating many processes including inflammation and antiviral immune response. This study investigated antiviral

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

95. Near-atomic structure of Japanese encephalitis virus reveals critical determinants of virulence and stability (PubMed)

Near-atomic structure of Japanese encephalitis virus reveals critical determinants of virulence and stability Although several different flaviviruses may cause encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis virus is the most significant, being responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia. The structural and molecular basis of this encephalitis is not fully understood. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of mature Japanese encephalitis virus at near-atomic resolution, which (...) reveals an unusual "hole" on the surface, surrounded by five encephalitic-specific motifs implicated in receptor binding. Glu138 of E, which is highly conserved in encephalitic flaviviruses, maps onto one of these motifs and is essential for binding to neuroblastoma cells, with the E138K mutation abrogating the neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of Japanese encephalitis virus in mice. We also identify structural elements modulating viral stability, notably Gln264 of E, which, when replaced by His264

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2017 Nature communications

96. mosGCTL-7, a C-Type Lectin Protein, Mediates Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mosquitoes (PubMed)

mosGCTL-7, a C-Type Lectin Protein, Mediates Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mosquitoes Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus prevalent in Asia and the Western Pacific and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. JEV is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, but the molecular mechanisms by which the mosquito vector participates in transmission are unclear. We investigated the expression of all C-type lectins during (...) in nature.IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and is the primary cause of viral encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. Twenty-four countries in the WHO Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions have endemic JEV transmission, which exposes >3 billion people to the risks of infection, although JEV primarily affects children. C-type lectins are host factors that play a role in flavivirus infection in humans, swine, and other mammals. In this study, we investigated C-type lectin

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2017 Journal of virology

97. Pigsties near dwellings as a potential risk factor for the prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus in adult in Shanxi, China (PubMed)

Pigsties near dwellings as a potential risk factor for the prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus in adult in Shanxi, China The increasing trend of adult cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in China, particularly in northern China, has become an important public health issue. We conducted an epidemiological investigation in the south of Shanxi Province to examine the relationships between mosquitoes, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and adult JE cases.Mosquito specimens were collected from

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2017 Infectious diseases of poverty

98. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization — Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016 (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization — Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016 Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia

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2017 MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

99. A Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inducing Antibodies Strongly Enhancing In Vitro Infection Is Protective in Pigs (PubMed)

A Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inducing Antibodies Strongly Enhancing In Vitro Infection Is Protective in Pigs The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for zoonotic severe viral encephalitis transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Although birds are reservoirs, pigs play a role as amplifying hosts, and are affected in particular through reproductive failure. Here, we show that a lentiviral JEV vector, expressing JEV prM and E proteins (TRIP/JEV.prME), but not JEV infection induces

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2017 Viruses

100. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system (PubMed)

A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV (...) ) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health. This JEV DNA-based replicon contains a large deletion in the structural genes (C-prM-E). A PRRSV GP5/M was inserted into the deletion position of JEV DNA-based replicons to develop a chimeric replicon vaccine candidate for PRRSV. The results showed that BALB/c mice models with the replicon

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2017 PeerJ

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