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Japanese Encephalitis

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41. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos – A Pilot study (PubMed)

Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos – A Pilot study Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (...) ) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive). Testing other body fluids by JEV RT-qPCR may improve the diagnosis. As a pilot study thirty patients admitted to Mahosot Hospital 2014-2017, recruited to the South-East-Asia-Encephalitis study, were tested by JEV MAC-ELISA and two JEV real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays (NS2A and NS3). Eleven (36.7%) were JEV MAC-ELISA

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2018 Scientific reports

42. Host Factor SPCS1 Regulates the Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Interactions with Transmembrane Domains of NS2B (PubMed)

Host Factor SPCS1 Regulates the Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Interactions with Transmembrane Domains of NS2B Signal peptidase complex subunit 1 (SPCS1) is a newly identified host factor that regulates flavivirus replication, but the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, using Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as a model, we investigated the mechanism through which the host factor SPCS1 regulates the replication of flaviviruses. We first validated

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2018 Journal of virology

43. North American domestic pigs are susceptible to experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (PubMed)

North American domestic pigs are susceptible to experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is capable of causing encephalitic diseases in children. While humans can succumb to severe disease, the transmission cycle is maintained by viremic birds and pigs in endemic regions. Although JEV is regarded as a significant threat to the United States (U.S.), the susceptibility of domestic swine to JEV infection has

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2018 Scientific reports

44. Brain microvascular endothelial-astrocyte cell responses following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier model (PubMed)

Brain microvascular endothelial-astrocyte cell responses following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier model Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of encephalitis, globally, which continues to grow in importance despite the availability of vaccines. Viral entry into the brain can occur via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and inflammation at the BBB is a common final pathway in many brain infections. However, the role of the BBB

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2018 Molecular and cellular neurosciences

45. Review of the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in Foreign-Born and Korean Nationals Living in the Republic of Korea, 2007–2016 (PubMed)

Review of the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in Foreign-Born and Korean Nationals Living in the Republic of Korea, 2007–2016 The Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine was introduced to the national immunization program in 1985, which has led to a dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases, but JE continues to occur in foreign nationals residing in or traveling to Korea. Although the incidence is low, this study demonstrated that more Koreans were infected with JE than foreign-born

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2018 Osong public health and research perspectives

46. Human Kinase/Phosphatase-Wide RNAi Screening Identified Checkpoint Kinase 2 as a Cellular Factor Facilitating Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection (PubMed)

Human Kinase/Phosphatase-Wide RNAi Screening Identified Checkpoint Kinase 2 as a Cellular Factor Facilitating Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes acute encephalitis in humans with high mortality. Not much is known about the interactions between viral and cellular factors that regulate JEV infection. By using a kinase/phosphatase-wide RNAi screening approach, we identified a cell cycle-regulating molecule, checkpoint kinase

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2018 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

47. Differential antiviral immunity to Japanese encephalitis virus in developing cortical organoids (PubMed)

Differential antiviral immunity to Japanese encephalitis virus in developing cortical organoids Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to the world's public health yet without a cure. Certain JEV-infected neural cells express a subset of previously identified intrinsic antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), indicating brain cells retain autonomous antiviral immunity. However, whether this happens in composited brain remains unclear

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2018 Cell death & disease

48. Structure analysis and antiviral activity of CW-33 analogues against Japanese encephalitis virus (PubMed)

Structure analysis and antiviral activity of CW-33 analogues against Japanese encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a member of neurotropic flaviviruses transmitted by mosquito bites, causing severe central nervous system disorders. Current JEV genotype III vaccines have a low protection against genotype I isolates in the risk zone. The lead compound CW-33, ethyl 2-(3',5'-dimethylanilino)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydrofuran-3-carboxylate, demonstrates the antiviral activity against JEV

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2018 Scientific reports

49. How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis (PubMed)

How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis Evidence indicated that socio-environmental factors were associated with occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). This study explored the association of climate and socioeconomic factors with JE (2006-2014) in Shaanxi, China. JE data at the county level in Shaanxi were supplied by Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population and socioeconomic data were

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

50. DC-SIGN Binding Contributed by an Extra N-Linked Glycosylation on Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Protein Reduces the Ability of Viral Brain Invasion (PubMed)

DC-SIGN Binding Contributed by an Extra N-Linked Glycosylation on Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Protein Reduces the Ability of Viral Brain Invasion The major structural envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) facilitates cellular binding/entry and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. JEV E protein has one N-linked glycosylation site at N154 (G2 site), but the related dengue virus E protein has two glycosylation sites at N67 (G1 site) and N153 (G2 site). We

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2018 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

51. PLVAP and GKN3 Are Two Critical Host Cell Receptors Which Facilitate Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry Into Neurons (PubMed)

PLVAP and GKN3 Are Two Critical Host Cell Receptors Which Facilitate Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry Into Neurons Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), a globally important pathogen, belongs to the family Flaviviridae, is transmitted between vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes, principally by Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The E-glycoprotein of the virus mediates its attachment to the host cell receptors. In this study, we cloned and purified JEV E-glycoprotein in pET28a vector using E. coli BL21 (DE3

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2018 Scientific reports

52. Comparison of the dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in sentinel pigs between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia (PubMed)

Comparison of the dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in sentinel pigs between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia Japanese encephalitis is mainly considered a rural disease, but there is growing evidence of a peri-urban and urban transmission in several countries, including Cambodia. We, therefore, compared the epidemiologic dynamic of Japanese encephalitis between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia. We monitored two cohorts of 15 pigs and determined (...) . Several differences in the epidemiologic dynamic of Japanese encephalitis between both study sites were highlighted. The later virus amplification in the rural cohort may be linked to the later waning of maternal antibodies, but also to the higher pig density in direct proximity of the studied pigs, which could have led to a dilution of mosquito bites at the farm level. The force of infection was almost identical in both the peri-urban and the rural farms studied, which shifts the classic

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

53. Early Events in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection: Viral Entry (PubMed)

Early Events in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection: Viral Entry Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus, is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that can cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild febrile illness to severe neuroinvasive disease. Today, several killed and live vaccines are available in different parts of the globe for use in humans to prevent JEV-induced diseases, yet no antivirals are available to treat JEV-associated

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2018 Pathogens

54. Activation of neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a pivotal role in Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuronal cell damage (PubMed)

Activation of neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a pivotal role in Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuronal cell damage Overstimulation of glutamate receptors, especially neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), mediates excitatory neurotoxicity in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of NMDAR in the regulation of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-mediated neuropathogenesis remains undisclosed. The primary objective of this study was to understand (...) the function of NMDAR to JEV-induced neuronal cell damage and inflammation in the central nervous system.The effect of JEV-induced NMDAR activation on the progression of Japanese encephalitis was evaluated using the primary mouse neuron/glia cultures and a mouse model of JEV infection. A high-affinity NMDAR antagonist MK-801 was employed to block the activity of NMDAR both in vitro and in vivo. The subsequent impact of NMDAR blockade was assessed by examining the neuronal cell death, glutamate

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2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

55. Influence of Host and Environmental Factors on the Distribution of the Japanese Encephalitis Vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus in China (PubMed)

Influence of Host and Environmental Factors on the Distribution of the Japanese Encephalitis Vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus in China Culex tritaeniorhynchus is an important vector that transmits a variety of human and animal diseases. Japanese encephalitis (JE), an endemic disease in the Asia-Pacific region, is primarily transmitted by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Insufficient monitoring of vector mosquitoes has led to a poor understanding of the distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in China

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

56. Japanese Encephalitis: A Brief Review on Indian Perspectives (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis: A Brief Review on Indian Perspectives Japanese encephalitis (JE) is recently declared as a notifiable disease in India due to its expanding geographical distribution. The disease notification facilitates effective implementation of preventive measures and case management.JE is a vector-borne disease that can be prevented by vaccine administration. It is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), belonging to family Flaviviridae. Amongst the known etiological viral (...) encephalitis agents, it is one of the leading viral agents of acute encephalitis syndrome in many Asian countries where it is identified to cause substantial morbidity and mortality as well as disability. Globally, it is responsible for approximately 68,000 clinical cases every year.In the absence of antivirals, patients are given supportive treatment to relieve and stabilize. Amongst available control strategies; vector control is resource intensive while animal and human vaccination are the most

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2018 The open virology journal

57. Serological evidence of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in Asian children from dengue-endemic countries. (PubMed)

Serological evidence of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in Asian children from dengue-endemic countries. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic, mosquito-borne flavivirus, distributed across Asia. Infections are mostly mild or asymptomatic, but symptoms include neurological disorders, sequelae, and fatalities. Data to inform control strategies are limited due to incomplete case reporting.We used JEV serological data from a multicountry Asian dengue vaccine study in children

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2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

58. Japanese Encephalitis in Indonesia: An Update on Epidemiology and Transmission Ecology. (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis in Indonesia: An Update on Epidemiology and Transmission Ecology. The Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus circulation in Indonesia was first documented in Lombok in 1960, and the virus was first isolated in 1972 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Bekasi, West Java and Kapuk, West Jakarta. Since then, Indonesia has been recognized as an endemic country for JE transmission. Up to now, JE cases have been found in at least 29 provinces, with Bali, West Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara

2018 Acta Tropica

59. Mapping the potential distributions of etiological agent, vectors, and reservoirs of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and Australia. (PubMed)

Mapping the potential distributions of etiological agent, vectors, and reservoirs of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and Australia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a substantial cause of viral encephalitis, morbidity, and mortality in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. World Health Organization recognized Japanese Encephalitis (JE) as a public health priority in demands to initiate active vaccination programs. Recently, the geographic distribution of JEV has apparently expanded

2018 Acta Tropica

60. Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (PubMed)

Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture (...) caused by genotype I and III strains when MAbs were administered as a single dose even 5 days after infection. This information may inform the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies as emerging strains and genotypic shifts become more prevalent.IMPORTANCE Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a vaccine-preventable cause of viral encephalitis, the inactivated and live attenuated platforms available are derived from strains belonging to a single genotype (GIII) due to its historical

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2018 mBio

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