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Intelligence Testing

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161. Towards Intelligent Drug Design System: Application of Artificial Dipeptide Receptor Library in QSAR-Oriented Studies (PubMed)

Towards Intelligent Drug Design System: Application of Artificial Dipeptide Receptor Library in QSAR-Oriented Studies The pharmacophore properties of a new series of potential purinoreceptor (P2X) inhibitors determined using a coupled neural network and the partial least squares method with iterative variable elimination (IVE-PLS) are presented in a ligand-based comparative study of the molecular surface by comparative molecular surface analysis (CoMSA). Moreover, we focused (...) and Phe bonded to the linker m-phenylenediamine/triazine scaffold was revealed by the PCA. The IVE-PLS procedure indicated the receptor systems with predominant Pro bonded to the linker and Glu, Gln, Cys and Val directly attached to the gating acid. The proposed comprehensive ligand-based and simplified structure-based methodology allows the in-depth study of the performance of peptide receptors against the tested set of compounds.

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2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

162. An intraspecific appraisal of the social intelligence hypothesis (PubMed)

An intraspecific appraisal of the social intelligence hypothesis The prevailing hypotheses for the evolution of cognition focus on either the demands associated with group living (the social intelligence hypothesis (SIH)) or ecological challenges such as finding food. Comparative studies testing these hypotheses have generated highly conflicting results; consequently, our understanding of the drivers of cognitive evolution remains limited. To understand how selection shapes cognition, research

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2018 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

163. A Comprehensive Feature Analysis of the Fetal Heart Rate Signal for the Intelligent Assessment of Fetal State (PubMed)

A Comprehensive Feature Analysis of the Fetal Heart Rate Signal for the Intelligent Assessment of Fetal State Continuous monitoring of the fetal heart rate (FHR) signal has been widely used to allow obstetricians to obtain detailed physiological information about newborns. However, visual interpretation of FHR traces causes inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Therefore, this study proposed a novel computerized analysis software of the FHR signal (CAS-FHR), aimed at providing medical (...) decision support. First, to the best of our knowledge, the software extracted the most comprehensive features (47) from different domains, including morphological, time, and frequency and nonlinear domains. Then, for the intelligent assessment of fetal state, three representative machine learning algorithms (decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM), and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost)) were chosen to execute the classification stage. To improve the performance, feature selection/dimensionality

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2018 Journal of clinical medicine

164. “Plutchik”: artificial intelligence chatbot for searching NCBI databases (PubMed)

“Plutchik”: artificial intelligence chatbot for searching NCBI databases As genetic testing gains ground in medicine, the ability to search across the suite of biomedical and clinical care databases offered through the National Library of Medicine/National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-such as PubMed, GENE, Structure, the Genetic Testing Registry, and others-holds the potential to enhance quality of clinical care best practices. "Plutchik" is a voice-enabled, embodied (...) artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot that can perform highly technical medical searches in and across the NCBI suite of databases.

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2018 Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA

165. Artificial-Intelligence-Based Prediction of Clinical Events among Hemodialysis Patients Using Non-Contact Sensor Data (PubMed)

an independent sample t-test. We further developed a supervised machine-learning-based prediction model to predict event or no-event based on the sensor data and demographic information. A mean area under curve (ROC AUC) of 90.16% with 96.21% mean precision, and 88.47% mean recall was achieved. Our findings point towards the novel use of non-contact sensors in clinical settings to monitor the vital parameters of patients and the further development of early warning solutions using artificial intelligence (AI (...) Artificial-Intelligence-Based Prediction of Clinical Events among Hemodialysis Patients Using Non-Contact Sensor Data Non-contact sensors are gaining popularity in clinical settings to monitor the vital parameters of patients. In this study, we used a non-contact sensor device to monitor vital parameters like the heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability of hemodialysis (HD) patients for a period of 23 weeks during their HD sessions. During these 23 weeks, a total number of 3237

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

166. The Power of EI Competencies Over Intelligence and Individual Performance: A Task-Dependent Model (PubMed)

The Power of EI Competencies Over Intelligence and Individual Performance: A Task-Dependent Model Prior research on emotional intelligence (EI) has highlighted the use of incremental models that assume EI and general intelligence (or g) make independent contributions to performance. Questioning this assumption, we study EI's moderation power over the relationship between g and individual performance, by designing and testing a task-dependent interaction model. Reconciling divergent findings

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

167. Functional diversity of brain networks supports consciousness and verbal intelligence (PubMed)

these systems in response to external stimulation predicted higher intellectual abilities during conscious cognition, in particular higher verbal acuity scores in independent cognitive testing battery. These convergent findings suggest that the responsivity of sensory and higher-order brain systems to external stimulation, especially through the diversification of their functional responses is an essential feature of conscious cognition and verbal intelligence. (...) Functional diversity of brain networks supports consciousness and verbal intelligence How are the myriad stimuli arriving at our senses transformed into conscious thought? To address this question, in a series of studies, we asked whether a common mechanism underlies loss of information processing in unconscious states across different conditions, which could shed light on the brain mechanisms of conscious cognition. With a novel approach, we brought together for the first time, data from

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2018 Scientific reports

168. Self-Adjusted Amplification Parameters Produce Large Between-Subject Variability and Preserve Speech Intelligibility (PubMed)

and audiologist-fit gain indicated consistent within-subject performance but a great deal of between-subject variability. Gain selection did not strongly affect intelligibility within the range of signal-to-noise ratios tested. Implications from the findings are that individual listeners have consistent preferences for gain and may prefer gain configurations that differ greatly from National Acoustic Laboratories-based prescriptions in quiet and in noise. (...) Self-Adjusted Amplification Parameters Produce Large Between-Subject Variability and Preserve Speech Intelligibility The current study used the self-fitting algorithm to allow listeners to self-adjust hearing-aid gain or compression parameters to select gain for speech understanding in a variety of quiet and noise conditions. Thirty listeners with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss adjusted gain parameters in quiet and in several types of noise. Outcomes from self-adjusted gain

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2018 Trends in hearing

169. Effect of Hearing Aid Directionality and Remote Microphone on Speech Intelligibility in Complex Listening Situations (PubMed)

in complex listening situations in the laboratory. Speech intelligibility was investigated in 15 experienced severely hearing impaired participants in a noisy environment using a dual-task test paradigm where the tasks were presented from either a near field or a far field loudspeaker. Primary and secondary tasks were presented simultaneously so attention had to be shared on both tasks. In a second experiment, two speech intelligibility tests were presented from either the near field or the far field (...) confirmed by the results of the interleaved speech intelligibility test.

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2018 Trends in hearing

170. Creativity Style and Achievements: An Investigation on the Role of Emotional Competence, Individual Differences, and Psychometric Intelligence (PubMed)

(EC) predicted creativity. We selected a sample of 376 participants aged 12-88 (mean age = 30.28 years, SD = 19.09 years; 224 females) to evaluate relationships between these constructs across lifespan. Participants were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2, the Short Profile of EC, the Creativity Style Questionnaire Revised (CSQ-R) and the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ). T-test on gender differences evidenced that males had higher creativity achievements compared (...) Creativity Style and Achievements: An Investigation on the Role of Emotional Competence, Individual Differences, and Psychometric Intelligence Psychometric and emotional intelligence are considered as two separate theoretical constructs, although each one has been found to correlate to a certain degree with measures of creativity. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether individual differences such as age and gender, together with psychometric intelligence and emotional competence

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

171. Association between lower estimated premorbid intelligence quotient and smoking behavior in patients with schizophrenia (PubMed)

for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). Premorbid intelligence quotient was estimated using the Japanese Adult Reading Test and distress symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Check List. Current smoking information was collected according to self-declarations.As expected, the smoking rate was higher, while mean education level and Japanese Adult Reading Test scores were significantly lower, in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy individuals (p < 0.01). The mean education level (...) Association between lower estimated premorbid intelligence quotient and smoking behavior in patients with schizophrenia We aimed to investigate the involvement of premorbid intelligence quotient in higher prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia.Participants included 190 patients with schizophrenia (mean ± standard deviation age: 37.7 ± 10.8 years; 88 males and 102 females) and 312 healthy individuals (mean ± standard deviation age: 38.1 ± 13.8; 166 males and 146 females), matched

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2018 Schizophrenia Research: Cognition

172. The Self-Assessed Békesy Procedure: Validation of a Method to Measure Intelligibility of Connected Discourse (PubMed)

The Self-Assessed Békesy Procedure: Validation of a Method to Measure Intelligibility of Connected Discourse In clinical practice and research, speech intelligibility is generally measured by instructing the participant to recall sentences. Although this is a reliable and highly repeatable measure, it cannot be used to measure intelligibility of connected discourse. Therefore, we developed a new method, the self-assessed Békesy procedure, which is an adaptive procedure that uses (...) intelligibility ratings to converge to a person's speech reception threshold. In this study, we describe the new procedure and the validation in young, normal-hearing listeners. First, we compared the results on the self-assessed Békesy procedure to a recall procedure for standardized sentences. Next, we evaluated the inter- and intrasubject variability of our procedure. Furthermore, we compared the thresholds for sentences in three masker types between the self-assessed Békesy and a recall procedure

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2018 Trends in hearing

173. Artificial intelligence machine learning-based coronary CT fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR<sub>ML</sub>): Impact of iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques. (PubMed)

Artificial intelligence machine learning-based coronary CT fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML): Impact of iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques. The influence of computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithms on the performance of machine-learning-based CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML) has not been investigated. CT-FFRML values and processing time of two reconstruction algorithms were compared using an on-site workstation.CT-FFRML (...) was computed on 40 coronary CT angiography (CCTA) datasets that were reconstructed with both iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithms. CT-FFRML was computed on a per-vessel and per-segment basis as well as distal to lesions with ≥50% stenosis on CCTA. Processing times were recorded. Significant flow-limiting stenosis was defined as invasive FFR and CT-FFRML values ≤ 0.80. Pearson's correlation, Wilcoxon, and McNemar statistical testing were used for data

2018 Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography

174. Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Association Between Facial Characteristics and Coronary Artery Diseases

Perspective: Cross-Sectional Official Title: Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Association Between Facial Characteristics and Coronary Artery Diseases Actual Study Start Date : July 10, 2017 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : February 28, 2020 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Groups and Cohorts Go to Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment Model establishment and test group Patients undergoing coronary (...) Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Association Between Facial Characteristics and Coronary Artery Diseases Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Association Between Facial Characteristics and Coronary Artery Diseases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2018 Clinical Trials

175. Artificial intelligence in medicine: not ready for prime time

Artificial intelligence in medicine: not ready for prime time Artificial intelligence in medicine: not ready for prime time Artificial intelligence in medicine: not ready for prime time | | August 23, 2018 14 Shares July was an interesting month for artificial intelligence in medicine. A study from MIT found when human doctors order tests on patients, they factor in something that artificial intelligence is not currently aware of. The authors analyzed charts of about 60,000 ICU patients (...) admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. By looking at physician progress notes with positive or negative sentiments in patient records, they derived scores which they correlated with the number of diagnostic imaging tests that were ordered. When other factors were controlled for, medical data alone did not drive the ordering of tests, but the sentiments of doctors could predict how many tests were ordered. Pessimistic doctors ordered more testing at first, but later when

2018 KevinMD blog

176. Association between intelligence quotient and violence perpetration in the English general population. (PubMed)

Association between intelligence quotient and violence perpetration in the English general population. Data on the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and violence perpetration are scarce and nationally representative data from the UK adult population is lacking. Therefore, our goal was to examine the relationship between IQ and violence perpetration using nationally representative community-based data from the UK.We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric (...) Morbidity Survey. IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). Violence perpetration referred to being in a physical fight or having deliberately hit anyone in the past 5 years. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association between IQ (exposure variable) and violence perpetration (outcome variable).There were 6872 participants aged ⩾16 years included in this study. The prevalence of violence perpetration decreased linearly with increasing IQ [16.3% (IQ 70-79) v

2018 Psychological Medicine

177. Enhanced tomographic assessment to detect corneal ectasia based on artificial intelligence. (PubMed)

Enhanced tomographic assessment to detect corneal ectasia based on artificial intelligence. To improve the detection of corneal ectasia susceptibility using tomographic data.Multicenter case-control study.Data from patients from 5 different clinics from South America, the United States, and Europe were evaluated. Artificial intelligence (AI) models were generated using Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) parameters to discriminate the preoperative data of 3 groups: stable laser-assisted (...) in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) cases (2980 patients with minimum follow-up of 7 years), ectasia susceptibility (71 eyes of 45 patients that developed post-LASIK ectasia [PLE]), and clinical keratoconus (KC; 182 patients). Model accuracy was independently tested in a different set of stable LASIK cases (298 patients with minimum follow-up of 4 years) and in 188 unoperated patients with very asymmetric ectasia (VAE); these patients presented normal topography (VAE-NT) in 1 eye and clinically diagnosed

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

178. The diagnostic outcomes of esophageal cancer by artificial intelligence using convolutional neural networks. (PubMed)

The diagnostic outcomes of esophageal cancer by artificial intelligence using convolutional neural networks. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is relatively poor. Patients are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when it is often too late for effective treatment. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) using deep learning has made remarkable progress in medicine. However, there are no reports on its application for diagnosing esophageal cancer. Here, we demonstrate the diagnostic ability (...) of AI to detect esophageal cancer including squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.We retrospectively collected 8428 training images of esophageal cancer from 384 patients at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Japan. Using these, we developed deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We also prepared 1118 test images for 47 patients with 49 esophageal cancers and 50 patients without esophageal cancer to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy.The CNN took 27 seconds to analyze 1118 test

2018 Gastrointestinal endoscopy

179. The influence of childhood intelligence, social class, education and social mobility on memory and memory decline in late life. (PubMed)

The influence of childhood intelligence, social class, education and social mobility on memory and memory decline in late life. In an observational longitudinal study of a sub-sample of the Aberdeen 1936 birth cohort, from age 62 to 77 years, we investigated childhood intelligence, social class, education, life-course social mobility, memory test performance and memory decline in late life. We examined 388 local residents who had attended school in Aberdeen in 1947 and measured Auditory-Verbal (...) Learning Test (AVLT) at recruitment age about 64 years and up to five times until age about 77 years. Better performance at age about 64 on AVLT was predicted by early socioeconomic status (SES), social mobility and childhood intelligence. The trajectory of AVLT decline was steeper in those who had received less education. This relationship was independent of childhood ability, sex, SES in childhood and social mobility. The protection of memory by education suggests that education supports resilience

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2018 Age and ageing

180. Macular Vessel Density and Ganglion Cell/Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness and Their Combinational Index Using Artificial Intelligence. (PubMed)

Macular Vessel Density and Ganglion Cell/Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness and Their Combinational Index Using Artificial Intelligence. To evaluate the relationship between macular vessel density and ganglion cell to inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT) and to compare their diagnostic performance. We attempted to develop a new combined parameter using an artificial neural network.A total of 173 subjects: 100 for the test and 73 for neural net training. The test group consisted of 32 healthy

2018 Journal of Glaucoma

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