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Iron Saturation

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1. Correction to: Iron-free and iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin inhibit survivin expression and differentially modulate apoptosis in breast cancer. (PubMed)

Correction to: Iron-free and iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin inhibit survivin expression and differentially modulate apoptosis in breast cancer. After publication of the original article [1], the authors found that Fig. 3 contained an incorrect version of Fig. 3c. This does not affect the Figure legend, results and conclusions of the article.

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2018 BMC Cancer

2. Iron overload in congenital haemolytic anaemias: role of hepcidin and cytokines and predictive value of ferritin and transferrin saturation. (PubMed)

Iron overload in congenital haemolytic anaemias: role of hepcidin and cytokines and predictive value of ferritin and transferrin saturation. Iron overload (IO) is poorly investigated in the congenital haemolytic anaemias (CHAs), a heterogeneous group of rare inherited diseases encompassing abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane and metabolism, and defects of the erythropoiesis. In this study we systematically evaluated routine iron parameters and cardiac and hepatic magnetic resonance (...) imaging, together with erythropoietin, hepcidin, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), and cytokine serum levels in patients with different CHAs. We found that 40% of patients had a liver iron concentration (LIC) >4 mg Fe/g dry weight. Hepatic IO was associated with ferritin levels (P = 0·0025), transferrin saturation (TfSat, P = 0·002) and NTBI (P = 0·003). Moreover, ferritin >500 μg/l plus TfSat >60% was demonstrated as the best combination able to identify increased LIC, and TfSat alteration as more

2019 British journal of haematology

3. Iron-loaded transferrin (Tf) is detrimental whereas iron-free Tf confers protection against brain ischemia by modifying blood Tf saturation and subsequent neuronal damage (PubMed)

Iron-loaded transferrin (Tf) is detrimental whereas iron-free Tf confers protection against brain ischemia by modifying blood Tf saturation and subsequent neuronal damage Despite transferrin being the main circulating carrier of iron in body fluids, and iron overload conditions being known to worsen stroke outcome through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage, the contribution of blood transferrin saturation (TSAT) to stroke brain damage is unknown. The objective of this study (...) was to obtain evidence on whether TSAT determines the impact of experimental ischemic stroke on brain damage and whether iron-free transferrin (apotransferrin, ATf)-induced reduction of TSAT is neuroprotective. We found that experimental ischemic stroke promoted an early extravasation of circulating iron-loaded transferrin (holotransferrin, HTf) to the ischemic brain parenchyma. In vitro, HTf was found to boost ROS production and to be harmful to primary neuronal cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose

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2017 Redox biology

4. Saturation of electrical resistivity of solid iron at Earth’s core conditions (PubMed)

Saturation of electrical resistivity of solid iron at Earth’s core conditions We report on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of solid iron at high pressure, up to and including conditions likely to be found at the centre of the Earth. We have extended some of the calculations of the resistivities of pure solid iron we recently performed at Earth's core conditions (Pozzo et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014) to lower temperature. We show that at low (...) temperature the resistivity increases linearly with temperature, and saturates at high temperature. This saturation effect is well known as the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit in metals, but has been largely ignored to estimate the resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions. Recent experiments (Gomi et al. in Phys Earth Planet Int 224:88-103, 2013) coupled new high pressure data and saturation to predict the resitivity of iron and iron alloys at Earth's core conditions, and reported values up to three times

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2016 SpringerPlus

5. Iron Saturation

Iron Saturation Iron Saturation Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Iron Saturation Iron Saturation Aka: Iron Saturation (...) , Serum Transferrin Saturation , Transferrin Saturation , Transferrin Iron Saturation , Serum Iron to TIBC Ratio From Related Chapters II. Calculation TFS = 100 x (ug/dl) / (ug/dl) III. Normal Range: 15% to 55% IV. Decreased Chronic Chronic infection Advanced malignancy Collagen-Vascular Disease Third trimester of pregnancy V. Increased and other iron overload Starvation Acute minor or VI. References Ravel (1995) Clinical Lab Medicine, Mosby, p. 662 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing

2018 FP Notebook

6. Higher concentrations of serum iron and transferrin saturation but not serum ferritin are associated with cancer outcomes. (PubMed)

Higher concentrations of serum iron and transferrin saturation but not serum ferritin are associated with cancer outcomes. Although the carcinogenic potential of iron has been shown, evidence from observational studies that have linked serum iron variables and cancer outcomes has been inconsistent.We investigated whether higher iron concentrations increased risk of cancer outcomes.A prospective examination of iron biomarkers as independent risk factors for cancer was assessed in 1597 men (...) (breast cancer), higher serum iron concentrations and transferrin saturation were associated with increased risks of incident nonskin cancer [HR for iron: 1.83 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.76; P < 0.01); HR for transferrin saturation: 1.68 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.38; P < 0.01)] including breast cancer [HR for iron: 2.45 (95% CI:1.12, 5.34; P < 0.05); HR for transferrin saturation: 1.90 (95% CI:1.02, 3.56; P < 0.05)] in women. Transferrin saturation was also associated with a greater risk of cancer death (HR: 2.48; 95

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2016 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

7. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. (PubMed)

1000 with oral iron), increased haemoglobin (31 studies, 3373 participants: MD 0.72 g/dL, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.05); ferritin (33 studies, 3389 participants: MD 224.84 µg/L, 95% CI 165.85 to 283.83) and transferrin saturation (27 studies, 3089 participants: MD 7.69%, 95% CI 5.10 to 10.28), and may reduce the dose required of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) (11 studies, 522 participants: SMD -0.72, 95% CI -1.12 to -0.31) while making little or no difference to glomerular filtration rate (8 (...) Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. The anaemia seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be exacerbated by iron deficiency. Iron can be provided through different routes, with advantages and drawbacks of each route. It remains unclear whether the potential harms and additional costs of intravenous (IV) compared with oral iron are justified. This is an update of a review first published in 2012.To determine the benefits and harms of IV iron

2019 Cochrane

8. Iron Deficiency – Diagnosis and Management

of iron deficiency. Ferritin values occur on a continuum. The suggested cut-offs are estimated ranges that should be interpreted using clinical judgment based on the patient’s age, gender, risk profile (Table 1) and symptoms. Serum iron, iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation/fraction saturation are not routinely useful for investigating iron deficiency anemia. Take a nutrition history and provide dietary education to address dietary risk factors. Caregivers of infants and toddlers should (...) for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in patients with chronic disease, inflammation or malignancy Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) may co-exist with an element of true iron deficiency. However, ferritin values may be falsely elevated in chronic disease as ferritin is an acute phase reactant. In this specific situation, ordering a fasting serum iron and transferrin saturation may be helpful to diagnose iron deficiency that may be missed by solely relying on ferritin. A typical iron deficiency profile

2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

9. Iron deficiency anaemia in adults

deficiency. Ferritin This is a measure of iron storage in the body. Reduced serum ferritin is always the first iron study to fall and show iron deficiency. However, it is not always accurate as it may increase if the patient has: • i n f la m mat io n /i n f ec t io n • l i v e r d i s e a s e • m a l ig n a n c y . Transferrin This is a measure of transferrin saturation (in per cent). Transferrin is the carrier protein transporting iron to bone marrow and transferrin saturation measures the degree (...) This checks to see if the levels present are sufficient to make functioning red blood cells. Ferritin and iron saturation levels This checks the amount of iron stored (ferritin) and the amount available to use (iron saturation). Urinalysis for haematuria One per cent of patients with IDA will have renal tract malignancy. This may present with obvious or occult haematuria (Goddard et al, 2011). alongside any medications that are regularly prescribed by a physician. There can be contraindications

2019 Royal College of Nursing

10. Iron levels, genes involved in iron metabolism and antioxidative processes and lung cancer incidence. (PubMed)

genes involved in iron metabolism and anti-oxidative processes with the incidence of lung cancer in Poland.The study included 200 lung cancer patients and 200 matched healthy control subjects. We analyzed serum iron concentration and iron metabolism parameters (TIBC, UIBC, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), and genotyped seven variants in seven genes: HFE, TFR1, HAMP, TF, SOD2, CAT and GPX1.Lung cancer patients compared to their matched controls had significantly higher mean serum iron (...) level (p = 0.01), ferritin level (p = 0.007) and TIBC (p = 0.006). Analysis revealed that higher concentration of iron and ferritin (IVth quartile) compared to the lower concentration (Ist quartile) was associated with over 2-fold increased lung cancer incidence. We also found that higher transferrin saturation (p = 0.01) and lower TIBC (p<0.01) are associated with better survival of lung cancer patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in iron related genes did not reveal a significant difference

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2019 PLoS ONE

11. Iron deficiency anaemia

(TIBC), less than 16% transferrin saturation, and low serum ferritin. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia necessitates investigation of the underlying cause. Initial treatment includes oral iron. Definition The WHO defines anaemia as haemoglobin <130 g/L (13 g/dL) in men older than age 15 years, <120 g/L (12 g/dL) in non-pregnant women older than age 15 years, and <110 g/L (11 g/dL) in pregnant women. Goddard AF, James MW, McIntyre AS, et al. Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency (...) smear reticulocyte count serum iron total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) transferrin saturation serum ferritin urinalysis coeliac serology Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies or faecal antigen urease breath test autoimmune gastritis testing upper GI endoscopy small-bowel biopsy lower GI endoscopy double contrast barium enema and sigmoidoscopy transferrin receptor-ferritin index bone marrow biopsy monitored trial of iron urinary hepcidin percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes reticulocyte haemoglobin

2018 BMJ Best Practice

12. Oral or parenteral iron supplementation to reduce deferral, iron deficiency and/or anaemia in blood donors. (PubMed)

difference (MD) 2.36 g/L; 95% CI 0.06 to 4.66; eight studies; 847 participants, P value =0.04), and iron stores, including serum ferritin (MD 13.98 ng/mL; 95% CI 8.92 to 19.03; five studies; 640 participants; P value < 0.00001) and transferrin saturation (MD 3.91%; 95% CI 2.02 to 5.80; four studies; 344 participants; P value < 0.0001) prior to further donation. The differences were maintained after subsequent donation(s).Adverse effects were widely reported and were more frequent in donors who received (...) Oral or parenteral iron supplementation to reduce deferral, iron deficiency and/or anaemia in blood donors. Iron deficiency is a significant cause of deferral in people wishing to donate blood. If iron removed from the body through blood donation is not replaced, then donors may become iron deficient. All donors are screened at each visit for low haemoglobin (Hb) levels. However, some deferred blood donors do not return to donate. Deferred first-time donors are even less likely to return

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2014 Cochrane

13. Iron-ing Out the Wrinkles in Anemia Management

be supported. Evidence: • Randomized controlled trials. Differences statistically significant unless indicated. o General population adults: ? 80 patients (92% female, mean age 39): 1 iron polysaccharide (Niferex™) versus ferrous fumarate, both ~150mg/day elemental iron. After 12 weeks: • Ferrous fumarate improved hemoglobin (28.4g/L) more than iron polysaccharide (6g/L). o Ferrous fumarate: Better serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and transferrin saturation but more nausea (31% versus 3%). ? 43 (...) elemental iron): • No hemoglobin difference at 6 weeks. o Subgroups: ? Dialysis patients: At 6 months, ferrous salts no different from newer formulations on transferrin saturation 5, 6 or proportion of iron-replete patients. 5 • Ferritin ~(160µg/L) better with ferrous sulfate than heme iron (Proferrin ES™). 5 ? Post-gastric bypass (n=14): 7 Ferrous sulfate improved hemoglobin after 8 weeks, but heme iron (Proferrin ES™) did not. ? Blood Donors (n=97): 8 Heme iron with ferrous fumarate 16mg (Hemofer™

2019 Tools for Practice

14. Iron Deficiency and Anaemia in Adults

differentiate iron deficiency from other causes of anaemia (such as pernicious anaemia or anaemia of chronic disease). Absolute iron deficiency Absolute iron deficiency in the presence of inflammation Functional iron deficiency Iron tests Ferritin 5 Ferritin >100 + iron saturation 5 Serum Ferritin Levels This is a measure of iron storage in the body. Reduced serum ferritin is always the first iron study to fall and show iron deficiency. However, it is not always accurate as it may increase if the patient (...) has: • inflammation/infection • liver disease • malignancy. Transferrin Transferrin is a plasma protein that transports iron through the blood to wherever it is needed. Testing the blood transferrin levels provides an indicator of functional iron availability. This test measures transferrin saturation (in %) – that is the degree of circulating transferrin loaded with iron. Levels will fall in iron deficiency. Hypochromic microcytic red blood cells This test measures the size of red blood cells

2018 Royal College of Nursing

15. UK guidelines on the management of iron deficiency in pregnancy

‐Casal et al , ). In the UK, the majority of clinicians are familiar with using a serum ferritin level <30 μg/l (Daru et al , ; Pavord et al , ). It may be appropriate to use a higher cut‐off, but as of yet there are no data to support this in pregnancy and the guideline group encourage continued use of a serum ferritin level <30 μg/l until good quality evidence suggesting another cut‐off emerges. Other biomarkers of iron deficiency Transferrin saturation has not been widely used in pregnancy (...) that 14% were iron depleted, defined by ferritin levels <30 μg/l, and 37% had a low transferrin saturation of <20% (Auerbach et al , ). Iron‐deficient women are at high risk of anaemia and need to be identified by careful history at the booking clinic (Table ). There is no good evidence to inform the management of these women, however it is the opinion of the guideline group that they should either be started on prophylactic iron empirically or have their serum ferritin checked first. Routine

2019 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

16. Oral administration of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin–loaded ceramic nanocapsules for breast cancer therapy and influence on iron and calcium metabolism (PubMed)

Oral administration of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin–loaded ceramic nanocapsules for breast cancer therapy and influence on iron and calcium metabolism We determined the anticancer efficacy and internalization mechanism of our polymeric-ceramic nanoparticle system (calcium phosphate nanocores, enclosed in biodegradable polymers chitosan and alginate nanocapsules/nanocarriers [ACSC NCs]) loaded with iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in a breast cancer xenograft model. ACSC-Fe-bLf (...) injection of Taxol and Doxorubicin. Receptor gene expression and micro-RNA analysis confirmed upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor (liver, intestine, and brain). Several micro-RNAs responsible for iron metabolism upregulated with NCs were identified. Taken together, orally delivered Fe-bLf NCs offer enhanced antitumor activity in breast cancer by internalizing via low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor and regulating the micro-RNA expression

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2015 International journal of nanomedicine

17. Iron-free and iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin inhibit survivin expression and differentially modulate apoptosis in breast cancer. (PubMed)

Iron-free and iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin inhibit survivin expression and differentially modulate apoptosis in breast cancer. Iron binding, naturally occurring protein bovine lactoferrin (bLf) has attracted attention as a safe anti-cancer agent capable of inducing apoptosis. Naturally, bLf exists partially saturated (15-20%) with Fe(3+) however, it has been demonstrated that manipulating the saturation state can enhance bLf's anti-cancer activities.Apo-bLf (Fe(3+) free) and Fe-bLf (>90 (...) % Fe(3+) Saturated) were therefore, tested in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in terms of cytotoxicity, proliferation, migration and invasion. Annexin-V Fluos staining was also employed in addition to apoptotic protein arrays and Western blotting to determine the specific mechanism of bLf-induced apoptosis with a key focus on p53 and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), specifically survivin.Apo-bLf induced significantly greater cytotoxicity and reduction in cell proliferation

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2015 BMC Cancer

18. Novel Iron-Whey Protein Microspheres Protect Gut Epithelial Cells from Iron-Related Oxidative Stress and Damage and Improve Iron Absorption in Fasting Adults. (PubMed)

was dependent on relative iron depletion, and multi-variable analysis showed that better absorption with Iron-WP was independent of baseline serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and haemoglobin in the overall group and in the sub-cohort with relative iron depletion at baseline (p < 0.01).Novel Iron-WP microspheres may protect gut epithelial cells and improve the absorption of iron versus FeSO4. Further evaluation of this approach to food fortification and supplementation with iron is warranted.© (...) Novel Iron-Whey Protein Microspheres Protect Gut Epithelial Cells from Iron-Related Oxidative Stress and Damage and Improve Iron Absorption in Fasting Adults. Iron food fortification and oral iron formulations are frequently limited by poor absorption, resulting in the widespread use of high-dose oral iron, which is poorly tolerated.We evaluated novel iron-denatured whey protein (Iron-WP) microspheres on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and viability in gut epithelial (HT29) cells. We compared

2018 Acta haematologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

19. Reduction of body iron in HFE-related haemochromatosis and moderate iron overload (Mi-Iron): a multicentre, participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Reduction of body iron in HFE-related haemochromatosis and moderate iron overload (Mi-Iron): a multicentre, participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial. The iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis is most commonly caused by HFE p.Cys282Tyr homozygosity. In the absence of results from any randomised trials, current evidence is insufficient to determine whether individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis and moderately elevated serum ferritin, should undergo iron reduction (...) treatment. This trial aimed to establish whether serum ferritin normalisation in this population improved symptoms and surrogate biomarkers.This study was a multicentre, participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial done at three centres in Australia. We enrolled people who were homozygous for HFE p.Cys282Tyr, aged between 18 and 70 years, with moderately elevated serum ferritin, defined as 300-1000 μg/L, and raised transferrin saturation. Participants were randomly assigned, via a computer-generated

2018 The Lancet. Haematology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

20. Intravenous iron isomaltoside improves hemoglobin concentration and iron stores in female iron-deficient blood donors: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

randomly assigned 1:1 to either 1000 mg IV iron isomaltoside infusion or placebo. The primary endpoint of the trial was change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to right before the third blood donation.The increase in Hb was significantly higher for iron isomaltoside compared with placebo right before both the second blood donation (p = 0.0327) and the third blood donation (primary endpoint, p < 0.0001). Improvements in other iron-related variables (plasma iron, plasma ferritin, transferrin saturation (...) Intravenous iron isomaltoside improves hemoglobin concentration and iron stores in female iron-deficient blood donors: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) iron isomaltoside (Monofer) in comparison with placebo in first-time female blood donors.The trial was a prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, comparative, single-center trial of 85 first-time female blood donors. The subjects were

2018 Transfusion Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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