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Intelligence Testing

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61. Artificial intelligence based discovery of the association between depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. (Abstract)

Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales and Chalder Fatigue Scales, and meanwhile, to donate plasma and urine samples for 1H NMR-metabolic profiling. Artificial intelligence methods was used to analysis the underlying association between DD and CFS. Principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to analyze the metabolic profiles with respect to gender and age. Variable importance in projection and t-test were employed in conjunction with the PLS-DA (...) Artificial intelligence based discovery of the association between depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. Both of the modern medicine and the traditional Chinese medicine classify depressive disorder (DD) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to one type of disease. Unveiling the association between depressive and the fatigue diseases provides a great opportunity to bridge the modern medicine with the traditional Chinese medicine.In this work, 295 general participants were recruited to complete

2019 Journal of Affective Disorders

62. Age and Sex Estimation Using Artificial Intelligence From Standard 12-Lead ECGs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Age and Sex Estimation Using Artificial Intelligence From Standard 12-Lead ECGs. Sex and age have long been known to affect the ECG. Several biologic variables and anatomic factors may contribute to sex and age-related differences on the ECG. We hypothesized that a convolutional neural network (CNN) could be trained through a process called deep learning to predict a person's age and self-reported sex using only 12-lead ECG signals. We further hypothesized that discrepancies between CNN (...) -predicted age and chronological age may serve as a physiological measure of health.We trained CNNs using 10-second samples of 12-lead ECG signals from 499 727 patients to predict sex and age. The networks were tested on a separate cohort of 275 056 patients. Subsequently, 100 randomly selected patients with multiple ECGs over the course of decades were identified to assess within-individual accuracy of CNN age estimation.Of 275 056 patients tested, 52% were males and mean age was 58.6±16.2 years

2019 Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology

63. Artificial Intelligence for Aortic Pressure Waveform Analysis During Coronary Angiography: Machine Learning for Patient Safety. (Abstract)

Artificial Intelligence for Aortic Pressure Waveform Analysis During Coronary Angiography: Machine Learning for Patient Safety. The study developed a neural network to perform automated pressure waveform analysis and allow real-time accurate identification of damping.Damping of aortic pressure during coronary angiography must be identified to avoid serious complications and make accurate coronary physiology measurements. There are currently no automated methods to do this, and so identification (...) of damping requires constant monitoring, which is prone to human error.The neural network was trained and tested versus core laboratory expert opinions derived from 2 separate datasets. A total of 5,709 aortic pressure waveforms of individual heart beats were extracted and classified. The study developed a recurrent convolutional neural network to classify beats as either normal, showing damping, or artifactual. Accuracies were reported using the opinions of 2 independent core laboratories.The neural

2019 JACC. Cardiovascular interventions

64. Impact of gestational age on child intelligence, attention and executive function at age 5: a cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in a population of Danish children aged 5 years.Population-based prospective cohort study.Denmark 2003-2008.A cohort of 1776 children and their mothers sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort with information on GA, family and background factors and completed neuropsychological assessment at age 5.Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, Test of Everyday Attention for Children at Five and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function scores.For preterm birth <34 weeks GA (n=8 (...) Impact of gestational age on child intelligence, attention and executive function at age 5: a cohort study. Preterm birth can affect cognition, but other factors including parental education and intelligence may also play a role, but few studies have adjusted for these potential confounders. We aimed to assess the impact of gestational age (GA), late preterm birth (34 to <37 weeks GA) and very to moderately preterm birth (<34 weeks GA) on intelligence, attention and executive function

2019 BMJ open

65. Intelligence in young adulthood and alcohol use disorders in a prospective cohort study of Danish men: the role of psychiatric disorders and parental psychiatric history. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of intelligence test scores from draft board examinations and register data on AUD diagnoses during 36 years of follow-up.Denmark.3287 Danish men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (born 1959-1961) who appeared before the draft board at a mean age of 18.7 years.First registration with AUD during follow-up was the primary outcome. Information on AUD was based on diagnoses retrieved from national hospital and outpatient treatment registers, defined according to the International Classification of Diseases.361 (...) Intelligence in young adulthood and alcohol use disorders in a prospective cohort study of Danish men: the role of psychiatric disorders and parental psychiatric history. The aims were to estimate the association between intelligence measured in young adulthood and risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in men and to investigate the potential modification of this association by psychiatric disorders, parental AUD and parental psychiatric disorders.Prospective cohort study based on a linkage

2019 BMJ open

66. Synergistic Benefits of Combined Aerobic and Cognitive Training on Fluid Intelligence and the Role of IGF-1 in Chronic Stroke. (Abstract)

interventions: Aerobic (>60% VO2peak using <10% body weight-supported treadmill) or Activity (range of movement and functional tasks). Exercise was paired with 1 of 2 cognitive interventions (computerized dual working memory training [COG] or control computer games [Games]). The primary outcome for the 4 groups (Aerobic + COG, Aerobic + Games, Activity + COG, and Activity + Games) was fluid intelligence measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices Test administered at baseline, posttraining, and 3-month (...) follow-up. Serum neurotrophins collected at one site (N = 30) included brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at rest (BDNFresting) and after a graded exercise test (BDNFresponse) and insulin-like growth factor-1 at the same timepoints (IGF-1rest, IGF-1response).At follow-up, fluid intelligence scores significantly improved compared to baseline in the Aerobic + COG and Activity + COG groups; however, only the Aerobic + COG group was significantly different (+47.8%) from control (Activity + Games

2019 Neurorehabilitation and neural repair Controlled trial quality: uncertain

67. Applying mindfulness training to enhance the mental toughness and emotional intelligence of amateur basketball players. (Abstract)

Applying mindfulness training to enhance the mental toughness and emotional intelligence of amateur basketball players. Mindfulness is a proven treatment in clinical settings. Our objective was to examine the feasibility and effect of a mindfulness-training program on the mental resilience and emotional intelligence of amateur basketball players.This was a parallel-group, pre- and post- test, randomised controlled trial. Thirty male amateur male basketball players from Tehran, Iran, were (...) assigned randomly into experimental and control groups (n = 15 each). Outcomes were measured using the mindfulness sport inventory, mental toughness (MT) questionnaire and emotional intelligence questionnaire. Data were analysed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA.Mindfulness scores were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the controls following training. The intervention also increased overall MT and all of the component sub scores. The same applied to emotional intelligence and all of its

2019 Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

68. Study Protocol for the Effects of Artificial Intelligence (AI)-Supported Automated Nutritional Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Study Protocol for the Effects of Artificial Intelligence (AI)-Supported Automated Nutritional Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutritional intervention is effective in improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes but requires large inputs of manpower. Recent improvements in photo analysis technology facilitated by artificial intelligence (AI) and remote communication technologies have enabled automated evaluations of nutrient intakes (...) . AI- and mobile-supported nutritional intervention is expected to be an alternative approach to conventional in-person nutritional intervention, but with less human resources, although supporting evidence is not yet complete. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AI-supported nutritional intervention is as efficacious as the in-person, face-to-face method in terms of improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.This is a multicenter, unblinded, parallel, randomized

2019 Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

69. Building the case for actionable ethics in digital health research supported by artificial intelligence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

data gathered using these technologies is unprecedented, and is increasingly leveraged to inform personalized health promotion and disease treatment interventions. The use of artificial intelligence in the health sector is also increasing. Although rich with potential, the digital health ecosystem presents new ethical challenges for those making decisions about the selection, testing, implementation and evaluation of technologies for use in healthcare. As the 'Wild West' of digital health research (...) Building the case for actionable ethics in digital health research supported by artificial intelligence. The digital revolution is disrupting the ways in which health research is conducted, and subsequently, changing healthcare. Direct-to-consumer wellness products and mobile apps, pervasive sensor technologies and access to social network data offer exciting opportunities for researchers to passively observe and/or track patients 'in the wild' and 24/7. The volume of granular personal health

2019 BMC Medicine

70. Universal artificial intelligence platform for collaborative management of cataracts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Universal artificial intelligence platform for collaborative management of cataracts. To establish and validate a universal artificial intelligence (AI) platform for collaborative management of cataracts involving multilevel clinical scenarios and explored an AI-based medical referral pattern to improve collaborative efficiency and resource coverage.The training and validation datasets were derived from the Chinese Medical Alliance for Artificial Intelligence, covering multilevel healthcare (...) pattern showed robust diagnostic performance in three-step tasks: (1) capture mode recognition (area under the curve (AUC) 99.28%-99.71%), (2) cataract diagnosis (normal lens, cataract or postoperative eye with AUCs of 99.82%, 99.96% and 99.93% for mydriatic-slit lamp mode and AUCs >99% for other capture modes) and (3) detection of referable cataracts (AUCs >91% in all tests). In the real-world tertiary referral pattern, the agent suggested 30.3% of people be 'referred', substantially increasing

2019 British Journal of Ophthalmology

71. The association of striatal volume and positive schizotypy in healthy subjects: intelligence as a moderating factor. (Abstract)

vulnerability to environmental insults, beneficial factors like general intelligence might buffer their effect.To further investigate the role of fronto-striatal networks in schizotypy, we examined the relationship of voxel- and surface-based brain morphometry and a measure of schizotypal traits (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, with subscores Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal, Disorganised) in 115 healthy participants [54 female, mean age (s.d.) = 27.57(8.02)]. We tested intelligence (MWT-B (...) The association of striatal volume and positive schizotypy in healthy subjects: intelligence as a moderating factor. Schizotypy, a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, has been associated with brain-structural variations partly overlapping with those in psychotic disorders. Variations in precuneus structure have been repeatedly reported, whereas the involvement of fronto-striatal networks - as in schizophrenia - is less clear. While shared genetic architecture is thought to increase

2019 Psychological Medicine

72. Improving Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being, Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Anxiety through a Programme Based on the Sport Education Model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improving Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being, Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Anxiety through a Programme Based on the Sport Education Model. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a physical-sport education pilot programme on adolescents' subjective well-being (health-related quality of life, positive affect and negative affect), trait emotional intelligence and social anxiety. The programme was based on the pedagogical sport education model within a quality physical education (...) framework, and approached from the perspective of social and emotional learning. Participants were 113 compulsory secondary education students aged 12-15 years that were assigned to a control group (n = 44) and an experimental group (n = 69). A quasi-experimental design with repeated pre-test and post-test measures was used. Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The preliminary results obtained in this investigation revealed that the physical-sport education pilot programme

2019 International journal of environmental research and public health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

73. Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study. (Abstract)

Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study. Upper gastrointestinal cancers (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) are the most common cancers worldwide. Artificial intelligence platforms using deep learning algorithms have made remarkable progress in medical imaging but their application in upper gastrointestinal cancers has been limited. We aimed to develop and validate (...) the Gastrointestinal Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic System (GRAIDS) for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers through analysis of imaging data from clinical endoscopies.This multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study was done in six hospitals of different tiers (ie, municipal, provincial, and national) in China. The images of consecutive participants, aged 18 years or older, who had not had a previous endoscopy were retrieved from all participating hospitals. All patients with upper gastrointestinal

2019 Lancet Oncology

74. The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation program on auditory perception and verbal intelligibility of deaf children. (Abstract)

The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation program on auditory perception and verbal intelligibility of deaf children. Linguistic information and cognitive rehabilitation has more related with auditory perception and verbal intelligibility. The aim of the present study was to assessment of the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation program on the auditory perception and verbal intelligibility of deaf children. This study was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and control (...) of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) in 24th version of SPSS. The results of MANCOVA showed that cognitive rehabilitation program had significant effect on the auditory perception and verbal intelligibility in the experimental group at post intervention stage (P < 0/0001). There was a positive and significant increase in auditory perception and verbal intelligibility of experimental group. Our

2019 American Journal of Otolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

75. Using artificial intelligence to reduce diagnostic workload without compromising detection of urinary tract infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using artificial intelligence to reduce diagnostic workload without compromising detection of urinary tract infections. A substantial proportion of microbiological screening in diagnostic laboratories is due to suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs), yet approximately two thirds of urine samples typically yield negative culture results. By reducing the number of query samples to be cultured and enabling diagnostic services to concentrate on those in which there are true microbial infections (...) approach testing three algorithms (Random Forest, Neural Network, Extreme Gradient Boosting) whilst factoring in independent variables including demographics, historical urine culture results, and clinical details provided with the specimen.A total of 212,554 urine reports were analysed. Initial findings demonstrated the potential for using machine learning algorithms, which outperformed the heuristic model in terms of relative workload reduction achieved at a classification sensitivity > 95%. Upon

2019 Medical Informatics and Decision Making

76. Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation. (Abstract)

Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation. It is debated whether cognitive training of specific executive functions leads to far transfer effects, such as improvements in fluid intelligence (Gf). Within this context, transcranial direct current stimulation and recently also novel protocols such as transcranial random noise and alternating current stimulation are being investigated with regards to their ability to enhance cognitive (...) control group. EF training consisted of gamified tasks drawing on isolated as well as integrated executive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility). Transfer was assessed with a combined measure of Gf including three established tests (Bochumer Matrizentest - BOMAT, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices - RAPM, and Sandia Matrices). We found significant improvements in Gf for the tDCS, mftDCS, and tRNS groups when compared with the no-contact group. In contrast, the mftACS group

2019 Neuropsychologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

77. Social cognition in bipolar disorder: the role of sociodemographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables in emotional intelligence. (Abstract)

HC. EI was evaluated using the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The sociodemographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables that showed a significant association with EI were entered into hierarchical multiple regression analysis.BD patients obtained significantly lower scores compared to HC in the Emotional Intelligence quotient (EIQ) and in the Understanding Emotions branch score. The best fitting model for the variables associated with EI in the patients group (...) Social cognition in bipolar disorder: the role of sociodemographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables in emotional intelligence. The main aims of this study were to examine the differences in the Emotional Intelligence (EI), the emotional domain of social cognition (SC), between euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC) and to evaluate the contribution of sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological variables to EI.We recruited 202 patients with BD and 50

2019 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

78. Comparing artificial intelligence algorithms to 157 German dermatologists: the melanoma classification benchmark. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparing artificial intelligence algorithms to 157 German dermatologists: the melanoma classification benchmark. Several recent publications have demonstrated the use of convolutional neural networks to classify images of melanoma at par with board-certified dermatologists. However, the non-availability of a public human benchmark restricts the comparability of the performance of these algorithms and thereby the technical progress in this field.An electronic questionnaire was sent (...) the patient). Main outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC).Total 157 dermatologists assessed all 100 dermoscopic images with an overall sensitivity of 74.1%, specificity of 60.0% and an ROC of 0.67 (range = 0.538-0.769); 145 dermatologists assessed all 100 clinical images with an overall sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of 64.4% and an ROC of 0.769 (range = 0.613-0.9). Results between test-sets were significantly different (P < 0.05) confirming

2019 European Journal of Cancer

79. Collaborative intelligence and gamification for on-line malaria species differentiation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Collaborative intelligence and gamification for on-line malaria species differentiation. Current World Health Organization recommendations for the management of malaria include the need for a parasitological confirmation prior to triggering appropriate treatment. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria has contributed to a better infection recognition and a more targeted treatment. Nevertheless, low-density infections and parasites that fail to produce HRP2 can cause false-negative

2019 Malaria journal

80. Intelligence moderates the relationship between age and inter-connectivity of resting state networks in older adults. (Abstract)

state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Global inter-connectivity between DMN and 9 other resting state networks was calculated using a novel computational framework based on machine learning. Intellectual functioning (intelligence) was estimated using the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading. A significant, positive relationship was found between age and global inter-network connectivity (r = 0.31, p = 0.029). Moderation analyses yielded a significant age × intelligence interaction term (p (...) Intelligence moderates the relationship between age and inter-connectivity of resting state networks in older adults. Age-related changes in the interactive behavior of default mode network (DMN) with other resting state networks are poorly understood. We hypothesized that age would positively correlate with inter-network connectivity in late life and intellectual functioning was expected to moderate this relationship. The sample consisted of 48 community-dwelling older adults with resting

2019 Neurobiology of Aging

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