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Intestinal Enteropathy

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1. Loss of HAI-2 in mice with decreased prostasin activity leads to an early-onset intestinal failure resembling congenital tufting enteropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Loss of HAI-2 in mice with decreased prostasin activity leads to an early-onset intestinal failure resembling congenital tufting enteropathy. Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease that is essential for epithelial development and overall survival in mice. Prostasin is regulated primarily by the transmembrane serine protease inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-2, and loss of HAI-2 function leads to early embryonic (...) (Spint2-/-;Prss8R44Q/R44Q) are born in the expected numbers and do not exhibit any obvious developmental abnormality at birth. However, postnatal growth in these mice is severely impaired and they all die within 4 to 7 days after birth due to a critical failure in the development of small and large intestines, characterized by a widespread villous atrophy, tufted villi, near-complete loss of mucin-producing goblet cells, loss of colonic crypt structure, and bleeding into the intestinal lumen

2018 PLoS ONE

2. Prediction and Treatment of Radiation Enteropathy: Can Intestinal Bugs Lead the Way? (Abstract)

Prediction and Treatment of Radiation Enteropathy: Can Intestinal Bugs Lead the Way? Radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity is a significant comorbidity affecting many patients with cancer. Intestinal microbial changes are observed in patients suffering from radiation enteropathy, although a causal relationship with disease activity has yet to be proven. Implementation of bacterial profiling in clinical care could improve recognition and management of this debilitating disease.See related

2019 Clinical Cancer Research

3. Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities within the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities within the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases involved in the breakdown and reconstitution of extracellular matrix under both physiological and pathological conditions. Mucosal MMP-2 and -9 activities have been reported to be upregulated in the intestine of humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in animal models (...) of IBD. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathies (CE) is unknown. This study investigated mucosal pro- and active MMP-2 and -9 activities in dogs with CE and healthy dogs using gelatin zymography, and also to determine the association of their activities in dogs with CE with the canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, the clinical outcome, and hypoalbuminemia. Intestinal mucosal samples from duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum were collected

2018 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica

4. S100A12 concentrations and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Full Text available with Trip Pro

S100A12 concentrations and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies Intestinal mucosal S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory biomarkers in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these biomarkers have not been studied in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), even though dogs with CE have increased S100A12 concentrations in feces and serum. This study investigated mucosal S100A12 (...) concentrations and MPO activities in both dogs with CE and healthy Beagles. ELISA (S100A12 concentrations) and spectrophotometric methods (MPO activity) were used. The associations of both biomarkers with canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, clinical outcome, and serum albumin concentrations were also investigated. We studied intestinal mucosal samples originating from different intestinal regions of 40 dogs with CE and 18 healthy Beagle dogs (duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum

2018 BMC veterinary research

5. Perforation of the small intestine caused by enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perforation of the small intestine caused by enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoma specific to the gastrointestinal system, arising from intraepithelial T lymphocytes, that is often associated with celiac disease. We report a 53-year-old female patient with no previous disease who presented with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness and abdominal guarding and the patient underwent emergency (...) surgery with a diagnosis of acute abdomen. During the operation, a 20-cm mass was found located on Treitz ligament, invading the duodenum and pancreatic head and perforating the jejunum. Histologically, medium-sized monomorphic atypical lymphocyte infiltration with dark nucleus and narrow cytoplasm was seen in the layers of mucosa, submucosa, muscular wall, and serosa of the duodenum. The final pathological diagnosis was "enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma type 2" based on immunohistochemical

2018 Turkish Journal of Surgery

6. Reversal of Intestinal Failure in Children With Tufting Enteropathy Supported With Parenteral Nutrition at Home. (Abstract)

Reversal of Intestinal Failure in Children With Tufting Enteropathy Supported With Parenteral Nutrition at Home. The aim of the study was to review long-term outcome of intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED)/tufting enteropathy (TE) patients treated with parenteral nutrition (PN) at home managed by an intestinal failure (IF) rehabilitation service.Infants presenting from 1986 to 2010 with IF, and TE histology were retrospectively reviewed for up to 30 years. Data collected included outcome (...) survival and >50% chance of enteral autonomy by/in early adult life and 75% by 25 years. Even if PN dependent s/he can gain employment. Patients with IED managed on PN at home by an IF rehabilitation service should avoid intestinal transplant.

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

7. Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results From the MAL-ED Study. (Abstract)

Age and Sex Normalization of Intestinal Permeability Measures for the Improved Assessment of Enteropathy in Infancy and Early Childhood: Results From the MAL-ED Study. The aim of the study was to describe changes in intestinal permeability in early childhood in diverse epidemiologic settings.In a birth cohort study, the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test was administered to 1980 children at 4 time points in the first 24 months of life in 8 countries. Data from the Brazil site with an incidence (...) % to 0.58%, and L:M ratios 0.10 to 0.17 in boys of 3 months of age across different sites. We observed strong sex-specific differences in both mannitol and lactulose recovery, with boys having higher recovery of both probes. Alterations in intestinal barrier function increased in most sites from 3 to 9 months of age and plateaued or diminished from 9 to 15 months of age.Alterations in recovery of the probes differ markedly in different epidemiologic contexts in children living in the developing world

2017 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

9. Histopathologic Characteristics of Intestinal Biopsy Samples from Dogs With Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy With and Without Hypoalbuminemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Histopathologic Characteristics of Intestinal Biopsy Samples from Dogs With Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy With and Without Hypoalbuminemia Previous studies have identified hypoalbuminemia as a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE), but it has not been determined whether histopathology differs between CE dogs with and without hypoalbuminemia.To compare histopathologic findings in dogs with biopsy-diagnosed inflammatory CE with and without hypoalbuminemia.83 (...) dogs that had intestinal biopsy performed between January 2010-July 2015. Dogs had signs compatible with CE of at least 3-weeks' duration and no evidence of clinically relevant extra-gastrointestinal (GI) disease or potential non-GI causes of hypoalbuminemia. Dogs had primary diagnosis of inflammatory enteritis based on histopathology.Dogs were grouped into CE with normoalbuminemia (CEN; serum albumin concentration ≥3.0 g/dL, N = 46) or chronic enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia (CEH; serum albumin

2017 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

10. Protein-losing Enteropathy Caused by Intestinal or Colonic Lymphangiectasia Complicated by Sporadic Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Report of Two Cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protein-losing Enteropathy Caused by Intestinal or Colonic Lymphangiectasia Complicated by Sporadic Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Report of Two Cases This report describes two patients with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis complicated by protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Imaging studies indicated retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abnormalities of the adjacent digestive tract. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy revealed colonic lymphangiectasia in one patient; whereas the site in the other patient (...) was intestinal. Treatment with sirolimus led to the complete resolution of PLE within several months; additionally, marked shrinkage was observed in the lymphangioleiomyomas of both cases. These findings suggest that colonic or intestinal lymphatic congestion due to neighboring lymphangioleiomyomas was the mechanism for the development of PLE. At the time of writing this report, the beneficial effect of sirolimus has lasted for more than 3 years.

2017 Internal Medicine

11. Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing 2-Mercaptoacrylic Acid-Based Derivative Possesses Cytoprotective Activity in a Small Intestine of Rats with Medication-Induced Enteropathy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing 2-Mercaptoacrylic Acid-Based Derivative Possesses Cytoprotective Activity in a Small Intestine of Rats with Medication-Induced Enteropathy Small intestinal injury is known to be one of the most commonly appearing pathologies, resulting in the use of medications such as: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antitumor drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The principal objective of this study is to evaluate the action of a novel (...) mercaptoacrylic acid derivative able to release H₂S on parameters of NO-synthase system and oxidative stress. Inducing enteropathy, three types of medications were used: indomethacin, an NSAID (35 mg/kg); methotrexate, an antitumor drug (10 mg/kg); and enalapril, an ACE inhibitor (2 mg/kg/day). 2-[(4-chlorophenyl-carbamoyl)-methyl]-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylic acid (2C3DHTA) was introduced based on the background of medication-induced enteropathy (10 mg/kg/day). The survey showed

2017 Scientia pharmaceutica

12. Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy

Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 (...) Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy Aka: Diabetes Related Intestinal Enteropathy II. Pathophysiology ral mechanisms (esp. ) Stasis syndrome due to impaired motility Hypermotility due to unmitigated sympathetic activity Pancreatic insufficiency Bile salt malabsorption Steatorrhea Drug-induced causes (e.g. ) mechanisms dysfunction due to Impaired gastrocolic reflex mechanisms Anal sphincter dysfunction related to Abnormal resting tone of internal and external

2018 FP Notebook

13. Intestinal Enteropathy

Intestinal Enteropathy Intestinal Enteropathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Intestinal Enteropathy Intestinal (...) Enteropathy Aka: Intestinal Enteropathy , Enteropathy From Related Chapters II. Types Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy Protein-losing Enteropathy (due to inflammation or infection) Radiation Enteropathy T-Cell Related Enteropathy HIV Related Enteropathy Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Intestinal Enteropathy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip

2018 FP Notebook

14. Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) mRNA is over-expressed in the duodenal mucosa and is negatively correlated with serum tryptophan concentrations in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) mRNA is over-expressed in the duodenal mucosa and is negatively correlated with serum tryptophan concentrations in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy. Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) have decreased serum tryptophan concentrations, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) expression is associated with low serum tryptophan concentrations and is increased in the gastrointestinal tract (...) of humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine if the mRNA expression of IDO-1 is increased in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with PLE as compared to dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) and healthy dogs, and whether this expression is correlated with changes in serum tryptophan concentration.Our study was a retrospective study using archived paraffin-embedded duodenal biopsy specimens from 8 healthy Beagle dogs from the Iowa State University Canine

2019 PLoS ONE

15. Multiple lesions of gastrointestinal tract invasion by monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, accompanied by duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions and microscopic lymphocytic proctocolitis: a case series Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple lesions of gastrointestinal tract invasion by monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, accompanied by duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions and microscopic lymphocytic proctocolitis: a case series In East Asia, monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), previously known as type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), occurs more frequently than type I EATL, and coeliac disease is rare.Here we present four cases of MEITL (...) and antegrade double-balloon endoscopy revealed foci of edematous mucosa, with or without villous atrophy, in the non-neoplastic mucosa. Histological studies demonstrated duodenal and intestinal enteropathy-like lesions as well as microscopic (lymphocytic) proctocolitis with increased CD3- and CD8-positive and CD56-negative T-IELs in all four patients. The clinicopathological findings of the non-neoplastic lesions were similar to those characteristic of coeliac disease, suggesting that variants of coeliac

2016 Diagnostic pathology

16. CD55 Deficiency, Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy, and Thrombosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

CD55 Deficiency, Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy, and Thrombosis. Studies of monogenic gastrointestinal diseases have revealed molecular pathways critical to gut homeostasis and enabled the development of targeted therapies.We studied 11 patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by early-onset protein-losing enteropathy with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, edema due to hypoproteinemia, malabsorption, and less frequently, bowel inflammation, recurrent infections (...) causing surface deposition of complement and the generation of soluble C5a. Costimulatory function and cytokine modulation by CD55 were defective. Genetic reconstitution of CD55 or treatment with a complement-inhibitory therapeutic antibody reversed abnormal complement activation.CD55 deficiency with hyperactivation of complement, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (the CHAPLE syndrome) is caused by abnormal complement activation due to biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CD55

2017 NEJM

17. Serum Bovine Immunoglobulins Improve Inflammation and Gut Barrier Function in Persons with HIV and Enteropathy on Suppressive ART. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum Bovine Immunoglobulins Improve Inflammation and Gut Barrier Function in Persons with HIV and Enteropathy on Suppressive ART. Systemic inflammation persists in chronic HIV infection and is associated with increased rates of non-AIDS events such as cardiovascular and liver disease. Increased gut permeability and systemic exposure to microbial products are key drivers of this inflammation. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) supports gut healing in other conditions (...) such as inflammatory bowel disease.In this randomized, double-blind study, participants receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with chronic diarrhea received placebo or SBI at 2.5 g BID or 5 g BID for 4 weeks, followed by a 20-week placebo-free extension phase with SBI at either 2.5 or 5 g BID. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), zonulin, flagellin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein, and inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA or multiplex assays. Non-parametric tests

2019 Pathogens & immunity Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Phenotype and Genotype of a Cohort of Chinese Children with Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy. (Abstract)

Phenotype and Genotype of a Cohort of Chinese Children with Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy. To examine the phenotypes and perform next-generation sequencing in children with early-onset protein-losing enteropathy.We performed a retrospective review of 27 children with early-onset protein-losing enteropathy. Patients were characterized on clinical, immunologic, and systemic involvements. Targeted gene panel sequencing and whole-exome sequencing were performed in 9 patients.In 27 patients (...) (55.6% male), median age of disease onset was 173 days, and 59.3% had onset of disease before 1 year of age. Initial gastrointestinal symptoms included diarrhea (74.1%), vomiting (33.3%), and abdominal distention (48.1%). All patients had hypoalbuminemia, with an average serum albumin concentration of 20.2 ± 5.4 g/L. Hypogammaglobulinemia was identified in 72% of the patients. Upper endoscopy showed typical presentation of intestinal lymphangiectasia (n = 13). Patients frequently received

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

19. Reversal of secondary protein-losing enteropathy after surgical revision of a jejunal Roux-en-Y loop in a patient after liver transplantation. (Abstract)

Reversal of secondary protein-losing enteropathy after surgical revision of a jejunal Roux-en-Y loop in a patient after liver transplantation. Secondary protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare complication following pediatric liver transplantation (LT), mostly related to venous outflow obstruction of the liver. Here, we discuss a thus far unknown cause of secondary PLE following pediatric LT. A 7-month-old boy underwent LT with biliary anastomosis using a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop. Eleven (...) months later he developed PLE. Routine diagnostic workup was negative. No hepatic outflow obstruction was detected during catheterization. Although the hepatic venous pressure gradient was slightly increased (10 mm Hg), there were no clinical signs of portal hypertension. Albumin scintigraphy with specific early recordings suggested focal albumin intestinal entry in the jejunal Roux-en-Y loop. Local bacterial overgrowth or local lymphangiectasia, possibly due to (venous) congestion, was considered

2019 American Journal of Transplantation

20. Characterisation of environmental enteropathy biomarkers and associated risk factors in children in the context of a WASH trial in Timor-Leste. (Abstract)

Characterisation of environmental enteropathy biomarkers and associated risk factors in children in the context of a WASH trial in Timor-Leste. Environmental enteropathy (EE) is characterised by subclinical inflammation and hyperpermeability of the small intestine, hypothesised to be caused by recurrent ingestion of faecal bacteria. It has been suggested that EE may be a contributor to malnutrition and growth delays seen in children living in unsanitary conditions. We measured putative faecal

2019 International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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