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41. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

physicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and AHA staff members, without whom publication of this valuable resource would be impossible. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, ScM, FAHA, Chair Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD, FAHA, Chair Elect Paul Muntner, PhD, FAHA, Vice Chair Connie W. Tsao, MD, MPH, Vice Chair Elect Sally S. Wong, PhD, RD, CDN, FAHA, AHA Science and Medicine Advisor On behalf of the American Heart Association Epidemiology Council (...) they use them, the cost of these services, and how the costs are paid NHANES—disease and risk factor prevalence and nutrition statistics NHIS—disease and risk factor prevalence NAMCS—physician office visits National Home and Hospice Care Survey—staff, services, and patients of home health and hospice agencies NHAMCS—hospital outpatient and ED visits NIS of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality—hospital inpatient discharges, procedures, and charges United States Renal Data System—kidney disease

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2019 American Heart Association

42. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

Assessment of the direction and quality of evidence 84 Methods for assessment of values and preferences, acceptability, feasibility and equity 85 How resources were considered 85 Discussion of recommendation strength and evidence quality 85 References 86 ANNEX 3: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW EVIDENCE PROFILES AND EVIDENCE-TO-DECISION TABLES 89 ANNEX 4: BACKGROUND TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES AND DETAILS OF PERSONNEL 90 PICO Questions answered by systematic review 90 Peer review 91 Review and plan (...) guidance to health-care providers (i.e. the end-users of these guidelines: physicians, nurses, pharmacists and caregivers) on the adequate relief of pain associated with cancer or its treatment in adults and adolescents. To assist policy-makers, programme managers and public health personnel to create and facilitate appropriately balanced policies on opioids and prescribing regulations for effective and safe cancer pain management. SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES The scope of these guidelines includes medical

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

43. Developing a Value Framework for Genetic Diagnosis: Part I A Systematic Review of Outcomes Hierarchies and Measurement Approaches

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the American College of Medical Genetics. ACMG Value Review, March 16, 2012 Page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations 4 Executive Summary 5-9 Introduction 10-13 Background and Context 10 Purpose and Scope 11 Methods 14-19 Key Questions and Review Framework 14 Search Strategy 16 Change in Scope of Review 16 Data Abstraction 17 Data Analysis 17 (...) Assessing Quality and Strength of Evidence 18 Results 20-85 Scope of Findings 20 Organization and Review of Information 20 Findings for Key Question 1 (Overarching Question) 22 Findings for Key Question 2 23 Findings for Key Question 3 35 Findings for Key Question 4 41 Findings for Key Question 5 74 Key Question 6 85 Synthesis and Discussion of Findings 86-94 Acknowledgements 95 References ………………………………………………………………………………………96-105 Tables and Figures Table 1. Key Questions 15 Table 2. Domains of Quality

2019 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics

44. Recommendations for the Establishment of Stroke Systems of Care: A 2019 Update: A Policy Statement From the American Stroke Association

system of care should consider the term stakeholders in a very broad sense. Stakeholders should draw from key constituents, broadly healthcare providers, patients, caregivers, hospitals, home health companies, regulatory agencies, and payers. Healthcare providers should represent the major types of physicians, nurses, and allied health providers who are engaged in the care of stroke patients. For acute care systems, important physician specialty stakeholders commonly include emergency physicians (...) , vascular and general neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, neurointensivists, and hospitalists. Important nursing stakeholders include emergency care and neuroscience nurses, speech/language pathologists, and stroke center coordinators. Important allied health stakeholders include paramedics and emergency medical technicians. For prevention systems, important additional physician specialty stakeholders include internists, geriatricians, and cardiologists; additional stakeholders include

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2019 American Heart Association

45. Paediatric Urology

. Ultrasound guidance of suprapubic bladder aspiration in neonates. J Pediatr, 1993. 123: 789. 339. Hildebrand, W.L., et al. Suprapubic bladder aspiration in infants. Am Fam Physician, 1981. 23: 115. 340. Kozer, E., et al. Pain in infants who are younger than 2 months during suprapubic aspiration and transurethral bladder catheterization: a randomized, controlled study. Pediatrics, 2006. 118: e51. 341. Vaillancourt, S., et al. To clean or not to clean: effect on contamination rates in midstream urine (...) . Enhanced urinalysis improves identification of febrile infants ages 60 days and younger at low risk for serious bacterial illness. Pediatrics, 2001. 108: 866. 346. Mayo, S., et al. Clinical laboratory automated urinalysis: comparison among automated microscopy, flow cytometry, two test strips analyzers, and manual microscopic examination of the urine sediments. J Clin Lab Anal, 2008. 22: 262. 347. Kass, E.H. Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Physicians, 1956. 69: 56. 348

2019 European Association of Urology

46. Male Sexual Dysfunction

., et al. Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res, 1999. 11: 319. 89. Mulhall, J.P., et al. Validation of the erection hardness score. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1626. 90. Whooley, M.A., et al. Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med, 1997. 12: 439. 91. Khera, M., et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Testosterone

2019 European Association of Urology

49. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2019 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in the Assessment of Cardiac Structure and Function in Nonvalvular Heart Disease

for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appro- priatefortheclinicalscenario,andscoresof1to3indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. Theprimary objective of theAUC is to providea framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications re?ect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically (...) create, review, and categorize clinical situations in which diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovas- cular diseases. The process is based on the current un- derstanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined. PREFACE Structural and valvular heart disease (VHD) encompass a signi?cant proportion of cardiovascular disease condi- tions. Initial diagnosis and subsequent follow-up frequently rely on imaging with more than 1

2019 Heart Rhythm Society

51. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: an AUA/SUFU Guideline

(SNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population characterized by severe refractory OAB symptoms or patients who are not candidates for second-line therapy and are willing to undergo a surgical procedure. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 21. Practitioners and patients should persist with new treatments for an adequate trial in order to determine whether the therapy is efficacious and tolerable. Combination therapeutic approaches should be assembled methodically (...) . The same system was used to assess the quality of additional included studies. The categorization of evidence strength is conceptually distinct from the quality of individual studies. Evidence strength refers to the body of evidence available for a particular question and includes consideration of study design, individual study quality, consistency of findings across studies, adequacy of sample sizes and generalizability of samples, settings and treatments for the purposes of the guideline. AUA

2019 American Urological Association

52. Improving Access to and Usability of Systematic Review Data for Health Systems Guidelines Development

, including a large volume of complex data, dense static tables, and a rigid structure as defined by the systematic review approach. For example, in Key Question 1 alone, data were extracted from 68 studies reported in 74 articles on 8 interventions and 2 primary outcomes split into 3 timepoints. This was reported in 79 pages, and there were 12 tables and 21 figures. Evaluation of Examples Interviews and presentations were conducted with six key stakeholders using the mocked-up example outputs (...) the interviews, Dr. Totten presented the rationale for the project and briefly demonstrated how each product worked. We encouraged the respondent to ask questions throughout the presentation. In addition, we asked each respondent to describe the overall impression of the products and to consider the most appropriate setting or user for each product. Both the initial and evaluation interviews were conducted to understand what decision makers wanted to see in dissemination products and how it should

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

53. Substance use disorders in pregnancy: clinical, ethical, and research imperatives of the opioid epidemic

rather than use in pregnancy. An additional limitation is that, with 10 questions, many may find it too lengthy. 4Ps screen The 4Ps screen was first developed by Hope Ewing in 1990. x 24 Ewing, H. A practical guide to intervention in health and social services with pregnant and postpartum addicts and alcoholics: theoretical framework, brief screening tool, key interview questions, and strategies for referral to recovery resources. The Born Free Project, Contra Costa County Department of Health (...) Services , Martinez (CA) ; 1990 Since then, the measure has evolved along 2 paths. The first path is the 4Ps Plus (NTI Publishing), which includes 5 questions, is copyrighted, and only available for a fee. The utility of this screening tool was reported in a study of 228 pregnant women. x 25 Chasnoff, I.J., Wells, A.M., McGourty, R.F., and Bailey, L.K. Validation of the 4P’s plus screen for substance use in pregnancy validation of the 4P’s plus. J Perinatol . 2007 ; 27 : 744–748 Compared with results

2019 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

54. What is the evidence on the role of the arts in improving health and well-being? A scoping review

. The synthesis question This scoping review addressed the question: “What is the evidence on the role of the arts in improving health and well-being?” Types of evidence This report used a scoping review methodology to map the global academic literature in English and Russian from January 2000 to May 2019. Over 900 publications were identified, of which there were over 200 reviews, systematic reviews, meta- analyses and meta-syntheses covering over 3000 studies, and over 700 further individual studies (...) case studies, small-scale cross-sectional surveys, nationally representative longitudinal cohort studies, community-wide ethnographies and randomized controlled trials. Research methods included psychological scales, biological markers, neuroimaging, physiological assessments, behavioural observations, interviews and examinations of clinical records. Research studies also drew on theories from diverse disciplines. There is naturally variation in the quality of this evidence, and certain areas where

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

55. Preventing Violence, Harassment and Bullying Against Health Workers

and priority recommendation questions for this BPG (see Appendix C). Scope To determine the scope and organization of this BPG, the RNAO Best Practice Guideline Development and Research team took the following steps: ? reviewed the RNAO BPGs Preventing and Managing Violence in the Workplace (3) and Workplace Health, Safety and Well-being of the Nurse (2); ? conducted two scoping reviews G of the literature to determine existing research on bullying among health workers in organizations; and ? consulted (...) colleagues; (c) between students and health workers; and (d) between formal leaders and health workers. Health worker: Defined as “all people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health” (7). This includes regulated health professionals (e.g., registered nurses, registered practical nurses, physicians, social workers and physiotherapists), unregulated health workers (e.g., personal support workers, physician assistants and outreach workers) and additional support staff (e.g., patient

2019 Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

56. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults

Grade C) 20. Clinicians may offer sacral neuromodulation (SNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population characterized by severe refractory OAB symptoms or patients who are not candidates for second-line therapy and are willing to undergo a surgical procedure. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 21. Practitioners and patients should persist with new treatments for an adequate trial in order to determine whether the therapy is efficacious and tolerable. Combination (...) is conceptually distinct from the quality of individual studies. Evidence strength refers to the body of evidence available for a particular question and includes consideration of study design, individual study quality, consistency of findings across studies, adequacy of sample sizes and generalizability of samples, settings and treatments for the purposes of the guideline. AUA categorizes evidence strength as Grade A (well-conducted randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or exceptionally strong observational

2019 American Urological Association

57. Methodology for Creating Expert Consensus Decision Pathways

, such guidelines may contain gaps in how to make clinical decisions, particularly when equipoise is present in a topic. To help inform clinicians about areas where evi- dence may be new and evolving or where suf?cient datamaybemorelimited,theACCestablishedExpert ConsensusDecisionPathwaysasaformatforaddress- ing key questions facing members across a range of high-value clinical topics. Their methodology is grounded in assembling a group of clinical experts to develop content that builds consensus advice to sup (...) , but to encourage clinicians to ask certainquestionsandconsiderkeyfactorsastheycometo their own decision on a treatment plan to be recom- mended and discussed with their patients. Given the na- ture of clinical evidence, there may be multiple reasonable treatment options for physicians and patients to consider together. 2. SUMMARY GRAPHIC Figure 1 summarizes both the process for identifying Expert Consensus Decision Pathway topics as well as how they are developed and published. The subsequent sec- tions

2019 American College of Cardiology

58. Management of Stroke Rehabilitation

. Communication 80 C. Dysphagia 81 D. Driving 82 E. Pseudobulbar Affect 83 Appendix C: Patient Focus Group Methods and Findings 84 A. Methods 84 B. Patient Focus Group Findings 84 Appendix D: Evidence Review Methodology 87 A. Developing the Key Questions 87 B. Conducting the Systematic Review 98 C. Convening the Face-to-face Meeting 103 D. Grading Recommendations 103 E. Recommendation Categorization 107 F. Drafting and Submitting the Final Clinical Practice Guideline 109 Appendix E: Evidence Table 111 (...) the effect of guideline adherence on clinical outcomes. This guideline is intended for use by VA and DoD healthcare practitioners including physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, psychologists and other mental health providers, social workers, pharmacists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, case managers, speech language pathologists, vision therapists, vocational rehabilitation specialists, recreation therapists, and others involved in the care of Service Members

2019 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

59. The economic evaluation of early intervention with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha treatments in pediatric Crohn's disease

Staff Physician, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Anne M. Griffiths, MD Staff Physician, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Shinya Ito, MD Head, Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada Professor, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Wendy J. Ungar, MSc, PhD Senior Scientist, Child Health Evaluative (...) Incremental cost-utility ratio IFX Infliximab IM Immunomodulator ISPOR International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research MOHLTC Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care kcal Calorie kg Kilogram mg Milligram MTA Material transfer agreement MTX Methotrexate NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (United Kingdom) OCCI Ontario Case Costing Initiative OR Odds ratio PCDAI Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index PGA Physician Global Assessment QALY Quality-adjusted life year

2019 SickKids Reports

60. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

are essential to the Effective Health Care Program. Please visit the website (www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov) to see draft research questions and reports or to join an email list to learn about new program products and opportunities for input. If you have comments on this systematic review, they may be sent by mail to the Task Order Officers named below at: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, or by email to epc@ahrq.hhs.gov. Gopal Khanna, M.B.A. Director (...) Diseases (NIAMS), the NIH nominators of this review topic. All provided support, direction, and editorial comments. We also thank Jeannine Ouellette and Cheryl Cole-Hill for their copy editorial help bringing the report to completion. Technical Expert Panel In designing the study questions and methodology at the outset of this report, the EPC consulted several technical and content experts. Broad expertise and perspectives were sought. Divergent and conflicted opinions are common and perceived

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

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