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Japanese Encephalitis

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41. North American domestic pigs are susceptible to experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

North American domestic pigs are susceptible to experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is capable of causing encephalitic diseases in children. While humans can succumb to severe disease, the transmission cycle is maintained by viremic birds and pigs in endemic regions. Although JEV is regarded as a significant threat to the United States (U.S.), the susceptibility of domestic swine to JEV infection has

2018 Scientific reports

42. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos – A Pilot study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos – A Pilot study Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (...) ) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive). Testing other body fluids by JEV RT-qPCR may improve the diagnosis. As a pilot study thirty patients admitted to Mahosot Hospital 2014-2017, recruited to the South-East-Asia-Encephalitis study, were tested by JEV MAC-ELISA and two JEV real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays (NS2A and NS3). Eleven (36.7%) were JEV MAC-ELISA

2018 Scientific reports

43. Fatal Meningoencephalomyelitis due to the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: The First Detailed Neurological Observation in a Japanese Patient from the Central Part of Hokkaido Island Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fatal Meningoencephalomyelitis due to the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: The First Detailed Neurological Observation in a Japanese Patient from the Central Part of Hokkaido Island To date, the only instance of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Japan was reported from the southern part of Hokkaido Island in 1993; no other cases have been reported since then. We herein report the first case of TBE reported in the central part of Hokkaido Island, and describe the fatal clinical course of a patient

2018 Internal Medicine

44. Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia (...) to NS1 structures are not glycosaminoglycan binding interfaces. This report highlights several differences between flavivirus NS1 proteins and contributes to our understanding of their structure-pathogenic function relationships.IMPORTANCE JEV is a major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Despite extensive vaccination, epidemics still occur. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays a role in viral replication, and, because it is secreted, it can exhibit a wide range of interactions with host proteins

2018 Journal of virology

45. Review of the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in Foreign-Born and Korean Nationals Living in the Republic of Korea, 2007–2016 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Review of the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in Foreign-Born and Korean Nationals Living in the Republic of Korea, 2007–2016 The Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine was introduced to the national immunization program in 1985, which has led to a dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases, but JE continues to occur in foreign nationals residing in or traveling to Korea. Although the incidence is low, this study demonstrated that more Koreans were infected with JE than foreign-born

2018 Osong public health and research perspectives

46. Host Factor SPCS1 Regulates the Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Interactions with Transmembrane Domains of NS2B Full Text available with Trip Pro

Host Factor SPCS1 Regulates the Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Interactions with Transmembrane Domains of NS2B Signal peptidase complex subunit 1 (SPCS1) is a newly identified host factor that regulates flavivirus replication, but the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, using Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as a model, we investigated the mechanism through which the host factor SPCS1 regulates the replication of flaviviruses. We first validated

2018 Journal of virology

47. IP-10 Promotes Blood–Brain Barrier Damage by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Japanese Encephalitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

IP-10 Promotes Blood–Brain Barrier Damage by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Japanese Encephalitis Japanese encephalitis is a neuropathological disorder caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is characterized by severe pathological neuroinflammation and damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines can regulate the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and are believed to be a leading cause of BBB disruption, but the specific

2018 Frontiers in immunology

48. Brain microvascular endothelial-astrocyte cell responses following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain microvascular endothelial-astrocyte cell responses following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier model Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of encephalitis, globally, which continues to grow in importance despite the availability of vaccines. Viral entry into the brain can occur via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and inflammation at the BBB is a common final pathway in many brain infections. However, the role of the BBB

2018 Molecular and cellular neurosciences

49. How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis Evidence indicated that socio-environmental factors were associated with occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). This study explored the association of climate and socioeconomic factors with JE (2006-2014) in Shaanxi, China. JE data at the county level in Shaanxi were supplied by Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population and socioeconomic data were

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

50. Overview of Japanese encephalitis disease and its prevention. Focus on IC51 vaccine (IXIARO®) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Overview of Japanese encephalitis disease and its prevention. Focus on IC51 vaccine (IXIARO®) Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV is transmitted by mosquitoes to a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including birds and mammals. Domestic animals, especially pigs, are generally implicated as reservoirs of the virus, while humans are not part of the natural transmission cycle and cannot pass the virus to other hosts. Although JEV

2018 Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene

51. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Nepal, 2007-2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Nepal, 2007-2015. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health problem in Nepal. For the effective management and surveillance of JE, a clear understanding of its epidemiology is essential. Therefore, we conducted descriptive and spatial analyses to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of JE in human in Nepal. From 2007 to 2015, 1,823 JE cases were reported with a cumulative mean incidence of 0.735/100,000 population

2017 PLoS ONE

52. Five-Year Antibody Persistence Following a Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) Booster in JE-CV-Primed Children in the Philippines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Five-Year Antibody Persistence Following a Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) Booster in JE-CV-Primed Children in the Philippines. NCT01190228.© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

53. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmitted Via Blood Transfusion, Hong Kong, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmitted Via Blood Transfusion, Hong Kong, China. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquitoborne virus endemic to China and Southeast Asia that causes severe encephalitis in <1% of infected persons. Transmission of JEV via blood transfusion has not been reported. We report transmission of JEV via blood donation products from an asymptomatic viremic donor to 2 immunocompromised recipients. One recipient on high-dose immunosuppressive drugs received JEV (...) -positive packed red blood cells after a double lung transplant; severe encephalitis and a poor clinical outcome resulted. JEV RNA was detected in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens. The second recipient had leukemia and received platelets after undergoing chemotherapy. This patient was asymptomatic; JEV infection was confirmed in this person by IgM seroconversion. This study illustrates that, consistent with other pathogenic flaviviruses, JEV can be transmitted via

2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

54. Japanese Encephalitis in Malaysia: An Overview and Timeline. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Japanese Encephalitis in Malaysia: An Overview and Timeline. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It causes encephalitis in human and horses, and may lead to reproductive failure in sows. The first human encephalitis case in Malaya (now Malaysia) was reported during World War II in a British prison in 1942. Later, encephalitis was observed among race horses in Singapore. In 1951, the first JEV was isolated from the brain (...) of an encephalitis patient. The true storyline of JE exposure among humans and animals has not been documented in Malaysia. In some places such as Sarawak, JEV has been isolated from mosquitoes before an outbreak in 1992. JE is an epidemic in Malaysia except Sarawak. There are four major outbreaks reported in Pulau Langkawi (1974), Penang (1988), Perak and Negeri Sembilan (1998-1999), and Sarawak (1992). JE is considered endemic only in Sarawak. Initially, both adults and children were victims of JE in Malaysia

2018 Acta Tropica

55. Recent and historical trends in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and its implication for risk assessment in travellers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recent and historical trends in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and its implication for risk assessment in travellers. Japanese encephalitis is a major disease in many countries in Asia often visited by both leisure and non-leisure travellers. Although reported cases of Japanese apoptosis (JE) in travellers are relatively few, there are indications that both the number of cases might be underreported and that changes in the epidemiological situation in these parts of Asia may increase

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

56. Japanese encephalitis: the vectors, ecology and potential for expansion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Japanese encephalitis: the vectors, ecology and potential for expansion. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral disease predominantly located in South East Asia and commonly associated with transmission between amplifying hosts, such as pigs, and the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus, where human infection represents a dead end in the life cycle of the virus. The expansion of JE beyond an Asiatic confine is dependent on a multitude of complex factors that stem back to genetic subtype variation (...) and anthropological factors that affect the disease's range and epidemiology.Monitoring for the presence of JE virus in mosquitoes in general can be used to estimate levels of potential JE exposure, intensity of viral activity and genetic variation of JEV throughout surveyed areas. Increased surveillance and diagnosis of viral encephalitis caused by genotype 5 JE virus is required in particular, with the expansion in epidemiology and disease prevalence in new geographic areas an issue of great concern. Additional

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

57. DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui). (Abstract)

DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui). Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Effective vector control and early (...) diagnosis, along with continuous serosurveillance in animals, are crucial to fight this arboviral disease. However, the success of vector control operations is linked with the fast and reliable identification of targeted species, and knowledge about their biology and ecology. Since the DNA barcoding of Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis is scarcely explored, here we evaluated the efficacy of this tool to identify and analyze the variations among five overlooked Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis

2018 Acta Tropica

58. Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture (...) caused by genotype I and III strains when MAbs were administered as a single dose even 5 days after infection. This information may inform the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies as emerging strains and genotypic shifts become more prevalent.IMPORTANCE Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a vaccine-preventable cause of viral encephalitis, the inactivated and live attenuated platforms available are derived from strains belonging to a single genotype (GIII) due to its historical

2018 mBio

59. Changes of Epidemiological Characteristics of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Infection and Birds as a Potential Viral Transmitter in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes of Epidemiological Characteristics of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Infection and Birds as a Potential Viral Transmitter in Korea Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases have been increasingly reported recently especially in Seoul and its vicinity. Pigs are known as amplifying host of JE virus (JEV), but do not play an important role in these recent events because pig-breeding is not common in Seoul. The distribution and the density of migratory birds are correlated with JE cases in cities

2018 Journal of Korean medical science

60. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates

2018 Journal of veterinary science

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