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Intelligence Testing

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6381. Nocturnal oxygen therapy does not improve snorers' intelligence. (PubMed)

Nocturnal oxygen therapy does not improve snorers' intelligence. To determine whether nasal oxygen therapy at 2 L/min would (1) reverse nocturnal hypoxemia and (2) improve neuropsychologic function in men who snore heavily.To select heavy-snoring subjects for a treatment protocol, volunteers were screened for one night, breathing air the first half and oxygen the second half of the night. If nocturnal oxygen desaturation occurred in the first half and was improved in the second half (...) of the night, the subject entered a two-month treatment program. In random order, either nocturnal air or nocturnal oxygen was administered for one month each at 2 L/min in a double-blind crossover design. Neuropsychologic testing was done before and after each month.Oxygen concentrators were modified to produce either greater than 96 percent oxygen or air at 2 L/min. Machines were delivered to the home of the subject and the machines were used each night, administering inspirate by nasal cannula.Seventeen

1989 Chest Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6382. [Effects of an ever-young pill on decreased intelligence and symptoms associated with aging]. (PubMed)

[Effects of an ever-young pill on decreased intelligence and symptoms associated with aging]. A test was carried out to evaluate the effect of Ever-Young Pill (EYP) on decreased fluid intelligence and symptoms associated with aging. Nootropil and placebo were used as control drugs. Random, single-blind and self-control observation methods were applied. 90 days were spent for the clinical study. 154 older persons were divided into three groups (EYP 63, nootropil 60, placebo 31). The method (...) of measuring intelligence was talking between man and computer. The computerized program was worked out by our department. The measure included eight parameters. A semi-quantitative method was used to evaluate the symptoms of aging. The main results were as follows: In the group of EYP, there were significant differences (P less than 0.01) in speed of calculation (SC, 5.92 +/- 2.5, 5.1 +/- 2.1), speed of digits and pictures (SDP, 24.2 +/- 6.2, 21.7 +/- 6.7), two digits span (2.8 +/- 1.0, 3.2 +/- 0.8

1989 Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi = Chinese journal of modern developments in traditional medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he yan jiu hui (chou), Zhong yi yan jiu yuan, zhu ban Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6383. Nutrient intakes, vitamin-mineral supplementation, and intelligence in British schoolchildren. (PubMed)

Nutrient intakes, vitamin-mineral supplementation, and intelligence in British schoolchildren. Children (227), aged 7-12 years, weighed and recorded all food and drink consumed for seven consecutive days. Each child completed tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence, and was then randomly allocated to one of two groups after matching for age, sex, IQ and height. In a double-blind trial lasting for 28 d, one group received a vitamin-mineral supplement daily and the other group a placebo (...) . On re-testing, there were no significant differences in performance between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no consistent correlations between test scores and micronutrient intakes based on the weighed records. Thus, we found no evidence that learning ability in a cross-section of British schoolchildren was limited by the quality of their diets.

1990 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6384. A model for designing intelligent tutoring systems. (PubMed)

grouping discrepancies. The system developed was tested to determine the effectiveness of the methodology developed and to provide support for the concepts in the model of cognition developed. The preliminary results provide some evidence that an intelligent tutoring system designed using the methodology developed may aid in the knowledge acquisition process. (knowledge acquisition, artificial intelligence, computer-assisted instruction, cognition, intelligent tutoring system). (...) A model for designing intelligent tutoring systems. A model for the design of an intelligent tutoring system is presented using artificial intelligence techniques and cognitive processing theories. The model of cognitive processing known as the Knowledge Acquisition and Recall Theory is derived from Anderson's Adaptive Control of Thought Theory. The model is used as a basis for a methodology for the design of an intelligent tutoring system that teaches problem-solving strategies for blood

1991 Journal of medical systems Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6385. Infant Health and Development Program for low birth weight, premature infants: program elements, family participation, and child intelligence. (PubMed)

Infant Health and Development Program for low birth weight, premature infants: program elements, family participation, and child intelligence. The Infant Health and Development Program was an eight-site randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of early intervention to enhance the cognitive, behavioral, and health status of low birth weight, premature infants. The 377 intervention families received for the first 3 years of life: (1) pediatric follow-up, (2) home visits, (3) parent

1992 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6386. Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns for outcome prediction, therapeutic goals, and clinical algorithms to improve outcome. Feasibility of artificial intelligence to customize algorithms. (PubMed)

Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns for outcome prediction, therapeutic goals, and clinical algorithms to improve outcome. Feasibility of artificial intelligence to customize algorithms. A generalized decision tree or clinical algorithm for treatment of high-risk elective surgical patients was developed from a physiologic model based on empirical data. First, a large data bank was used to do the following: (1) describe temporal hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns that interrelate (...) (VO2) as proxy outcome measures. Second, a general purpose algorithm was generated from these data and tested in preoperatively randomized clinical trials of high-risk surgical patients. Improved outcome was demonstrated with this generalized algorithm. The concept that the supranormal values represent compensations that have survival value has been corroborated by several other groups. We now propose a unique approach to refine the generalized algorithm to develop customized algorithms

1992 Chest Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6387. Motivation: cause or confound in information processing/intelligence correlations? (PubMed)

Motivation: cause or confound in information processing/intelligence correlations? The goal of the present study was to determine whether correlations between information processing scores and intelligence can be explained in terms of between-subject motivational differences. One hundred and nine male and female volunteer college students were tested on a battery of microcomputerized cognitive tests. One hundred of these subjects returned for a second session in which they were randomly (...) assigned to an incentive or no-incentive condition and then retested. The effort expended on the tests was measured via heart rate, skin conductance, and a self-report questionnaire. Criterion measures, including the Advanced Otis-Lennon Test of Mental Abilities and Advanced Raven Progressive Matrices were also taken. The findings revealed that incentives had relatively modest effects on performance. In no case, however, did incentives affect the overall IQ-performance correlation for the tests used

1994 Acta psychologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6388. [Delayed effects of prenatal exposure to phenobarbital on intelligence--Phenemal]. (PubMed)

[Delayed effects of prenatal exposure to phenobarbital on intelligence--Phenemal]. Two double-blind studies were conducted on two independent samples of adult men prenatally exposed to phenobarbital and matched control samples using two different measures of general intelligence (WAIS and a draft board test (BPP)). The two studies included 33 and 81 exposed adult men respectively, and the two control groups included 52 and 101 unexposed men matched on a wide spectrum of maternal variables (...) recorded pre- and perinatally. Based on data from control subjects, regression models were built relating intelligence scores to relevant pre-exposure matching variables. Models generated predicted scores for each exposed subject. Men exposed prenatally to phenobarbital had significantly lower verbal intelligence scores than predicted. Lower socioeconomic status and being the offspring of an unwanted pregnancy increased the magnitude of the negative effects. Exposure which includes the last trimester

1996 Ugeskrift for laeger Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6389. The total-time hypothesis and the acquisition of connected discourse as a function of mode of presentation, presentation rate, and intelligence. (PubMed)

The total-time hypothesis and the acquisition of connected discourse as a function of mode of presentation, presentation rate, and intelligence. This study investigated the applicability of the total-time hypothesis in learning connected discourse as a function of two separate modes of presentation, two different presentation rates, and two significantly different level of adult intelligence. The eight paragraphs of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Form A) served as the connected discourse

1996 Perceptual and motor skills Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6390. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

intelligence.Two "working class," primarily Hispanic, elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona, participated in the study. Slightly more than half the teachers in each school distributed the tablets daily to 245 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years.Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. daily recommended allowance (RDA) for 3 months versus placebo.Post-test nonverbal IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), while controlling for pretest nonverbal IQ (...) The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two

2000 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

6391. Double hearing protection and speech intelligibility-room for improvement. (PubMed)

a BO-105 helicopter. Speech audiometry was performed under four different conditions: headset only, and three different ear plugs worn under the headset. Fitting of the ear plugs was performed by an ear, nose and throat specialist to ensure similar conditions. The sequence of test conditions was randomized and double-blind. In addition, a subjective rating scale was used.Wearing foam ear plugs under the headset decreased speech intelligibility dramatically. The "hi-fi" plug was somewhat better than (...) Double hearing protection and speech intelligibility-room for improvement. Double hearing protection is used in many air forces around the world for protection in noisy aircraft environments, particularly in helicopters. The usual combination is foam ear plugs under headset or helmet muffs. Much of the research that spurred the introduction of foam earplugs indicated little change in speech intelligibility in persons with normal hearing. However, aircrew often complain about having to maximize

2001 Aviation, space, and environmental medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6392. [Differentiated short- and long-term effects of a "Training of Emotional Intelligence" and of the "Integrated Psychologic Therapy Program" for schizophrenic patients?]. (PubMed)

[Differentiated short- and long-term effects of a "Training of Emotional Intelligence" and of the "Integrated Psychologic Therapy Program" for schizophrenic patients?]. Social cognition was shown as a rate limiting factor for both psychosocial outcome and response to psychosocial intervention in schizophrenia. In a randomized controlled trial a new cognitive-behavioral group treatment for schizophrenic inpatients (the "Training of Emotional Intelligence", TEI) was tested against the well (...) evaluated "Integrated Psychological Therapy Program" (IPT) of H. Brenner. Within the framework of P. Salovey's work the Training of Emotional Intelligence focussed on three domains of deficits in schizophrenia: emotional perception, emotional understanding and emotional management. In the randomized controlled trial with 41 DSM-IV schizophrenic inpatients no differences were found in problem-solving and negative symptoms, both post treatment and in the 12 months-follow up. Additionally

2001 Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6393. Relationship between fluid intelligence and ability to benefit from cognitive-behavioural therapy in older adults: a preliminary investigation. (PubMed)

controlled trial course of either CBT (N = 16) or SC (N = 16) for anxiety disorders took part in the study. The Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test was used to assess fluid intelligence. The Beck Anxiety Inventory change scores between pre-treatment and post-treatment were used as an index of ability to benefit from therapy. A measure of depressive symptomatology was also administered to control statistically for the effects of depression on intellectual functioning.The results for the SC (...) Relationship between fluid intelligence and ability to benefit from cognitive-behavioural therapy in older adults: a preliminary investigation. The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the hypothesis that fluid intelligence in older adults is associated with the ability to benefit from cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), but unrelated to the ability to benefit from non-directive supportive counselling (SC).A sample of 32 older adults who had completed a randomized

2002 The British journal of clinical psychology / the British Psychological Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6394. Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. (PubMed)

Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic (...) and reasoning; simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.

2002 Journal of personality and social psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6395. Intelligence and information processing during an auditory discrimination task with backward masking: an event-related potential analysis. (PubMed)

Intelligence and information processing during an auditory discrimination task with backward masking: an event-related potential analysis. The relation between mental ability and auditory discrimination ability was examined by recording event-related potentials from 60 women during an auditory oddball task with backward masking. Across conditions that varied in intensity and in the interval between the target and masking stimuli, the higher ability (HA) group exhibited greater response accuracy (...) , shorter response times, larger P3 amplitude, and shorter P3 latency to target stimuli than the lower ability (LA) group. When instructed to ignore the stimuli, the HA group exhibited shorter mismatch negativity latency to deviant tones than the LA group. The greater speed and accuracy of auditory discrimination for the HA group, observed here with multiple measures, is not a consequence of response strategy, test-taking ability, or attention deployment.

2002 Journal of personality and social psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6396. A dynamical model of general intelligence: the positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. (PubMed)

A dynamical model of general intelligence: the positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biological process or capacity. In this article, a new explanation of the positive manifold based (...) on a dynamical model is proposed, in which reciprocal causation or mutualism plays a central role. It is shown that the positive manifold emerges purely by positive beneficial interactions between cognitive processes during development. A single underlying g factor plays no role in the model. The model offers explanations of important findings in intelligence research, such as the hierarchical factor structure of intelligence, the low predictability of intelligence from early childhood performance

2006 Psychological Review

6397. Testing a four-factor model of psychopathy and its association with ethnicity, gender, intelligence, and violence. (PubMed)

Testing a four-factor model of psychopathy and its association with ethnicity, gender, intelligence, and violence. Although a 2-factor model has advanced research on the psychopathy construct, a 3-factor model was recently developed that emphasized pathological personality and eliminated antisocial behavior. However, dropping antisocial behavior from the psychopathy construct may not be advantageous. Using a large sample of psychiatric patients from the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study (J (...) . Monahan & H. J. Steadman, 1994), the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to test a 4-factor model of psychopathy, which included interpersonal, affective, and behavioral impulsivity dimensions and an antisocial behavior dimension. Model fit was good for this 4-factor model, even when ethnicity, gender, and intelligence variables were included in the model. Structural equation modeling was used to compare the 3- and 4-factor models in predicting proximal (violence) and distal (intelligence

2005 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

6398. Intelligence and leadership: a quantitative review and test of theoretical propositions. (PubMed)

Intelligence and leadership: a quantitative review and test of theoretical propositions. Meta-analysis was used to aggregate results from studies examining the relationship between intelligence and leadership. One hundred fifty-one independent samples in 96 sources met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that the corrected correlation between intelligence and leadership is.21 (uncorrected for range restriction) and.27 (corrected for range restriction). Perceptual (...) measures of intelligence showed stronger correlations with leadership than did paper-and-pencil measures of intelligence. Intelligence correlated equally well with objective and perceptual measures of leadership. Additionally, the leader's stress level and the leader's directiveness moderated the intelligence-leadership relationship. Overall, results suggest that the relationship between intelligence and leadership is considerably lower than previously thought. The results also provide meta-analytic

2004 The Journal of applied psychology

6399. [An experiment for testing the psychometric equivalence of the non verbal instruction of the adaptive intelligence diagnosticum]. (PubMed)

[An experiment for testing the psychometric equivalence of the non verbal instruction of the adaptive intelligence diagnosticum]. The Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum's manual additionally offers an optional non verbal instruction for seven of the fourteen subtests. There has, however, been no empirical evidence with regard to the psychometric equivalence of the tests with both versions of instruction. Therefore, an experiment was carried out. A total of 120 children (aged 6-8 years) were (...) randomized into control (verbal instruction) and experimental groups (non verbal instruction). In the one subtest "Competence in Realism" nearly 50 percent of the children could not understand the relevant non verbal instruction. However, when only those children who did understand the non verbal instruction of a subtest are taken into account, no significant difference is observed, neither with respect to the mean of the scores nor to their standard deviation. In this respect, the test of equivalence

2006 Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6400. Intelligence and Duchenne muscular dystrophy: full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients. (PubMed)

Article Meta-Analysis England Dev Med Child Neurol 0006761 0012-1622 IM Adolescent Adult Child Child, Preschool Cognition Disorders etiology Female Humans Infant Intelligence Intelligence Tests Male Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne complications 2001 7 21 10 0 2001 8 3 10 1 2001 7 21 10 0 ppublish 11463183 (...) Intelligence and Duchenne muscular dystrophy: full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients. 11463183 2001 08 02 2009 11 11 0012-1622 43 7 2001 Jul Developmental medicine and child neurology Dev Med Child Neurol Intelligence and Duchenne muscular dystrophy: full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients. 497-501 Cotton S S Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia. s.cotton@latrobe.edu.au Voudouris N J NJ Greenwood K M KM eng Journal

2001 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

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