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Japanese Encephalitis

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21. Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae). (PubMed)

Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae). A gynandromorph of Culex sitiens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) was attracted to a human during a mosquito surveillance programme conducted in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia on July 20, 2019. Gynandromorphism was observed in antennae, maxillary palps, legs and wings of the specimen, with distinct male characters on the left and female characters on the right (...) , though the left maxillary palp is slightly shorter than the proboscis of a typical male. The abdomen, however, displays well-developed male genitalia. This study represents the first report of oblique gynandromorphism in Cx. sitiens, one of the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Asia.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

2019 Acta Tropica

22. Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal. (PubMed)

Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal. The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is one of the major public health problems in Nepal because of its increasing disease morbidity and mortality. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-JEV IgM positivity among acute encephalitis syndromic cases from all over Nepal. The present study was conducted at National Public

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2017 PLoS ONE

23. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases during Japanese encephalitis virus infection (PubMed)

Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases during Japanese encephalitis virus infection Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are widely implicated in modulating blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and affect the entry of peripheral immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). The expression of MMPs is tightly regulated at the level of gene transcription, conversion of pro-enzyme to active MMPs and by the action of tissue inhibitors (...) of metalloproteinases (TIMP). The crucial role of MMPs in inflammation indicates that perturbation of the MMP/TIMP balance decisively plays an important role in pathogenesis during viral encephalitis. The study was performed to evaluate the production of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in the sera of JEV i.e. GP 78668A (GP-78) infected BALB/c mouse model of encephalitis and gel zymography was performed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. The estimation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3 in JEV-infected

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2016 Virusdisease

24. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein (PubMed)

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein CCCH-type zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that restricts the infection of many viruses mainly through RNA degradation, translation inhibition and innate immune responses. So far, only one flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been reported to be ZAP-resistant. Here, we investigated the antiviral potential of human ZAP (isoform ZAP-L and ZAP-S) against three flaviviruses, Japanese (...) encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Infection of JEV but not DENV or ZIKV was blocked by ZAP overexpression, and depletion of endogenous ZAP enhanced JEV replication. ZAP hampered JEV translation and targeted viral RNA for 3'-5' RNA exosome-mediated degradation. The zinc-finger motifs of ZAP were essential for RNA targeting and anti-JEV activity. JEV 3'-UTR, especially in the region with dumbbell structures and high content of CG dinucleotide, was mapped to bind ZAP

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2018 PLoS pathogens

25. Corilagin Attenuates the Parkinsonismin Japanese Encephalitis Virus Induced Parkinsonism (PubMed)

Corilagin Attenuates the Parkinsonismin Japanese Encephalitis Virus Induced Parkinsonism This study evaluates the protective effect of corilagin against Parkinsonismin Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced Parkinson's disease. The JaGAr-01 strain of virus was used to induce JE. The virus was injected into the rats (13 days age) at the midpoint between the two ears. Adult rats, 12 week after the inoculation of virus, were used for the further study. Corilagin (20 mg/kg) and levodopa

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2018 Translational neuroscience

26. Meta-Analyses of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Dissemination, and Transmission Rates in Vectors. (PubMed)

Meta-Analyses of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Dissemination, and Transmission Rates in Vectors. The objective of this work was to summarize and quantify Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, dissemination, and transmission rates in mosquitoes, using a meta-analysis approach. Data were obtained from experimental studies, gathered by means of a systematic review of the literature. Random-effects subgroup meta-analysis models by mosquito species were fitted to estimate pooled

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

27. Five-Year Antibody Persistence Following a Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) Booster in JE-CV-Primed Children in the Philippines. (PubMed)

Five-Year Antibody Persistence Following a Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) Booster in JE-CV-Primed Children in the Philippines. NCT01190228.© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

28. DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui). (PubMed)

DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui). Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Effective vector control and early (...) diagnosis, along with continuous serosurveillance in animals, are crucial to fight this arboviral disease. However, the success of vector control operations is linked with the fast and reliable identification of targeted species, and knowledge about their biology and ecology. Since the DNA barcoding of Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis is scarcely explored, here we evaluated the efficacy of this tool to identify and analyze the variations among five overlooked Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis

2018 Acta Tropica

29. Antibody Persistence up to 3 Years after Primary Immunization with Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IXIARO® in Philippine Children and Effect of a Booster Dose. (PubMed)

Antibody Persistence up to 3 Years after Primary Immunization with Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IXIARO® in Philippine Children and Effect of a Booster Dose. An inactivated Vero cell culture derived Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (IXIARO) requires a booster dose 1 year after primary schedule for long-term antibody persistence in adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose in children 2 months to <18 years of age.This is a randomized

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

30. Japanese Encephalitis in Malaysia: An Overview and Timeline. (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis in Malaysia: An Overview and Timeline. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It causes encephalitis in human and horses, and may lead to reproductive failure in sows. The first human encephalitis case in Malaya (now Malaysia) was reported during World War II in a British prison in 1942. Later, encephalitis was observed among race horses in Singapore. In 1951, the first JEV was isolated from the brain (...) of an encephalitis patient. The true storyline of JE exposure among humans and animals has not been documented in Malaysia. In some places such as Sarawak, JEV has been isolated from mosquitoes before an outbreak in 1992. JE is an epidemic in Malaysia except Sarawak. There are four major outbreaks reported in Pulau Langkawi (1974), Penang (1988), Perak and Negeri Sembilan (1998-1999), and Sarawak (1992). JE is considered endemic only in Sarawak. Initially, both adults and children were victims of JE in Malaysia

2018 Acta Tropica

31. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmitted Via Blood Transfusion, Hong Kong, China. (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmitted Via Blood Transfusion, Hong Kong, China. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquitoborne virus endemic to China and Southeast Asia that causes severe encephalitis in <1% of infected persons. Transmission of JEV via blood transfusion has not been reported. We report transmission of JEV via blood donation products from an asymptomatic viremic donor to 2 immunocompromised recipients. One recipient on high-dose immunosuppressive drugs received JEV (...) -positive packed red blood cells after a double lung transplant; severe encephalitis and a poor clinical outcome resulted. JEV RNA was detected in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens. The second recipient had leukemia and received platelets after undergoing chemotherapy. This patient was asymptomatic; JEV infection was confirmed in this person by IgM seroconversion. This study illustrates that, consistent with other pathogenic flaviviruses, JEV can be transmitted via

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

32. Systematic review of seroepidemiological studies on Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea.

Systematic review of seroepidemiological studies on Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea. Countries with strong vaccination programmes, including the Republic of Korea, have experienced changes in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis (JE), with an increase in cases seen among adults. However, the reasons for this increase are not clearly understood. This study describes the change in age-specific JE virus (JEV) seroprevalence over time in Korea, with a view to understanding (...) this transition.A search of Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, KoreaMed, Korea Education and Research Information Service, National Library of Korea, and the Seoul National University Medical Library was conducted using the keywords 'Japanese encephalitis' combined with 'Korea', 'seroprevalence', 'seropositivity', 'seroepidemiology', 'serosurvey', 'immunity', and 'antibody'.Eighteen studies published between 1946 and 2012 were retrieved. In 1946, seropositivity was 51% in the 1-10 years age group, 79% in those aged 11-20

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2018 International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

33. Overview of Japanese encephalitis disease and its prevention. Focus on IC51 vaccine (IXIARO®) (PubMed)

Overview of Japanese encephalitis disease and its prevention. Focus on IC51 vaccine (IXIARO®) Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV is transmitted by mosquitoes to a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including birds and mammals. Domestic animals, especially pigs, are generally implicated as reservoirs of the virus, while humans are not part of the natural transmission cycle and cannot pass the virus to other hosts. Although JEV

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2018 Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene

34. Changes of Epidemiological Characteristics of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Infection and Birds as a Potential Viral Transmitter in Korea (PubMed)

Changes of Epidemiological Characteristics of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Infection and Birds as a Potential Viral Transmitter in Korea Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases have been increasingly reported recently especially in Seoul and its vicinity. Pigs are known as amplifying host of JE virus (JEV), but do not play an important role in these recent events because pig-breeding is not common in Seoul. The distribution and the density of migratory birds are correlated with JE cases in cities

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2018 Journal of Korean medical science

35. Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated chromatographically purified Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Thai children (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated chromatographically purified Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Thai children Inactivated mouse-brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine has a worrisome safety profile and the live attenuated vaccine is unsuitable in immunodeficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated chromatographically purified Vero-cell-derived JE vaccine (CVI-JE, Beijing P-3 strain) in children. 152 healthy Thai children

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2018 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

36. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012 (PubMed)

Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates

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2018 Journal of veterinary science

37. A Simple Mechanism Based on Amino Acid Substitutions is not a Critical Determinant of High Mortality of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mice (PubMed)

A Simple Mechanism Based on Amino Acid Substitutions is not a Critical Determinant of High Mortality of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mice For the development of effective treatment strategies for Japanese encephalitis (JE), it is important to identify the viral factors causing severe disease during JE virus (JEV) infection. In this study, we assessed whether amino acid substitutions are critical factors for higher mortality of JaTH160 compared with JaOArS982 in mice using

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2018 Viruses

38. Genotype I of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Virus-like Particles Elicit Sterilizing Immunity against Genotype I and III Viral Challenge in Swine (PubMed)

Genotype I of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Virus-like Particles Elicit Sterilizing Immunity against Genotype I and III Viral Challenge in Swine Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed

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2018 Scientific reports

39. Entomological investigation of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India (PubMed)

Entomological investigation of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India A severe outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high case fatality was reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India during September to November 2016 affecting 336 children with 103 deaths.The purpose of this study was to investigate the outbreak in the light of entomological determinants.Entomological investigation was carried out

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2018 Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

40. IP-10 Promotes Blood–Brain Barrier Damage by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Japanese Encephalitis (PubMed)

IP-10 Promotes Blood–Brain Barrier Damage by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Japanese Encephalitis Japanese encephalitis is a neuropathological disorder caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is characterized by severe pathological neuroinflammation and damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines can regulate the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and are believed to be a leading cause of BBB disruption, but the specific

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

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