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Intestinal Enteropathy

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1. Loss of HAI-2 in mice with decreased prostasin activity leads to an early-onset intestinal failure resembling congenital tufting enteropathy. (PubMed)

Loss of HAI-2 in mice with decreased prostasin activity leads to an early-onset intestinal failure resembling congenital tufting enteropathy. Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease that is essential for epithelial development and overall survival in mice. Prostasin is regulated primarily by the transmembrane serine protease inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-2, and loss of HAI-2 function leads to early embryonic (...) (Spint2-/-;Prss8R44Q/R44Q) are born in the expected numbers and do not exhibit any obvious developmental abnormality at birth. However, postnatal growth in these mice is severely impaired and they all die within 4 to 7 days after birth due to a critical failure in the development of small and large intestines, characterized by a widespread villous atrophy, tufted villi, near-complete loss of mucin-producing goblet cells, loss of colonic crypt structure, and bleeding into the intestinal lumen

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2018 PLoS ONE

2. Reversal of Intestinal Failure in Children With Tufting Enteropathy Supported With Parenteral Nutrition at Home. (PubMed)

Reversal of Intestinal Failure in Children With Tufting Enteropathy Supported With Parenteral Nutrition at Home. The aim of the study was to review long-term outcome of intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED)/tufting enteropathy (TE) patients treated with parenteral nutrition (PN) at home managed by an intestinal failure (IF) rehabilitation service.Infants presenting from 1986 to 2010 with IF, and TE histology were retrospectively reviewed for up to 30 years. Data collected included outcome (...) survival and >50% chance of enteral autonomy by/in early adult life and 75% by 25 years. Even if PN dependent s/he can gain employment. Patients with IED managed on PN at home by an IF rehabilitation service should avoid intestinal transplant.

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

3. Perforation of the small intestine caused by enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (PubMed)

Perforation of the small intestine caused by enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoma specific to the gastrointestinal system, arising from intraepithelial T lymphocytes, that is often associated with celiac disease. We report a 53-year-old female patient with no previous disease who presented with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness and abdominal guarding and the patient underwent emergency (...) surgery with a diagnosis of acute abdomen. During the operation, a 20-cm mass was found located on Treitz ligament, invading the duodenum and pancreatic head and perforating the jejunum. Histologically, medium-sized monomorphic atypical lymphocyte infiltration with dark nucleus and narrow cytoplasm was seen in the layers of mucosa, submucosa, muscular wall, and serosa of the duodenum. The final pathological diagnosis was "enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma type 2" based on immunohistochemical

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2018 Turkish Journal of Surgery

4. S100A12 concentrations and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (PubMed)

S100A12 concentrations and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Intestinal mucosal S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory biomarkers in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these biomarkers have not been studied in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), even though dogs with CE have increased S100A12 concentrations in feces and serum. This study investigated mucosal S100A12 (...) concentrations and MPO activities in both dogs with CE and healthy Beagles. ELISA (S100A12 concentrations) and spectrophotometric methods (MPO activity) were used. The associations of both biomarkers with canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, clinical outcome, and serum albumin concentrations were also investigated. We studied intestinal mucosal samples originating from different intestinal regions of 40 dogs with CE and 18 healthy Beagle dogs (duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum

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2018 BMC veterinary research

5. Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities within the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (PubMed)

Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities within the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases involved in the breakdown and reconstitution of extracellular matrix under both physiological and pathological conditions. Mucosal MMP-2 and -9 activities have been reported to be upregulated in the intestine of humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in animal models (...) of IBD. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathies (CE) is unknown. This study investigated mucosal pro- and active MMP-2 and -9 activities in dogs with CE and healthy dogs using gelatin zymography, and also to determine the association of their activities in dogs with CE with the canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, the clinical outcome, and hypoalbuminemia. Intestinal mucosal samples from duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum were collected

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2018 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica

6. Multiple lesions of gastrointestinal tract invasion by monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, accompanied by duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions and microscopic lymphocytic proctocolitis: a case series (PubMed)

Multiple lesions of gastrointestinal tract invasion by monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, accompanied by duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions and microscopic lymphocytic proctocolitis: a case series In East Asia, monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), previously known as type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), occurs more frequently than type I EATL, and coeliac disease is rare.Here we present four cases of MEITL (...) and antegrade double-balloon endoscopy revealed foci of edematous mucosa, with or without villous atrophy, in the non-neoplastic mucosa. Histological studies demonstrated duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions as well as microscopic (lymphocytic) proctocolitis with increased CD3- and CD8-positive and CD56-negative T-IELs in all four patients. The clinicopathological findings of the non-neoplastic lesions were similar to those characteristic of coeliac disease, suggesting that variants of coeliac

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2016 Diagnostic pathology

7. Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results From the MAL-ED Study. (PubMed)

Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results From the MAL-ED Study. The aim of the study was to describe changes in intestinal permeability in early childhood in diverse epidemiologic settings.In a birth cohort study, the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test was administered to 1980 children at 4 time points in the first 24 months of life in 8 countries. Data from the Brazil site with an incidence (...) % to 0.58%, and L:M ratios 0.10 to 0.17 in boys of 3 months of age across different sites. We observed strong sex-specific differences in both mannitol and lactulose recovery, with boys having higher recovery of both probes. Alterations in intestinal barrier function increased in most sites from 3 to 9 months of age and plateaued or diminished from 9 to 15 months of age.Alterations in recovery of the probes differ markedly in different epidemiologic contexts in children living in the developing world

2017 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

8. Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results from the MAL-ED Study. (PubMed)

Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results from the MAL-ED Study.

2017 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

9. Histopathologic Characteristics of Intestinal Biopsy Samples from Dogs With Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy With and Without Hypoalbuminemia (PubMed)

Histopathologic Characteristics of Intestinal Biopsy Samples from Dogs With Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy With and Without Hypoalbuminemia Previous studies have identified hypoalbuminemia as a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE), but it has not been determined whether histopathology differs between CE dogs with and without hypoalbuminemia.To compare histopathologic findings in dogs with biopsy-diagnosed inflammatory CE with and without hypoalbuminemia.83 (...) dogs that had intestinal biopsy performed between January 2010-July 2015. Dogs had signs compatible with CE of at least 3-weeks' duration and no evidence of clinically relevant extra-gastrointestinal (GI) disease or potential non-GI causes of hypoalbuminemia. Dogs had primary diagnosis of inflammatory enteritis based on histopathology.Dogs were grouped into CE with normoalbuminemia (CEN; serum albumin concentration ≥3.0 g/dL, N = 46) or chronic enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia (CEH; serum albumin

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2017 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

10. Protein-losing Enteropathy Caused by Intestinal or Colonic Lymphangiectasia Complicated by Sporadic Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Report of Two Cases (PubMed)

Protein-losing Enteropathy Caused by Intestinal or Colonic Lymphangiectasia Complicated by Sporadic Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Report of Two Cases This report describes two patients with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis complicated by protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Imaging studies indicated retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abnormalities of the adjacent digestive tract. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy revealed colonic lymphangiectasia in one patient; whereas the site in the other patient (...) was intestinal. Treatment with sirolimus led to the complete resolution of PLE within several months; additionally, marked shrinkage was observed in the lymphangioleiomyomas of both cases. These findings suggest that colonic or intestinal lymphatic congestion due to neighboring lymphangioleiomyomas was the mechanism for the development of PLE. At the time of writing this report, the beneficial effect of sirolimus has lasted for more than 3 years.

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2017 Internal Medicine

11. Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing 2-Mercaptoacrylic Acid-Based Derivative Possesses Cytoprotective Activity in a Small Intestine of Rats with Medication-Induced Enteropathy (PubMed)

Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing 2-Mercaptoacrylic Acid-Based Derivative Possesses Cytoprotective Activity in a Small Intestine of Rats with Medication-Induced Enteropathy Small intestinal injury is known to be one of the most commonly appearing pathologies, resulting in the use of medications such as: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antitumor drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The principal objective of this study is to evaluate the action of a novel (...) mercaptoacrylic acid derivative able to release H₂S on parameters of NO-synthase system and oxidative stress. Inducing enteropathy, three types of medications were used: indomethacin, an NSAID (35 mg/kg); methotrexate, an antitumor drug (10 mg/kg); and enalapril, an ACE inhibitor (2 mg/kg/day). 2-[(4-chlorophenyl-carbamoyl)-methyl]-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylic acid (2C3DHTA) was introduced based on the background of medication-induced enteropathy (10 mg/kg/day). The survey showed

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2017 Scientia pharmaceutica

12. Ciprofloxacin blocked enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated NSAID-induced enteropathy in rats partly by inhibiting intestinal β-glucuronidase activity (PubMed)

Ciprofloxacin blocked enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated NSAID-induced enteropathy in rats partly by inhibiting intestinal β-glucuronidase activity Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which may cause serious intestinal adverse reactions (enteropathy). In this study we investigated whether co-administration of ciprofloxacin affected the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and diclofenac-induced enteropathy in rats.The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac (...) was assessed in rats after receiving diclofenac (10 mg/kg, ig, or 5 mg/kg, iv), with or without ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg, ig) co-administered. After receiving 6 oral doses or 15 intravenous doses of diclofenac, the rats were sacrificed, and small intestine was removed to examine diclofenac-induced enteropathy. β-Glucuronidase activity in intestinal content, bovine liver and E coli was evaluated.Following oral or intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac displayed typical

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2016 Acta pharmacologica Sinica

13. Interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries. (PubMed)

Interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries. This review focuses on recent data highlighting the interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries, which drive morbidity and mortality and hinder the long-term developmental potential of children.Diarrhoea remains the second commonest cause of death in children below 5 years, and malnutrition underlies 45% of all child deaths. Even in the absence (...) of diarrhoea, subclinical pathogen carriage and enteropathy are almost universal in developing countries. Here, we review recent studies addressing the causes and consequences of diarrhoea; emerging data on environmental influences that govern postnatal development of the gut and microbiota; current concepts of environmental enteric dysfunction; and recent intervention trials in the field. We highlight the interactions between these processes, whereby intestinal pathogens drive a cycle of gut damage

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2016 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

14. Everolimus for Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia With Protein-Losing Enteropathy. (PubMed)

Everolimus for Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia With Protein-Losing Enteropathy. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL), also known as Waldmann's disease, is an exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities in the intestinal lymphatics. In this article, we describe a 12-year-old boy with PIL that led to protein-losing enteropathy characterized by diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia associated with edema (serum albumin level: 1.0 g/dL), and hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG level

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2016 Pediatrics

15. Patients with CKD have abnormal upper gastro-intestinal tract digestive function: a study of uremic enteropathy. (PubMed)

Patients with CKD have abnormal upper gastro-intestinal tract digestive function: a study of uremic enteropathy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects gastrointestinal (GI) function and results in numerous adaptive and maladaptive responses. Disruption of the colonic microbiome and its attendant consequences-the loss of gut barrier integrity and increased generation of uremic toxins-has become well-recognized. However, less attention has been paid to characterizing the mechanisms behind

2016 Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology

16. Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy

Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 (...) Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Aka: Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy II. Pathophysiology ral mechanisms (esp. ) Stasis syndrome due to impaired motility Hypermotility due to unmitigated sympathetic activity Pancreatic insufficiency Bile salt malabsorption Steatorrhea Drug-induced causes (e.g. ) mechanisms dysfunction due to Impaired gastrocolic reflex mechanisms Anal sphincter dysfunction related to Abnormal resting tone of internal and external

2018 FP Notebook

17. Intestinal Enteropathy

Intestinal Enteropathy Intestinal Enteropathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Intestinal Enteropathy Intestinal (...) Enteropathy Aka: Intestinal Enteropathy , Enteropathy From Related Chapters II. Types Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy Protein-losing Enteropathy (due to inflammation or infection) Radiation Enteropathy T-Cell Related Enteropathy HIV Related Enteropathy Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Intestinal Enteropathy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip

2018 FP Notebook

18. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children (PubMed)

Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among developing world children. SIBO's pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO's association with sanitation, diarrheal disease (...) years and cognitive disability. Stunting has, in part, been attributed to the presence of environmental enteropathy. Environmental enteropathy is a poorly understood condition leading to chronic intestinal inflammation. It has been postulated that small intestine bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathogenesis of environmental enteropathy as overgrowth has been associated with intestinal inflammation and micronutrient malabsorption when it develops in other clinical contexts. This study

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2016 mBio

19. Demystifying autoimmune small bowel enteropathy. (PubMed)

, device-assisted enteroscopy) and the novel cross-sectional imaging studies have opened the window to new insights on intestinal disorders. Consequentially, the detection of small-bowel mucosal atrophy has become a frequent finding in patients undergoing endoscopic investigation and its differential diagnosis can be challenging at times. Among the 'typical' causes of mucosal atrophy, autoimmune enteropathy has become more frequent than previously thought. However, the final diagnosis of autoimmune (...) Demystifying autoimmune small bowel enteropathy. We reviewed the current 'state of the art' on autoimmune enteropathy and small-bowel mucosal atrophy, with the aim of supporting clinicians in a frequently challenging diagnosis through different therapeutic options and prognosis.The diagnosis of small-bowel diseases has radically changed over the last 10 years. The possibility to 'easily' obtain bioptic samples from the jejunum and ileum by means of the enteroscopic techniques (particularly

2019 Current opinion in gastroenterology

20. Characterisation of environmental enteropathy biomarkers and associated risk factors in children in the context of a WASH trial in Timor-Leste. (PubMed)

Characterisation of environmental enteropathy biomarkers and associated risk factors in children in the context of a WASH trial in Timor-Leste. Environmental enteropathy (EE) is characterised by subclinical inflammation and hyperpermeability of the small intestine, hypothesised to be caused by recurrent ingestion of faecal bacteria. It has been suggested that EE may be a contributor to malnutrition and growth delays seen in children living in unsanitary conditions. We measured putative faecal

2019 International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health

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