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Intravenous Drug Abuse

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8021. Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis. (PubMed)

Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis. We have investigated monocyte function in 17 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). LAS patients had normal numbers of circulating monocytes. Monocytes from LAS patients were comparable to cells from normal donors in terms of phagocytosis of latex beads, interleukin

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1985 Clinical and experimental immunology

8022. Natural killer cells in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome. (PubMed)

Natural killer cells in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome. We have investigated 25 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) and 10 AIDS patients for the expression of NK activity. LAS and AIDS patients had low NK cytotoxicity compared to normal donors. The defective NK cytotoxicity was analysed in the eight LAS subjects with most marked depression. NK effectors were identified by morphology (large granular

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1985 Clinical and experimental immunology

8023. Persistent staphylococcal bacteremia in an intravenous drug abuser. (PubMed)

Persistent staphylococcal bacteremia in an intravenous drug abuser. A patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia received vancomycin (MIC = 0.8 microgram/ml, MBC = 15 micrograms/ml) and heparin simultaneously through the same intravenous line to treat a septic deep venous thrombosis. Bacteremia persisted for 7 days. Bacteremia terminated when the simultaneous infusion of heparin and vancomycin through the same line was stopped. This suggested that an interaction between (...) prepared and mixed at microgram concentrations, a precipitate was no longer observed, and antimicrobial activity was not reduced. Heparin appeared to interact unfavorably with vancomycin at the concentrations in the intravenous lines when these drugs were administered simultaneously to patients. This may be the cause of poor therapeutic responses to vancomycin in some patients, especially those infected with tolerant organisms.

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1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8024. Immunological abnormalities in intravenous drug abusers and relationship to the prolonged generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome in Italy (PubMed)

Immunological abnormalities in intravenous drug abusers and relationship to the prolonged generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome in Italy The prolonged generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome (PGL) has been considered a prodromal condition to the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but the clinical, virological and immunological characteristics of patients who will develop AIDS are not known. We report on the immunological profile of intravenous drug abusers with or without PGL (...) in Northeastern Italy. We found a reduction of lymphocyte-absolute numbers with reversal of the T4/T8 ratio and decreased Leu-11b+ cells. The response to mitogens and natural killer activity are compromised in PGL patients. Neutrophil function is reduced both in drug abusers with or without lymphadenopathy. The serological investigations revealed a high prevalence of antibodies against HTLV III and the Epstein-Barr viruses. The recognition of immune dysfunction in the intravenous drug abusers appears

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1986 Clinical and experimental immunology

8025. Endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers with staphylococcal septicaemia. (PubMed)

Endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers with staphylococcal septicaemia. The case reports of 186 intravenous drug abusers admitted over a three year period were studied. Nineteen had proven staphylococcal septicaemia. Echocardiography showed tricuspid vegetations in seven and aortic vegetations in two. Eighteen out of 19 had systolic murmurs, but only the two patients with aortic vegetations had diastolic murmurs. The chest x ray showed opacities in 10 patients (all those with tricuspid (...) vegetations plus three with normal echocardiograms). Four patients died during follow up, including both those with aortic vegetations; both mitral and tricuspid vegetations were found at necropsy in the other two. All remaining patients were alive at one year. The presence of tricuspid vegetations in intravenous drug abusers is associated with opacities on chest x ray, but carries a good short term prognosis. But these results suggest a poor outcome when left sided endocarditis is present in intravenous

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1989 British Heart Journal

8026. Inadvertent subclavian artery puncture in an intravenous drug abuser. (PubMed)

Inadvertent subclavian artery puncture in an intravenous drug abuser. Arterial complications from inadvertent arterial puncture in intravenous drug abusers are well recognised. Most reports describe injury to the femoral artery with occasional reports of brachial and radial artery injury. A case of subclavian artery injury is described in this paper, and the pathophysiology and treatment of intraarterial drug injection discussed.

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1996 Journal of accident & emergency medicine

8027. Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in intravenous drug abusers being treated for bacterial endocarditis. (PubMed)

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in intravenous drug abusers being treated for bacterial endocarditis. The pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin were determined after multiple 30-min intravenous infusions of 10 to 15 mg/kg every 12 to 24 h in 11 intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) patients being treated for bacterial endocarditis. Multiple serum samples were obtained over 7 to 14 days. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were obtained on days 1 and 5. Serum concentration-time data were analyzed by using (...) multiple-dose pharmacokinetic analysis (NONLIN84). Results were compared with pharmacokinetic parameters derived from previous studies in normal healthy volunteers following multiple intravenous infusions of teicoplanin (3 to 6 mg/kg/day). Total and renal clearances of teicoplanin in IVDA patients were found to be significantly greater and more highly variable than those observed previously in normal healthy volunteers. As a result, predicted steady-state trough concentrations in serum may vary up

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1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8028. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in burn patients and intravenous drug abusers. (PubMed)

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in burn patients and intravenous drug abusers. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were evaluated in 34 patients (10 burn patients, 14 intravenous drug abusers [IVDA], and 10 controls). Multiple serum samples were drawn following a 1-h vancomycin infusion at steady state over an 8- to 12-h dosing interval. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by noncompartmental analysis. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to age, weight, serum

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1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8029. Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. (PubMed)

Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. 2105830 1990 03 26 2008 11 20 0820-3946 142 5 1990 Mar 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. 439 Bowman J M JM Manning F A FA Harman C R CR eng Comment Letter Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM IM CMAJ. 1989 Dec 1;141(11):1160-1 2510919 Adult Erythroblastosis, Fetal etiology Female Fetal Death Humans Infant, Newborn Needles Pregnancy Rh (...) Isoimmunization etiology Risk Substance Abuse, Intravenous complications 1990 3 1 1990 3 1 0 1 1990 3 1 0 0 ppublish 2105830 PMC1451634

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1990 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

8030. Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. (PubMed)

Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. 2510919 1990 01 09 2018 11 13 0820-3946 141 11 1989 Dec 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Alloimmunization and intravenous drug abuse. 1160-1 Chin-Yee I I Department of Laboratory Hematology, Blood Bank, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. Dietz G E GE Marshall J V JV eng Case Reports Journal Article Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 0 Isoantibodies 0 RHO(D) antibody 0 Rho(D) Immune Globulin 0 (...) anti-Fy(a) antibody 0 anti-c antibody I5Y540LHVR Cocaine AIM IM CMAJ. 1990 Mar 1;142(5):439 2105830 Adolescent Cocaine Female Humans Isoantibodies biosynthesis Rh Isoimmunization immunology Rho(D) Immune Globulin Substance Abuse, Intravenous immunology 1989 12 1 1989 12 1 0 1 1989 12 1 0 0 ppublish 2510919 PMC1451279 Vox Sang. 1972;23(4):376-81 4628165 Public Health Rep. 1988 May-Jun;103(3):261-6 3131815 Science. 1988 Apr 29;240(4852):643-6 2896386 N Engl J Med. 1988 May 5;318(18):1173-82 3283549

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1989 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

8031. Neisseria sicca endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers. (PubMed)

Neisseria sicca endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers. 4013255 1985 08 12 2018 11 13 0093-0415 142 2 1985 Feb The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Neisseria sicca endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers. 255-6 Thornhill-Joynes M M Li M W MW Canawati H N HN Ibrahim M Z MZ Sapico F L FL eng Case Reports Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 IM Adult Endocarditis, Bacterial etiology Humans Injections, Intravenous Male Neisseria isolation & purification Substance

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1985 Western Journal of Medicine

8032. Intravenous drug abuse and the accident and emergency department. (PubMed)

Intravenous drug abuse and the accident and emergency department. A 4-month prospective study of intravenous drug abusers attending an accident and emergency department was performed. A total of 92 patients presented with 104 new complaints. Seventy-eight per cent of patients were under 30 years of age and 28% were female. The primary reason for attendance was related to trauma in 30% of attendances, accidental or deliberate overdose in 26% and as a result of infection in 26%. A total of 37 (...) % of all attendances resulted in admission and two patients died in the department. Fifty-four patients (58%) had radioimmunoassay performed for hepatitis B markers and there was evidence of past or ongoing infection in 87% of these patients. Only three patients (5.6%) were HBsAg positive at the time of presentation. Accident and emergency staff should be made aware of the pattern of attendance of intravenous drug abusers and the particular problems they present.

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1985 Archives of Emergency Medicine

8033. Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin and gentamicin in abusers of intravenous drugs. (PubMed)

Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin and gentamicin in abusers of intravenous drugs. The kinetics of aminoglycoside elimination were determined in 18 hospitalized narcotics abusers receiving gentamicin or tobramycin for treatment of severe infection. Rapid aminoglycoside elimination (requiring doses of greater than 5 mg/kg per day to maintain adequate drug levels) was noted in 12 of the 18 patients (18 of 27 clearance studies). Patients found to have rapid elimination were younger (P less than 0.01 (...) (r = 0.93). Patients with rapid drug elimination had aminoglycoside clearances 16 to 43% greater than measured creatinine clearances, suggesting an extraglomerular route of drug elimination. We conclude that in drug abuse patients a significant and clinically unpredictable interpatient variation occurs in aminoglycoside elimination and that accurate serum kinetics are needed to determine therapeutic dosing. In addicts younger than 35 years, with a creatinine level of less than 1.0 mg/100 ml

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1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8034. Pharmacokinetics and bactericidal rates of daptomycin and vancomycin in intravenous drug abusers being treated for gram-positive endocarditis and bacteremia. (PubMed)

Pharmacokinetics and bactericidal rates of daptomycin and vancomycin in intravenous drug abusers being treated for gram-positive endocarditis and bacteremia. The pharmacokinetics and bactericidal killing rates (BR) of daptomycin (D) and vancomycin (V) in 12 intravenous drug abusers (6 treated with daptomycin and 6 treated with vancomycin) were evaluated. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from multiple serum samples drawn at steady state over a 12-h dosing interval after intravenous

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1992 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8035. Intravenous drug abusers attending an inner city accident and emergency department. (PubMed)

Intravenous drug abusers attending an inner city accident and emergency department. In a 3-month prospective study, intravenous drug abusers represented 1.14% of all new attendances at Glasgow Royal Infirmary. They generated a significant workload and were often difficult to identify. A very high proportion required surgery or other invasive procedures. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients were often unexpected. The risks to staff and other implications for the A&E

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1992 Archives of Emergency Medicine

8036. Intravenous drug abuse and the accident and emergency department: AIDS (HTLV-III) antibodies and hepatitis B markers. (PubMed)

Intravenous drug abuse and the accident and emergency department: AIDS (HTLV-III) antibodies and hepatitis B markers. 3026414 1987 03 17 2018 11 13 0264-4924 3 4 1986 Dec Archives of emergency medicine Arch Emerg Med Intravenous drug abuse and the accident and emergency department: AIDS (HTLV-III) antibodies and hepatitis B markers. 257-9 Dunlop M G MG Steedman D J DJ Peutherer J F JF eng Letter England Arch Emerg Med 8500828 0264-4924 0 Antibodies, Viral 0 Hepatitis B Antibodies IM X

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1986 Archives of Emergency Medicine

8037. Fungal Endocarditis Caused by Pseudallescheria (Petriellidium) boydii in an Intravenous Drug Abuser (PubMed)

Fungal Endocarditis Caused by Pseudallescheria (Petriellidium) boydii in an Intravenous Drug Abuser We present a case of fungal endocarditis in a 42-year-old man with a history of intravenous drug abuse who required aortic valve replacement for severe aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the resected valve grew Pseudallescheria boydii. The patient subsequently developed persistent endocarditis of the prosthetic valve with systemic embolism. At autopsy, cultures of the prosthetic valve grew (...) Monosporium apiospermum, an anamorph of Pseudallescheria boydii. Although fungal endocarditis is not uncommon in intravenous drug abusers, endocarditis caused by Pseudallescheria boydii is rare. It has been reported in only three other instances, and under circumstances that were different from ours.

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1987 Texas Heart Institute Journal

8038. Continuing outbreak of hepatitis A linked with intravenous drug abuse in Multnomah County. (PubMed)

Continuing outbreak of hepatitis A linked with intravenous drug abuse in Multnomah County. A communitywide outbreak of hepatitis A occurred in Portland, OR, from 1983 through 1986. At the peak of the outbreak, the age- and sex-specific annual incidence rate approached 400 cases per 100,000 population among men ages 25 to 34, the highest risk group. The community incidence rate was nearly 10 times the relevant national incidence rate. A review of the records concerning cases of hepatitis (...) A reported in the last 6 months of 1985 revealed that about half the number of young adults whose cases were investigated during that time reported a history of intravenous (IV) drug use--a proportion about 50 times greater than expected among persons in that age range. A simultaneous epidemic of overdose deaths from heroin and a concomitant increase in hepatitis B incidence rates led to the suspicion that this was a drug-abuse-associated epidemic of hepatitis among new IV drug users. Control

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1988 Public Health Reports

8039. Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and Control Conference. Report of the workgroup on intravenous drug abuse. (PubMed)

Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and Control Conference. Report of the workgroup on intravenous drug abuse. 3147488 1989 04 06 2013 11 21 0033-3549 103 Suppl 1 1988 Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) Public Health Rep Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and Control Conference. Report of the workgroup on intravenous drug abuse. 66-71 eng Journal Article United States Public Health Rep 9716844 0033-3549 0 Narcotics 70D95007SX Heroin (...) I5Y540LHVR Cocaine AIM IM X Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome transmission Cocaine Health Policy Heroin Humans Injections, Intravenous adverse effects Narcotics National Institutes of Health (U.S.) Substance-Related Disorders therapy United States United States Public Health Service 1988 1 1 1988 1 1 0 1 1988 1 1 0 0 ppublish 3147488 PMC1477922

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1988 Public Health Reports

8040. Osteoarticular infection in intravenous drug abusers: influence of HIV infection and differences with non drug abusers. (PubMed)

Osteoarticular infection in intravenous drug abusers: influence of HIV infection and differences with non drug abusers. To determine (a) the influence of HIV in developing osteoarticular infections in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) and (b) the differences between the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in IVDAs and a control group of non-IVDAs.A comparative study of the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in all HIV positive and HIV negative IVDAs admitted

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1993 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

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