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81. Management of Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

the certifying doctor may choose not to explic- itly mention alcohol on the death certi?cate. 6 Although alcohol consumption is higher in rich countries, in those withlower economicwealth, the morbidityandmortality risks are higher per litre of pure alcohol consumed than in the higher income countries. 1 The economic contribution of the alcohol industry, in terms of employment and taxation, are often cited as reasons for not attempting torestrictalcoholconsumptionusing pricing strate- gies or marketing (...) proven to have good sensitivity and speci?city in clinical settings across different countries. 34 TheAUDIThas10questionsthatexploreconsumption(1–3), dependence (4–6), and alcohol-related problems (7–10) (Table 3). There are two cut-off points, one for dependence and one for risky drinking. Shorter versions have been devel- oped. The AUDIT-C includes just the ?rst three questions of the AUDIT and is reliable for the screening of ‘risky drink- ing’. 35,36 Infact,itisastandardisedwaytoquicklyapplyaquan

2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver

82. What are the effects of Teach For America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA? Full Text available with Trip Pro

across the United States ( ). These programs seek to increase the supply of teachers more rapidly than traditional teacher preparation programs ( ; ; ). Although their requirements vary widely, most are shorter, less expensive, and more practically oriented than traditional teacher preparation programs (Blazer, 2102). These programs also vary widely in their selection criteria for teacher candidates, approach to training these candidates, notoriety among education stakeholders, and evidence (...) diverse corps members to teach difficult‐to‐staff subjects such as science, math, and special education ( ). Figure 1 Number of individuals recruited versus number of individuals selected to become corps members during the past 25 years of TFA's history Source: Compiled fromdata reported in Teach For America (2010) Selection TFA's selection process aims to identify candidates who are most likely to succeed in the classroom. Roughly 25% of recruits become corps members (see ). The selection process

2018 Campbell Collaboration

83. Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies in Adult Patients With Exacerbation of COPD

for Healthcare Research and Quality, our Task Order Officer, Lionel Bañez, M.D., and from the American Academy of Family Physicians, Melanie Bird, Ph.D. Key Informants In designing the study questions, the EPC consulted several Key Informants who represent the end-users of research. The EPC sought the Key Informant input on the priority areas for research and synthesis. Key Informants are not involved in the analysis of the evidence or the writing of the report. Therefore, in the end, study questions, design (...) (www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov) to see draft research questions and reports or to join an email list to learn about new program products and opportunities for input. If you have comments on this systematic review, they may be sent by mail to the Task Order Officer named below at: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, or by email to epc@ahrq.hhs.gov. Gopal Khanna, M.B.A. Arlene S. Bierman, M.D., M.S. Director Director Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Center for Evidence

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

84. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: an AUA/SUFU Guideline

(SNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population characterized by severe refractory OAB symptoms or patients who are not candidates for second-line therapy and are willing to undergo a surgical procedure. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 21. Practitioners and patients should persist with new treatments for an adequate trial in order to determine whether the therapy is efficacious and tolerable. Combination therapeutic approaches should be assembled methodically (...) . The same system was used to assess the quality of additional included studies. The categorization of evidence strength is conceptually distinct from the quality of individual studies. Evidence strength refers to the body of evidence available for a particular question and includes consideration of study design, individual study quality, consistency of findings across studies, adequacy of sample sizes and generalizability of samples, settings and treatments for the purposes of the guideline. AUA

2019 American Urological Association

85. Methodology for Creating Expert Consensus Decision Pathways

, such guidelines may contain gaps in how to make clinical decisions, particularly when equipoise is present in a topic. To help inform clinicians about areas where evi- dence may be new and evolving or where suf?cient datamaybemorelimited,theACCestablishedExpert ConsensusDecisionPathwaysasaformatforaddress- ing key questions facing members across a range of high-value clinical topics. Their methodology is grounded in assembling a group of clinical experts to develop content that builds consensus advice to sup (...) , but to encourage clinicians to ask certainquestionsandconsiderkeyfactorsastheycometo their own decision on a treatment plan to be recom- mended and discussed with their patients. Given the na- ture of clinical evidence, there may be multiple reasonable treatment options for physicians and patients to consider together. 2. SUMMARY GRAPHIC Figure 1 summarizes both the process for identifying Expert Consensus Decision Pathway topics as well as how they are developed and published. The subsequent sec- tions

2019 American College of Cardiology

86. Management of Stroke Rehabilitation

. Communication 80 C. Dysphagia 81 D. Driving 82 E. Pseudobulbar Affect 83 Appendix C: Patient Focus Group Methods and Findings 84 A. Methods 84 B. Patient Focus Group Findings 84 Appendix D: Evidence Review Methodology 87 A. Developing the Key Questions 87 B. Conducting the Systematic Review 98 C. Convening the Face-to-face Meeting 103 D. Grading Recommendations 103 E. Recommendation Categorization 107 F. Drafting and Submitting the Final Clinical Practice Guideline 109 Appendix E: Evidence Table 111 (...) the effect of guideline adherence on clinical outcomes. This guideline is intended for use by VA and DoD healthcare practitioners including physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, psychologists and other mental health providers, social workers, pharmacists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, case managers, speech language pathologists, vision therapists, vocational rehabilitation specialists, recreation therapists, and others involved in the care of Service Members

2019 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

87. Substance use disorders in pregnancy: clinical, ethical, and research imperatives of the opioid epidemic Full Text available with Trip Pro

rather than use in pregnancy. An additional limitation is that, with 10 questions, many may find it too lengthy. 4Ps screen The 4Ps screen was first developed by Hope Ewing in 1990. x 24 Ewing, H. A practical guide to intervention in health and social services with pregnant and postpartum addicts and alcoholics: theoretical framework, brief screening tool, key interview questions, and strategies for referral to recovery resources. The Born Free Project, Contra Costa County Department of Health (...) Services , Martinez (CA) ; 1990 Since then, the measure has evolved along 2 paths. The first path is the 4Ps Plus (NTI Publishing), which includes 5 questions, is copyrighted, and only available for a fee. The utility of this screening tool was reported in a study of 228 pregnant women. x 25 Chasnoff, I.J., Wells, A.M., McGourty, R.F., and Bailey, L.K. Validation of the 4P’s plus screen for substance use in pregnancy validation of the 4P’s plus. J Perinatol . 2007 ; 27 : 744–748 Compared with results

2019 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

88. Appropriate prescribing of psychotropic medication for non-cognitive symptoms in people with dementia

(Co-chair) Head of School of Pharmacy, University College Cork. Dr. Ashling Murphy Postdoctoral Researcher, Centre for Gerontology and Rehabilitation, University College Cork. Dr. Paul Gallagher Consultant Geriatrician, Cork University Hospital; Senior Lecturer Dept. of Medicine UCC; Irish Society of Physicians in Geriatric Medicine representative. Dr. Kieran Walsh Pharmacist; School of Pharmacy, University College Cork. Dr. Aisling Jennings General Practitioner, Kinsale; PhD candidate, Department (...) is relevant to all doctors, nurses, pharmacists and health and social care professionals working in acute, community or residential care settings in Ireland who provide care to people with dementia. Disclaimer NCEC National Clinical Guidelines do not replace professional judgment on particular cases, whereby the clinician or health professional decides that individual guideline recommendations are not appropriate in the circumstances presented by an individual patient, or whereby an individual patient

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

89. Review of information management practices in the HSE Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting (CIDR) system

Protection Officer EARS-Net European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control EFSA European Food Safety Authority ESF Enhanced Surveillance Form EPIS Epidemic Intelligence Information System EWRS Early Warning Response System FAQ Frequently Asked Questions FOI Freedom of Information FSAI Food Safety Authority of Ireland GDPR General Data Protection Regulation gVPN Government Virtual Private Network HIPE Hospital In-Patient Inquiry HIQA Health (...) by Crowe Horwath was published in 2018, setting out a plan to radically re-structure public health services, focusing in particular on the role, training and career structure for public health physicians in Ireland. (5) It is essential that there are ‘fit for purpose’ information systems in place to support the delivery of public health services into the future. CIDR would be one element of this system; it is Ireland’s national system for the surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases

2019 HIQA Health Information

90. Achieving Health Equity in Preventive Services

from primary care physicians 1 RCT (137) Improved weight loss in low-income African-American women at 9 months, but not at 12 or 18 months Insufficient; insufficient Abbreviations: RCT = randomized controlled trial a Includes reminder letters followed by lay health worker counseling. Key Question 4. Effectiveness of Health Information Technologies Eleven studies evaluated the effectiveness of health information technologies and digital enterprises to improve the adoption, implementation (...) assistants; Roger Chou, M.D., FACP, Pacific Northwest EPC Director; and Elaine Graham M.L.S., Pacific Northwest EPC program manager. Technical Expert Panel In designing the study questions and methodology at the outset of this report, the EPC consulted several technical and content experts. Broad expertise and perspectives were sought. Divergent and conflicted opinions are common and perceived as healthy scientific discourse that results in a thoughtful, relevant systematic review. Therefore, in the end

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

91. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults

Grade C) 20. Clinicians may offer sacral neuromodulation (SNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population characterized by severe refractory OAB symptoms or patients who are not candidates for second-line therapy and are willing to undergo a surgical procedure. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 21. Practitioners and patients should persist with new treatments for an adequate trial in order to determine whether the therapy is efficacious and tolerable. Combination (...) is conceptually distinct from the quality of individual studies. Evidence strength refers to the body of evidence available for a particular question and includes consideration of study design, individual study quality, consistency of findings across studies, adequacy of sample sizes and generalizability of samples, settings and treatments for the purposes of the guideline. AUA categorizes evidence strength as Grade A (well-conducted randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or exceptionally strong observational

2019 American Urological Association

92. Developing a Value Framework for Genetic Diagnosis: Part I A Systematic Review of Outcomes Hierarchies and Measurement Approaches

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the American College of Medical Genetics. ACMG Value Review, March 16, 2012 Page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations 4 Executive Summary 5-9 Introduction 10-13 Background and Context 10 Purpose and Scope 11 Methods 14-19 Key Questions and Review Framework 14 Search Strategy 16 Change in Scope of Review 16 Data Abstraction 17 Data Analysis 17 (...) Assessing Quality and Strength of Evidence 18 Results 20-85 Scope of Findings 20 Organization and Review of Information 20 Findings for Key Question 1 (Overarching Question) 22 Findings for Key Question 2 23 Findings for Key Question 3 35 Findings for Key Question 4 41 Findings for Key Question 5 74 Key Question 6 85 Synthesis and Discussion of Findings 86-94 Acknowledgements 95 References ………………………………………………………………………………………96-105 Tables and Figures Table 1. Key Questions 15 Table 2. Domains of Quality

2019 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics

93. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

are essential to the Effective Health Care Program. Please visit the website (www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov) to see draft research questions and reports or to join an email list to learn about new program products and opportunities for input. If you have comments on this systematic review, they may be sent by mail to the Task Order Officers named below at: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, or by email to epc@ahrq.hhs.gov. Gopal Khanna, M.B.A. Director (...) Diseases (NIAMS), the NIH nominators of this review topic. All provided support, direction, and editorial comments. We also thank Jeannine Ouellette and Cheryl Cole-Hill for their copy editorial help bringing the report to completion. Technical Expert Panel In designing the study questions and methodology at the outset of this report, the EPC consulted several technical and content experts. Broad expertise and perspectives were sought. Divergent and conflicted opinions are common and perceived

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

94. The economic evaluation of early intervention with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha treatments in pediatric Crohn's disease

Staff Physician, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Anne M. Griffiths, MD Staff Physician, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Shinya Ito, MD Head, Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Professor, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Wendy J. Ungar, MSc, PhD Senior Scientist, Child Health Evaluative (...) Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Report No. 2019-01 Date: February 26, 2019 Acknowledgements This research was generously supported by the Hospital for Sick Children Restracomp Doctoral Scholarship, the University of Toronto, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation Graduate Fellowship, Eugene Vayda Award, Dr. Robert Duff Barron Graduate Scholarship in Public

2019 SickKids Reports

95. What is the evidence on the role of the arts in improving health and well-being? A scoping review

. The synthesis question This scoping review addressed the question: “What is the evidence on the role of the arts in improving health and well-being?” Types of evidence This report used a scoping review methodology to map the global academic literature in English and Russian from January 2000 to May 2019. Over 900 publications were identified, of which there were over 200 reviews, systematic reviews, meta- analyses and meta-syntheses covering over 3000 studies, and over 700 further individual studies (...) case studies, small-scale cross-sectional surveys, nationally representative longitudinal cohort studies, community-wide ethnographies and randomized controlled trials. Research methods included psychological scales, biological markers, neuroimaging, physiological assessments, behavioural observations, interviews and examinations of clinical records. Research studies also drew on theories from diverse disciplines. There is naturally variation in the quality of this evidence, and certain areas where

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

96. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2019 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in the Assessment of Cardiac Structure and Function in Nonvalvular Heart Disease

for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appro- priatefortheclinicalscenario,andscoresof1to3indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. Theprimary objective of theAUC is to providea framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications re?ect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically (...) create, review, and categorize clinical situations in which diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovas- cular diseases. The process is based on the current un- derstanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined. PREFACE Structural and valvular heart disease (VHD) encompass a signi?cant proportion of cardiovascular disease condi- tions. Initial diagnosis and subsequent follow-up frequently rely on imaging with more than 1

2019 Heart Rhythm Society

97. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

challenges. ED providers correctly diagnose a stroke in ≈60% of children, giving ≈40% of cases an incorrect initial diagnosis of a stroke mimic. , Studies of stroke mimics in the ED have yielded several important observations. First, the vast majority (60%–90%) of children presenting to an ED with an acute neurological syndrome, or brain attack, have some condition other than stroke. Diagnoses that commonly mimic stroke and may prompt an emergency physician to activate a “stroke alert” pathway (...) , including pediatricians, emergency physicians, and emergency medical technicians. Similar education programs are needed for subspecialty providers who care for populations at high risk for stroke, including cardiologists, hematologists, cardiac intensivists, and pediatric intensivists, as well as the nursing staff caring for these children. Research: Develop and validate bedside clinical assessment methods for frontline providers to identify stroke in children with improved sensitivity and specificity

2019 American Heart Association

98. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Full Text available with Trip Pro

physicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and AHA staff members, without whom publication of this valuable resource would be impossible. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, ScM, FAHA, Chair Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD, FAHA, Chair Elect Paul Muntner, PhD, FAHA, Vice Chair Connie W. Tsao, MD, MPH, Vice Chair Elect Sally S. Wong, PhD, RD, CDN, FAHA, AHA Science and Medicine Advisor On behalf of the American Heart Association Epidemiology Council (...) they use them, the cost of these services, and how the costs are paid NHANES—disease and risk factor prevalence and nutrition statistics NHIS—disease and risk factor prevalence NAMCS—physician office visits National Home and Hospice Care Survey—staff, services, and patients of home health and hospice agencies NHAMCS—hospital outpatient and ED visits NIS of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality—hospital inpatient discharges, procedures, and charges United States Renal Data System—kidney disease

2019 American Heart Association

99. Improving Access to and Usability of Systematic Review Data for Health Systems Guidelines Development

, including a large volume of complex data, dense static tables, and a rigid structure as defined by the systematic review approach. For example, in Key Question 1 alone, data were extracted from 68 studies reported in 74 articles on 8 interventions and 2 primary outcomes split into 3 timepoints. This was reported in 79 pages, and there were 12 tables and 21 figures. Evaluation of Examples Interviews and presentations were conducted with six key stakeholders using the mocked-up example outputs (...) the interviews, Dr. Totten presented the rationale for the project and briefly demonstrated how each product worked. We encouraged the respondent to ask questions throughout the presentation. In addition, we asked each respondent to describe the overall impression of the products and to consider the most appropriate setting or user for each product. Both the initial and evaluation interviews were conducted to understand what decision makers wanted to see in dissemination products and how it should

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

100. Implementation of Supervised Exercise Therapy for Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

as a practical companion to the recently published American Heart Association scientific statement that summarizes the evidence supporting SET for patients with PAD. CMS Process of Referral and Coverage for SET Medicare beneficiaries with symptomatic PAD must have a face-to-face visit with a physician at the time a referral for SET is placed. Symptomatic PAD includes classic claudication and other exertional ischemic symptoms of the leg. The latter is important because most people with PAD do not have (...) medicine specialists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, cardiologists, and primary care physicians. The referral can be initiated within the electronic health record or via written order. Including the Medicare-approved International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes in the referral is recommended to ensure proper billing practices. includes a list of currently approved International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes. Table 1. Reimbursable ICD-10 Codes

2019 American Heart Association

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