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Japanese Encephalitis

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1. The changing epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and New data: the implications for New recommendations for Japanese encephalitis vaccine (PubMed)

The changing epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and New data: the implications for New recommendations for Japanese encephalitis vaccine The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission (...) , interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk. There has also been a change in the incidence of Japanese Encephalitis cases that questions the current travel duration and geographic based recommendations. A safe, effective vaccine (Ixiaro) that may be administered in a short course regimen is now available in the United States without the risks of the previous vaccine. However, the vaccine

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2017 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

2. Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016 – Encéphalite japonaise: surveillance et vaccination en Asie et dans le Pacifique occidental, 2016

Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016 – Encéphalite japonaise: surveillance et vaccination en Asie et dans le Pacifique occidental, 2016 Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016 – Encéphalite japonaise: surveillance et vaccination en Asie et dans le Pacifique occidental, 2016 JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle (...) navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016 – Encéphalite japonaise: surveillance et vaccination en Asie et dans le Pacifique occidental, 2016 View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé . (‎2017)‎. Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016 – Encéphalite japonaise: surveillance et

2017 WHO

3. Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017. (PubMed)

Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017. We isolated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from brain samples of 2 seals with lethal encephalitis at Weihai Aquarium, Weihai, China, in 2017. We confirmed our findings by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis showed this virus was genotype I. Our findings suggest that JEV might disseminate though infected zoo animals.

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

4. Japanese Encephalitis- and Dengue-Associated Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in Myanmar. (PubMed)

Japanese Encephalitis- and Dengue-Associated Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in Myanmar. This study was conducted to find the burden of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among children under the age of 13, who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at Mandalay Children Hospital in Myanmar in 2013. Molecular and serological investigations were performed on 123 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from these patients. By neutralization tests and/or virus (...) isolation, four (3.3%) JEV- and one DENV-associated encephalitis cases (0.8%) were confirmed. Antibody titer against JEV Genotype 3 was the highest among the laboratory-confirmed JEV cases. One strain of DENV-1 with Genotype 1 was isolated from the CSF sample of the dengue encephalitis patient; this was similar to the virus circulating in the study area and neighboring countries. This study shows that flaviviruses are important pathogens causing encephalitis in Myanmar. Active disease surveillance

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2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

5. Coverage & missed opportunity for Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015: Implications for Japanese encephalitis control (PubMed)

Coverage & missed opportunity for Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015: Implications for Japanese encephalitis control Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two doses of JE vaccine ( first during 9-12 months and second during 16-24 months of age) are administered under the Universal Immunization Programme. We conducted surveys to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine

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2017 The Indian journal of medical research

6. Mapping the spatial distribution of the Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) within areas of Japanese encephalitis risk (PubMed)

Mapping the spatial distribution of the Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) within areas of Japanese encephalitis risk Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking (...) , and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution.We assembled a contemporary database of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presence records within Japanese encephalitis risk areas from formal literature and other relevant resources, resulting in 1,045 geo-referenced, spatially and temporally unique presence records spanning from 1928 to 2014 (71.9% of records obtained between 2001 and 2014). These presence data were

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2017 Parasites & vectors

7. Poor performance of two rapid immunochromatographic assays for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M detection in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with suspected Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Laos. (PubMed)

Poor performance of two rapid immunochromatographic assays for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M detection in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with suspected Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Laos. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading identified cause of encephalitis in Asia, often occurring in rural areas with poor access to laboratory diagnostics. We evaluated two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM (...) ) detection.Consecutive cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 388 patients (704 samples) with suspected JEV infections admitted to six hospitals in Laos were tested with one of two SD-Bioline anti-JEV IgM RDTs and the World Health Organization standard anti-JEV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA.The performance of both RDTs showed strikingly low sensitivity in comparison to anti-JEV IgM antibody capture ELISA (2.1-51.4%), suggesting low sensitivity

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2017 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

8. Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine IXIARO® n Children from a Japanese Encephalitis Virus -Endemic Region. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine IXIARO® n Children from a Japanese Encephalitis Virus -Endemic Region. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health concern in Asia and poses a small but potentially fatal threat to travelers from nonendemic countries, including children. No JE vaccine for pediatric use has been available in Europe and the United States.Age-stratified cohorts of children between 2 months and 17 years received 2 doses of Vero cell

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. The conserved stem-loop II structure at the 3' untranslated region of Japanese encephalitis virus genome is required for the formation of subgenomic flaviviral RNA. (PubMed)

The conserved stem-loop II structure at the 3' untranslated region of Japanese encephalitis virus genome is required for the formation of subgenomic flaviviral RNA. Flaviviruses accumulate abundant subgenomic RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. It has been reported that sfRNA results from stalling of host 5'-to-3' exoribonuclease XRN1 at the highly structured RNA of the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Although XRN1 digestion of a 3'-terminal 800-nt RNA could stall at a position to generate the sfRNA (...) in vitro, we found that knocking out XRN1 had no effect on the accumulation of sfRNA in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infected cells. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the stemloop II (SLII) at the 3' UTR is required for the accumulation of sfRNA. According to the results of an in vitro RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay, the (-)10431-10566 RNA fragment, containing the putative promoter on the antigenome for the sfRNA transcription, binds to RdRp protein and exhibits a strong promoter

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2018 PLoS ONE

10. Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunisation in Nepalese children with Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. (PubMed)

Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunisation in Nepalese children with Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. In July, 1999, a single dose of live-attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine was given to children aged 1-15 years in the Terai region of Nepal. Cases of natural infection occurred almost immediately. Our aim was to assess the long-term protective effect of this vaccination.In 2000, this same population had a second seasonal exposure (...) to the virus. We therefore did a case-control study to measure the prevalence of vaccination against Japanese encephalitis in 35 patients hospitalised for the disease 1 year after immunisation, and in age-sex matched village controls.Of 35 children resident in Bardiya and Banke districts admitted to the Bheri Zonal Hospital with serologically confirmed Japanese encephalitis, only one had been vaccinated in 1999. In 430 age-sex matched village controls, 234 (54.4%) were vaccinated. We calculated a median

2017 Lancet

11. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes from human microglial cell samples infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. (PubMed)

Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes from human microglial cell samples infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. Limited studies have been reported on Japanese encephalitis (JE) with reference to microarray data analysis. The present study involved an in silico approach for identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes in human microglial cell (CHME3) samples, infected with P20778 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Gene

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

12. Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. (PubMed)

Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito borne pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The objective of this work was to evaluate the entomological based virological surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the highly endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh.The study was carried out during September 2010 to March 2013 (...) in case of Cx. quinquefasciatus. A total of 41 clinical samples were found positive for JEV by IgM ELISA. The rainfall was significantly associated with Japanese encephalitis incidence and showed positive correlation to disease transmission (p = 0.02, r = 0. 66).The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

13. The effect of land use, land cover, and climate change on the incidence and outbreak of Japanese encephalitis disease among Asian population: a systematic review

The effect of land use, land cover, and climate change on the incidence and outbreak of Japanese encephalitis disease among Asian population: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content

2019 PROSPERO

14. Expression of domain III of the envelope protein from GP-78: a Japanese encephalitis virus (PubMed)

Expression of domain III of the envelope protein from GP-78: a Japanese encephalitis virus Acute encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) represents a growing epidemic and is a cause for concern in Southeast Asia. JEV is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Culicine mosquito species. The virus genome comprising of an RNA strand also encodes the envelope protein (E) which surrounds the virus. The E protein aids in fusion of virus with the cellular membrane

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2017 Virusdisease

15. Modeling the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibody in children and toddlers after vaccination with live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine. (PubMed)

Modeling the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibody in children and toddlers after vaccination with live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine. The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur) elicits a robust antibody response in children, which wanes over time. Clinical efficacy is based on a correlate of protection against JE infection defined as neutralizing antibody levels equal to or greater than the threshold of 10

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2019 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-rubella vaccine co-administered with attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine in infants aged 8 months in China: a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and safety of measles-rubella vaccine co-administered with attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine in infants aged 8 months in China: a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. In China, measles-rubella vaccine and live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LJEV) are recommended for simultaneous administration at 8 months of age, which is the youngest recommended age for these vaccines worldwide. We aimed to assess the effect of the co (...) -rubella group).The evidence of similar seroconversion and safety with co-administered LJEV and measles-rubella vaccines supports the co-administration of these vaccines to infants aged 8 months. These results will be important for measles and rubella elimination and the expansion of Japanese encephalitis vaccination in countries where it is endemic.US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; China-US Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging

2019 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

17. Mosquito abundance and pig seropositivity as a correlate of Japanese encephalitis in human population in Assam, India. (PubMed)

Mosquito abundance and pig seropositivity as a correlate of Japanese encephalitis in human population in Assam, India. Assam is the most vulnerable state for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in India. The situation warrants characterization of epidemiological patterns of JE in vectors, pigs and human population. This investigation was aimed to determine the relative abundance of mosquito species and seroprevalence of JE in pigs in order to draw an epidemiological association with reported human JE (...) abundant species in collected mosquitoes (n = 997). A total of 22.99% of pigs (n = 335) were JEV seropositive and 45.65% of human acute encephalitis syndrome cases (n = 230) were positive for JE virus (JEV) infection. Relative mosquito abundance, pig positivity and human cases were highest during monsoon (June-September) and least during winter (December-February). Rise in mosquito population was observed during pre-monsoon season (March-May) and concurrently higher number of human cases and pig

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2019 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

18. Nucleoside Analogs with Selective Antiviral Activity Against Dengue Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Viruses. (PubMed)

Nucleoside Analogs with Selective Antiviral Activity Against Dengue Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) are two important arthropod-borne viruses from Flaviviridae family. DENV is a global public health problem with significant social and economic impacts especially in tropical and subtropical areas. JEV is a neurotropic arbovirus endemic to east and southeast Asia. There are no US FDA approved antiviral drugs available to treat

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2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

19. Latex agglutination test for rapid on-site serodiagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in pigs using recombinant NS1 antigen. (PubMed)

Latex agglutination test for rapid on-site serodiagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in pigs using recombinant NS1 antigen. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquitoe-borne viral zoonotic disease and globally around three billion people are at the risk of disease. The occurrence of JE cases has shown a rising trend during last decade in India. Pig is the amplifying host for JE virus and serves as a suitable sentinel model for the prediction of disease outbreak in humans. The development

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2019 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

20. Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae). (PubMed)

Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae). A gynandromorph of Culex sitiens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) was attracted to a human during a mosquito surveillance programme conducted in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia on July 20, 2019. Gynandromorphism was observed in antennae, maxillary palps, legs and wings of the specimen, with distinct male characters on the left and female characters on the right (...) , though the left maxillary palp is slightly shorter than the proboscis of a typical male. The abdomen, however, displays well-developed male genitalia. This study represents the first report of oblique gynandromorphism in Cx. sitiens, one of the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Asia.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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2019 Acta Tropica

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