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Intelligence Testing

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6381. The effects of hydrocephalus on intelligence quotient in children with localized infratentorial ependymoma before and after focal radiation therapy. (Abstract)

The effects of hydrocephalus on intelligence quotient in children with localized infratentorial ependymoma before and after focal radiation therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of hydrocephalus on intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with infratentorial ependymoma before and after the administration of focal radiation.Measurements of ventricular size, including Evans index (EI), cella media index (CMI), frontal horn diameter (FHD), and ventricular angle, were (...) performed using magnetic resonance imaging at the time of diagnosis and again at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of radiation therapy. Of the 59 patients (median age at time of radiation treatment, 4.1 years), the clinical diagnosis established in 50 (85%) was hydrocephalus and 23 (39%) required placement of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt. Extent of resection was gross or near total in 50 (85%). Before and after radiation treatment, IQ was measured using age-appropriate testing

2004 Journal of Neurosurgery

6382. Associations between childhood intelligence and hospital admissions for unintentional injuries in adulthood: the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

person-years of risk. There were inverse linear associations between childhood intelligence assessed at the ages of 7, 9, and 11 years and having had a hospital admission stemming from an unintentional injury (gender-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for a 1-standard-deviation increase in intelligence test score at age 7 years = 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.70, 0.80). These associations were not markedly affected by adjustment for childhood socioeconomic status, maternal age or height, birthweight (...) Associations between childhood intelligence and hospital admissions for unintentional injuries in adulthood: the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study. We examined associations between childhood intelligence and hospital admissions for injuries in adulthood.Data were derived from a cohort study (=11103) involving individuals born in Aberdeen, Scotland, between 1950 and 1956.Overall, 1043 cohort members had at least 1 hospital admission resulting from an unintentional injury over 231152

2007 American Journal of Public Health

6383. The effects of an emotional intelligence program on the quality of life and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

-36) were administered to 184 patients with type 2 diabetes who volunteered to participate. Thirty-six patients with the lowest test scores on the WHO-WBQ-22, WHOQOL-Bref, and SF-36 were randomized into study and control groups (18 patients each). A 12-week emotional intelligence program was administered to the study group. At the end of the program, scales were readministered to both groups and again at 3 and 6 months.There were no differences between the quality of life, well-being (...) The effects of an emotional intelligence program on the quality of life and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of an emotional intelligence program on the health-related quality of life and well-being of individuals with type 2 diabetes.The BarOn Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQ-I), WHO Well-Being Questionnaire (WHO-WBQ-22), WHO Quality of Life Measure (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey (SF

2008 The Diabetes educator Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6384. The effect of the speaker gender on speech intelligibility in normal-hearing subjects with simulated high frequency hearing loss. (Abstract)

The effect of the speaker gender on speech intelligibility in normal-hearing subjects with simulated high frequency hearing loss. To determine whether speaker gender affects speech discrimination scores, in normal hearing and simulated high frequency hearing loss situations.Listeners were twenty normal volunteers. The speech stimuli were eight phonetically balanced monosyllabic word lists, uttered by a male and a female speakers. These lists were low-pass filtered at 1500, 2500 and 3500 Hz's (...) to represent high frequency hearing loss. To obtain speech discrimination scores, the subjects listened to each of the eight lists in a different filtering and talker conditions in a randomized order. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was used.In normal hearing situation, the scores obtained by male and female speeches, were similar (p=0.60). On the contrary, statistically significant differences were observed in all of the three high frequency hearing loss situations (p<0.01).Female speech

2004 Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6385. A new paradigm for human resuscitation research using intelligent devices. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A new paradigm for human resuscitation research using intelligent devices. To develop new methods for studying correlations between the performance and outcome of resuscitation efforts in real-world clinical settings using data recorded by automatic devices, such as automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and to explore effects of shock timing and chest compression depth in the field.In 695 records of AED use in the pre-hospital setting, continuous compression data were recorded using AEDs (...) within 60s, and sustained > or = 30 s. 2x2 contingency tables were constructed to examine the association between these outcomes and dichotomized time of shock delivery or chest compression depth, using the Mood median test for statistical significance.The probability of P-ROSC for first shocks delivered < 50 s (the median time) after the start of resuscitation was 23%, versus 11% for first shocks > 50 s (p=0.028, one tailed). Similarly, the probability of t-ROSC for shorter times to shock was 29

2008 Resuscitation

6386. Clinical utility of automated assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction using artificial intelligence-assisted border detection. (Abstract)

to assess EF automatically is now available and could be used routinely in busy digital laboratories (>15,000 studies per year) and in core laboratories running large clinical trials. We tested Siemens AutoEF software (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) to determine whether it correlated with visual estimates of EF, manual planimetry, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).Siemens AutoEF is based on learned patterns and artificial intelligence. An expert and a novice reader assessed EF visually (...) Clinical utility of automated assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction using artificial intelligence-assisted border detection. Ejection fraction (EF) calculated from 2-dimensional echocardiography provides important prognostic and therapeutic information in patients with heart disease. However, quantification of EF requires planimetry and is time-consuming. As a result, visual assessment is frequently used but is subjective and requires extensive experience. New computer software

2008 American Heart Journal

6387. Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emission Enhancement in Children with Reduced Speech-in-Noise Intelligibility. (Abstract)

speech-in-noise intelligibility, and those of a control group matched by gender and age. A significantly higher prevalence of SOAE was found: 85% of the study group presented SOAE, 44% in the control group. An abnormally functioning MOCS with reduced inhibition could lead to an increase in SOAE. Identifying a higher prevalence and number of SOAE may be a helpful objective mean to include in an APD diagnosis test battery.Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel. (...) Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emission Enhancement in Children with Reduced Speech-in-Noise Intelligibility. Reduced speech-in-noise intelligibility is one of the main difficulties experienced by children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Previous studies have established a relationship between the function of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS) and reduced inhibition of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in children with APD. This study measured spontaneous OAE (SOAE) in 27 children with reduced

2008 Audiology & Neuro-Otology

6388. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality: the Vietnam Experience Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality: the Vietnam Experience Study. We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.In this cohort study, 4,157 men with IQ test results from late adolescence or early adulthood [mean age (range) 20.4 (16-30) years] attended a clinical (...) associated with a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome itself (odds ratio(1 SD increase in IQ) 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98). Structural equation modelling revealed that education was not a mediator of the relationship between IQ and the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome partially mediated the relationship between IQ and CVD but not that between IQ and total mortality.In this cohort, higher scores on a pre-morbid IQ test were associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome

2008 Diabetologia

6389. Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life. To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans.Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone (...) Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA).Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education

2007 Neurology

6390. Pattern and Progression of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Premorbid Intelligence and ApoE Genotype. (Abstract)

test and up to 11 (average 5) neuropsychological assessments. We applied linear- and logistic-regression models for cross-sectional data and mixed models for longitudinal ones.Higher premorbid intelligence was associated with higher global, executive and memory performance, while the ApoE epsilon 4 allele was specifically related to poorer memory performance. The premorbid intelligence-ApoE epsilon 4/epsilon 4 interaction was significant, with higher premorbid intelligence scores reducing (...) Pattern and Progression of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Premorbid Intelligence and ApoE Genotype. Because of controversial results across studies, we evaluated the predictive value of premorbid intelligence and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype on baseline and progression of cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD).Eighty-five mild AD cases, ApoE genotyped and included in a longitudinal cliniconeuropsychological-genetic study, underwent a premorbid intelligence

2007 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

6391. Intelligence and other predisposing factors in exposure to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: a follow-up study at age 17 years. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intelligence and other predisposing factors in exposure to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: a follow-up study at age 17 years. Prospective data on standardized measures of early predispositions would allow a strong test of hypotheses about suspected risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and exposure to traumatic events.To prospectively examine the extent to which intelligence, anxiety disorders, and conduct problems in childhood influence the risk for PTSD (...) conditional risk for PTSD (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.9). The conditional risk for PTSD was increased for youth with anxiety disorders and teacher ratings of externalizing problems above the normal range at 6 years of age.The results of this prospective community study highlight the role of intelligence in avoidance of exposure to traumatic experiences and their PTSD effects. They underscore the need for investigating cognitive processes in persons' responses to traumatic

2006 Archives of General Psychiatry

6392. Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from 2 birth cohorts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from 2 birth cohorts. The study and treatment of psychiatric disorders is made difficult by the fact that patients with identical symptoms often differ markedly in their clinical features and presumably in their etiology. A principal aim of genetic research is to provide new information that can resolve (...) such clinical heterogeneity and that can be incorporated into diagnostic practice.To test the hypothesis that the DRD4 seven-repeat allele and DAT1 ten-repeat allele would prove useful in identifying a subset of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have compromised intellectual functions.Longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of 2 independent birth cohorts.Britain and New Zealand.The first cohort was born in Britain in 1994-1995 and includes 2232 children; the second cohort

2006 Archives of General Psychiatry

6393. Risperidone in children with disruptive behavior disorders and subaverage intelligence: a 1-year, open-label study of 504 patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was maintained throughout the trial (p < .001 at each time point). Significant improvements were noted on positive social behavior and other Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form subscales, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Clinical Global Impressions scale, and tests of patients' cognitive function (each p < .001).Risperidone was well tolerated and effective in the long-term treatment of disruptive behavior disorders in children with subaverage intelligence. (...) Risperidone in children with disruptive behavior disorders and subaverage intelligence: a 1-year, open-label study of 504 patients. To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children.A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted.Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study. The mean +/- SE dose of risperidone was 1.6

2005 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

6394. Genetics of intelligence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetics of intelligence. This article provides an overview of the biometric and molecular genetic studies of human psychometric intelligence. In the biometric research, special attention is given to the environmental and genetic contributions to specific and general cognitive ability differences, and how these differ from early childhood to old age. Special mention is also made of multivariate studies that examine the genetic correlation between intelligence test scores and their correlates (...) such as processing speed, birth weight and brain size. After an overview of candidate gene associations with intelligence test scores, there is a discussion of whole-genome linkage and association studies, the first of which have only recently appeared.

2006 European Journal of Human Genetics

6395. Temporal jitter disrupts speech intelligibility: a simulation of auditory aging. (Abstract)

Temporal jitter disrupts speech intelligibility: a simulation of auditory aging. We disrupted periodicity cues by temporally jittering the speech signal to explore how such distortion might affect word identification. Jittering distorts the fine structure of the speech signal with negligible alteration of either its long-term spectral or amplitude envelope characteristics. In Experiment 1, word identification in noise was significantly reduced in young, normal-hearing adults when sentences were (...) temporally jittered at frequencies below 1.2kHz. The accuracy of the younger adults in identifying jittered speech in noise was similar to that found previously for older adults with good audiograms when they listened to intact speech in noise. In Experiment 2, to rule out the possibility that the reductions in word identification were due to spectral distortion, we also tested a simulation of cochlear hearing loss that produced spectral distortion equivalent to that produced by jittering

2007 Hearing Research

6396. Intelligibility of bone-conducted ultrasonic speech. (Abstract)

monosyllables with bone-conducted ultrasound was investigated. Results showed that the intelligibility of familiar words was higher than that of unfamiliar words. Further, the results of a monosyllable intelligibility test with bone-conducted ultrasound and those of a test with air-conducted sound showed a similar pattern of speech recognition with regard to the errors made. The relationship between speech intelligibility and sound level showed that the increase in the intelligibility of bone-conducted (...) Intelligibility of bone-conducted ultrasonic speech. Ultrasound can be perceived through bone conduction by the profoundly deaf as well as by normal-hearing subjects. Moreover, speech signals modulated onto ultrasound can be detected through bone conduction. This study explored how well listeners can understand ultrasonic speech and the confusion patterns to evaluate and improve bone-conducted ultrasonic hearing. The intelligibility of Japanese words classified by familiarity and Japanese

2005 Hearing Research

6397. Minimum audible angle, just noticeable interaural differences and speech intelligibility with bilateral cochlear implants using clinical speech processors. (Abstract)

time JNDs depending on the type of stimulus. In contrast to envelope onset/offset cues, interaural fine structure time differences were not perceived by the patients using CI systems employing the continuous interleaved sampling strategy without synchronization between their pulse stimulation times. Speech intelligibility in quiet and CCITT noise from the side (+/-90 degrees ) was assessed using the German HSM sentence test and was significantly better when using bilateral CI in comparison (...) Minimum audible angle, just noticeable interaural differences and speech intelligibility with bilateral cochlear implants using clinical speech processors. Sound localization and speech intelligibility were assessed in 5 patients implanted bilaterally with Medel C40+ or Medel C40 cochlear implant (CI) systems. The minimum audible angle (MAA) around the head in the horizontal plane was assessed in patients with bilateral CI using white noise bursts of 1000 ms duration presented from

2005 Audiology & Neuro-Otology

6398. Speech perception and speech intelligibility in children after cochlear implantation. (Abstract)

Speech perception and speech intelligibility in children after cochlear implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term speech perception and speech intelligibility of congenitally and prelingually deaf children after cochlear implantation. It was a longitudinal study following 63 congenitally or prelingually deaf children up to 5 years after implantation. They each received a nucleus multichannel cochlear implant before they were 10 years old.Perception is evaluated using the Test (...) for the Evaluation of Voice Perception and Production (TEPP) and concerns closed- and open-set word and sentence perception without lip-reading. The intelligibility is classified according to the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). The evaluations have been made every 3 months for 1 year, then at 18 months, 2 years, 3 years and 5 years after the cochlear implantation.After 5 years of implantation, the median percentage of closed-words speech perception (CSW) is 95.5%-93.67% for closed-sentence speech perception

2004 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

6399. Evaluation of speech intelligibility for children with cleft lip and palate by means of automatic speech recognition. (Abstract)

the intelligibility does not exist.An automatic speech recognition system, a new method, was applied on recordings of a standard test to evaluate articulation disorders (psycholinguistic analysis of speech disorders of children PLAKSS) of 31 children at the age of 10.1+/-3.8 years. Two had an isolated cleft lip, 20 a unilateral cleft lip and palate, 4 a bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 5 an isolated cleft palate. The speech recognition system was trained with adults and children without speech disorders (...) Evaluation of speech intelligibility for children with cleft lip and palate by means of automatic speech recognition. Cleft lip and palate (CLP) may cause functional limitations even after adequate surgical and non-surgical treatment, speech disorders being one of them. Interindividually, they vary a lot, showing typical articulation specifics such as nasal emission and shift of articulation and therefore a diminished intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify

2006 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

6400. Breech delivery and intelligence: a population-based study of 8,738 breech infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to data registered at the National Conscript Service, 1984-1999. Test scores of intelligence testing at conscription were presented as standard nine ("stanine") scores. Mean stanine scores and odds ratios of low score were computed and adjusted for birth order, maternal age, and education.Mean stanine score was slightly higher among breech-presented males than among cephalic-presented males (5.26 versus 5.22, P = .05), whereas after adjustment the difference disappeared (P = .3). Breech-presented (...) Breech delivery and intelligence: a population-based study of 8,738 breech infants. Long-term intellectual performance in breech-presented infants may be negatively affected by vaginal delivery. We evaluated the effect of presentation at birth and delivery mode on intellectual performance at age 18 years in a nationwide population study.We studied 8,738 male infants in breech and 384,832 males in cephalic presentation registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1967-1979, and linked

2005 Obstetrics and Gynecology

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