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Japanese Encephalitis

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61. Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus (Full text)

Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia (...) to NS1 structures are not glycosaminoglycan binding interfaces. This report highlights several differences between flavivirus NS1 proteins and contributes to our understanding of their structure-pathogenic function relationships.IMPORTANCE JEV is a major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Despite extensive vaccination, epidemics still occur. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays a role in viral replication, and, because it is secreted, it can exhibit a wide range of interactions with host proteins

2018 Journal of virology PubMed

62. Fatal Meningoencephalomyelitis due to the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: The First Detailed Neurological Observation in a Japanese Patient from the Central Part of Hokkaido Island (Full text)

Fatal Meningoencephalomyelitis due to the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: The First Detailed Neurological Observation in a Japanese Patient from the Central Part of Hokkaido Island To date, the only instance of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Japan was reported from the southern part of Hokkaido Island in 1993; no other cases have been reported since then. We herein report the first case of TBE reported in the central part of Hokkaido Island, and describe the fatal clinical course of a patient

2018 Internal Medicine PubMed

63. A Japanese Encephalitis Patient Presenting with Parkinsonism with Corresponding Laterality of Magnetic Resonance and Dopamine Transporter Imaging Findings (Full text)

A Japanese Encephalitis Patient Presenting with Parkinsonism with Corresponding Laterality of Magnetic Resonance and Dopamine Transporter Imaging Findings Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors often present with nigrostriatal aftereffects with parkinsonian features. A 67-year-old woman with JE showed right-dominant clinical parkinsonism and left-dominant substantia nigra lesions after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging using 123I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4

2018 Internal Medicine PubMed

64. Molecular and clinical relationship between live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccination and childhood onset myasthenia gravis. (Full text)

Molecular and clinical relationship between live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccination and childhood onset myasthenia gravis. The incidence of childhood onset myasthenia gravis (CMG) in China is higher than that in other countries; however, the reasons for this are unclear.We investigated the clinical and immunological profiles of CMG, and assessed the potential precipitating factors. For the mouse studies, the possible implication of vaccination in the pathogenesis was explored.In our (...) retrospective study, 51.22% of the 4,219 cases of myasthenia gravis (MG) were of the childhood onset type. The cohort study uncovered that the pathophysiology of CMG was mediated by immune deviation, rather than through gene mutations or virus infections. The administration of the live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LA-JEV), but not the inactivated vaccine or other vaccines, in mice induced serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody production, reduced the AChR density at the endplates

2018 Annals of Neurology PubMed

65. A nationwide survey of pediatric-onset Japanese encephalitis in Japan. (PubMed)

A nationwide survey of pediatric-onset Japanese encephalitis in Japan. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis with high mortality and morbidity in Asia. In Japan, however, the active recommendation of JE vaccine was retracted in 2005 because of the potential risk of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We aimed to determine the recent incidence of childhood-onset JE after the domestic change of vaccination policy in Japan, and to analyze the clinical features

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

66. An infection cocktail: malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis. (PubMed)

An infection cocktail: malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis. Vector-borne diseases cause a significant burden on healthcare facilities. An increasing number of cases reported with multiple co-infections only add to the ordeal. The presence of co-infection may modify clinical and laboratory parameters significantly making diagnosis and treatment a challenge. Cases of malaria and dengue with other infections such as chikungunya, leptospirosis and hepatitis have been reported (...) previously. We report a case of acute febrile illness with altered sensorium which was eventually diagnosed to have quadruple infection with malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis. This may be the first case with four concurrent vector-borne infections, all of which are transmitted by mosquitoes.

2018 Tropical Doctor

67. First co-infection case of melioidosis and Japanese encephalitis in China. (Full text)

First co-infection case of melioidosis and Japanese encephalitis in China. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Infection usually follows percutaneous inoculation or inhalation or ingestion of the causative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is present in soil and surface water in endemic regions. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), leading to epidemic encephalitis in Southeast Asia. Both B

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

68. Recent and historical trends in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and its implication for risk assessment in travellers. (Full text)

Recent and historical trends in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and its implication for risk assessment in travellers. Japanese encephalitis is a major disease in many countries in Asia often visited by both leisure and non-leisure travellers. Although reported cases of Japanese apoptosis (JE) in travellers are relatively few, there are indications that both the number of cases might be underreported and that changes in the epidemiological situation in these parts of Asia may increase

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine PubMed

69. Japanese encephalitis: the vectors, ecology and potential for expansion. (Full text)

Japanese encephalitis: the vectors, ecology and potential for expansion. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral disease predominantly located in South East Asia and commonly associated with transmission between amplifying hosts, such as pigs, and the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus, where human infection represents a dead end in the life cycle of the virus. The expansion of JE beyond an Asiatic confine is dependent on a multitude of complex factors that stem back to genetic subtype variation (...) and anthropological factors that affect the disease's range and epidemiology.Monitoring for the presence of JE virus in mosquitoes in general can be used to estimate levels of potential JE exposure, intensity of viral activity and genetic variation of JEV throughout surveyed areas. Increased surveillance and diagnosis of viral encephalitis caused by genotype 5 JE virus is required in particular, with the expansion in epidemiology and disease prevalence in new geographic areas an issue of great concern. Additional

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine PubMed

70. Changing paradigm in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in a non-endemic region. (PubMed)

Changing paradigm in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in a non-endemic region. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease. The JE virus (JEV) does not cause any disease among its natural hosts and transmission continues through mosquitoes belonging to Culex vishnui subgroup. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of JEV in mosquitoes and humans in the Thanjavur district, a non-endemic region for JE, in Tamil Nadu, by using standard available assays

2017 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

71. Virulence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes I and III, Taiwan. (Full text)

Virulence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes I and III, Taiwan. The virulence of genotype I (GI) Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is under debate. We investigated differences in the virulence of GI and GIII JEV by calculating asymptomatic ratios based on serologic studies during GI- and GIII-JEV endemic periods. The results suggested equal virulence of GI and GIII JEV among humans.

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases PubMed

72. Meta-analyses of the proportion of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts. (Full text)

Meta-analyses of the proportion of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis in Southeast Asia vectored by mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is considered an emerging exotic infectious disease with potential for introduction in currently JEV-free countries. Pigs and ardeid birds are reservoir hosts and play a major role on the transmission dynamics of the disease

2017 Parasites & vectors PubMed

73. Clinical Characteristics of Severe Japanese Encephalitis: A Case Series from South Korea. (Full text)

Clinical Characteristics of Severe Japanese Encephalitis: A Case Series from South Korea. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We (...) retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 patients with JE were identified. Their median age was 51 years, and 10 (58.5%) were men. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (94.1%), altered consciousness (94.1%), and headache (80.2%). Hyporeflexia (47.1%), seizures (35.2%), abnormal brainstem reflex (23.5%), and flaccid weakness (17.6%) were also noted. Brain

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene PubMed

74. Interplay of inflammatory gene expression in pericytes following Japanese encephalitis virus infection. (PubMed)

Interplay of inflammatory gene expression in pericytes following Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis. Although brain pericytes show regulatory effects on neuroinflammation, their involvement in Japanese encephalitis-associated neuroinflammation is not understood. Here, we demonstrated that brain microvascular pericytes could be an alternative cellular source for the induction (...) and/or amplification of neuroinflammation caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. Infection of cultured pericytes with JEV caused profound production of IL-6, RANTES, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Mechanistic studies revealed that JEV infection elicited an elevation of the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)/MyD88 signaling axis, leading to the activation of NF-κB through IKK signaling and p65 phosphorylation as well as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) via phosphorylation. We further demonstrated

2017 Brain, behavior, and immunity

75. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes from human microglial cell samples infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. (PubMed)

Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes from human microglial cell samples infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. Limited studies have been reported on Japanese encephalitis (JE) with reference to microarray data analysis. The present study involved an in silico approach for identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes in human microglial cell (CHME3) samples, infected with P20778 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Gene

2017 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

76. Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015. (Full text)

Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015. We investigated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China, by using standard assays to test mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. Results confirmed that JEV has spread to these areas. Disease prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to limit spread of JEV in high-altitude regions of Tibet.

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases PubMed

77. Safety of the Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine IXIARO® in Children - an Open-Label, Randomized, Active-Controlled, Phase 3 Study. (PubMed)

Safety of the Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine IXIARO® in Children - an Open-Label, Randomized, Active-Controlled, Phase 3 Study. Japanese encephalitis remains a serious health concern in Asian countries and has sporadically affected pediatric travelers. In the present study, we monitored the safety profile of the Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IXIARO (Valneva Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria) in a pediatric population.We randomized 1869 children between 2 months and 17 years

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

78. Seasonal Patterns of Japanese Encephalitis and Associated Meteorological Factors in Taiwan (Full text)

Seasonal Patterns of Japanese Encephalitis and Associated Meteorological Factors in Taiwan The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of JE in Taiwan. We collected data for cases of JE reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2000 to 2014

2017 International journal of environmental research and public health PubMed

79. Retraction: Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal (Full text)

Retraction: Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal 29108001 2018 11 13 1932-6203 12 11 2017 PloS one PLoS ONE Retraction: Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal. e0187867 10.1371/journal.pone.0187867 PLOS ONE Editors eng Journal Article Retraction of Publication 2017 11 06 United

2017 PloS one PubMed

80. Full-Length Genome Sequence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Strain FC792, Isolated from Guangxi, China (Full text)

Full-Length Genome Sequence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Strain FC792, Isolated from Guangxi, China We report here the complete genomic sequence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain FC792, isolated from aborted fetuses of sows which were unimmunized with JEV vaccines in Guangxi Province, southern China. The complete JEV genome of strain FC792 had the highest nucleotide homology (99.7%) and amino acid identity (99.4%) with the sequence of JEV strain SA14-14-2 (GenBank accession number (...) AF315119). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain FC792 had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the sequence of strain YUNNAN0901 (GenBank accession number JQ086762). This study will help us understand the molecular pathogenesis and genetic diversity of genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs.Copyright © 2017 Lu et al.

2017 Genome Announcements PubMed

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