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Intelligence Testing

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241. The influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence: An fMRI study Full Text available with Trip Pro

The influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence: An fMRI study The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). This study investigated the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence performance and corresponding brain activation. Previous findings showed that left parietal theta tACS leads (...) to a transient increase in fluid reasoning performance. In an attempt to extend and replicate these findings, we combined theta tACS with fMRI. In a double-blind sham-controlled experiment, N = 20 participants worked on two intelligence tasks (matrices and paper folding) after theta tACS was applied to the left parietal cortex. Stimulation-induced brain activation changes were recorded during task processing using fMRI. Results showed that theta tACS significantly increased fluid intelligence performance

2017 Personality and Individual Differences

242. The relationship between executive functions and fluid intelligence in euthymic Bipolar Disorder patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

and TMTB were removed when g was introduced as a covariate. Deficits remained significant in the multitasking test. We suggest that neuropsychological assessment in BD should include tests of general intelligence, together with one or more specific tasks that allow for the assessment of residual frontal deficits, putatively associated with anterior frontal functioning.Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (...) The relationship between executive functions and fluid intelligence in euthymic Bipolar Disorder patients Distinct cognitive deficits have been described in Bipolar disorder (BD), including executive impairments, commonly attributed to frontal dysfunction. However, recent attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in this population, suggesting that the executive deficits observed in BD might be due to a loss in fluid intelligence (g). Following our previous line

2017 Psychiatry research

243. Distorting temporal fine structure by phase shifting and its effects on speech intelligibility and neural phase locking Full Text available with Trip Pro

on both speech recognition and neural coding. The TFS of natural speech sentences was modified by distorting the phase and maintaining the magnitude. Speech intelligibility was then tested for normal-hearing listeners using the intact and reconstructed sentences presented in quiet and against background noise. Sentences with modified TFS were then used to evoke neural activity in auditory neurons of the inferior colliculus in guinea pigs. Our study demonstrated that speech intelligibility in humans (...) Distorting temporal fine structure by phase shifting and its effects on speech intelligibility and neural phase locking Envelope (E) and temporal fine structure (TFS) are important features of acoustic signals and their corresponding perceptual function has been investigated with various listening tasks. To further understand the underlying neural processing of TFS, experiments in humans and animals were conducted to demonstrate the effects of modifying the TFS in natural speech sentences

2017 Scientific reports

244. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual (...) of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.

2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

245. The corpus callosum as anatomical marker of intelligence? A critical examination in a large-scale developmental study Full Text available with Trip Pro

(IQ) and corpus-callosum anatomy. However, these studies also reveal an age-related dissociation: mostly positive associations are reported in adult samples, while negative associations are found in developing samples. In the present study, we re-examine the association between corpus callosum and intelligence measures in a large (734 datasets from 495 participants) developmental mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample (6.4-21.9 years) using raw test scores rather than deviation IQ measures (...) The corpus callosum as anatomical marker of intelligence? A critical examination in a large-scale developmental study Intellectual abilities are supported by a large-scale fronto-parietal brain network distributed across both cerebral hemispheres. This bihemispheric network suggests a functional relevance of inter-hemispheric coordination, a notion which is supported by a series of recent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrating correlations between intelligence scores

2017 Brain structure & function

246. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC) and individual listeners' responses (...) to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men), aged 33-80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89), with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed) and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC) participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise) was conducted using

2017 Frontiers in psychology

247. A Method Based on Artificial Intelligence To Fully Automatize The Evaluation of Bovine Blastocyst Images Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Method Based on Artificial Intelligence To Fully Automatize The Evaluation of Bovine Blastocyst Images Morphological analysis is the standard method of assessing embryo quality; however, its inherent subjectivity tends to generate discrepancies among evaluators. Using genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs), we developed a new method for embryo analysis that is more robust and reliable than standard methods. Bovine blastocysts produced in vitro were classified as grade 1 (...) (excellent or good), 2 (fair), or 3 (poor) by three experienced embryologists according to the International Embryo Technology Society (IETS) standard. The images (n = 482) were subjected to automatic feature extraction, and the results were used as input for a supervised learning process. One part of the dataset (15%) was used for a blind test posterior to the fitting, for which the system had an accuracy of 76.4%. Interestingly, when the same embryologists evaluated a sub-sample (10%) of the dataset

2017 Scientific reports

248. Using Objective Structured Teaching Encounters (OSTEs) to prepare chief residents to be emotionally intelligent leaders Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using Objective Structured Teaching Encounters (OSTEs) to prepare chief residents to be emotionally intelligent leaders Chief Residents must lead, manage and mentor a diverse and often large group of residents, however there is a lack of formal leadership training throughout graduate medical education.Development of a 3-part Chief Resident (CR) Program focused on leading, managing and mentoring.Each participant completes an Emotional Intelligence (EI) Inventory prior to the day-long event (...) participants was 76.9 (an ideal score is >85). An independent-samples t-test compared the CRs' leadership and feedback performance on their first and second OSTE performance within a single afternoon session. There was a significant difference between the first OSTE performance (M = 47.92, SD = 7.8) and the second OSTE performance (M = 51.22, SD = 6.9); t (68) = 1.99, p = 0.006. These results suggest that participating in multiple OSTEs positively reinforces the core interpersonal and communication skills

2017 Medical education online

249. Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test (...) Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric

2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

250. Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated (...) communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical signaling being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex

2017 Journal of cell communication and signaling

251. Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant for Complicated Skin Diseases through C5’s Algorithm Full Text available with Trip Pro

through questionnaires and checklists. Knowledge representation was obtained from the train data in the database using Excel Microsoft Office. Clementine Software and C5's Algorithms were applied to draw the decision tree. Analysis of test accuracy was performed based on rules extracted using inference chains. The rules extracted from the decision tree were entered into the CLIPS programming environment and the intelligent diagnostic assistant was designed then.The rules were defined using forward (...) Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant for Complicated Skin Diseases through C5’s Algorithm Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant can be used for complicated diagnosis of skin diseases, which are among the most common causes of disability. The aim of this study was to design and implement a computerized intelligent diagnostic assistant for complicated skin diseases through C5's Algorithm.An applied-developmental study was done in 2015. Knowledge base was developed based on interviews with dermatologists

2017 Acta Informatica Medica

252. The Benefits of Bimodal Aiding on Extended Dimensions of Speech Perception: Intelligibility, Listening Effort, and Sound Quality Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Benefits of Bimodal Aiding on Extended Dimensions of Speech Perception: Intelligibility, Listening Effort, and Sound Quality The benefits of combining a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in opposite ears on speech perception were examined in 15 adult unilateral CI recipients who regularly use a contralateral HA. A within-subjects design was carried out to assess speech intelligibility testing, listening effort ratings, and a sound quality questionnaire for the conditions CI alone (...) , CIHA together, and HA alone when applicable. The primary outcome of bimodal benefit, defined as the difference between CIHA and CI, was statistically significant for speech intelligibility in quiet as well as for intelligibility in noise across tested spatial conditions. A reduction in effort on top of intelligibility at the highest tested signal-to-noise ratio was found. Moreover, the bimodal listening situation was rated to sound more voluminous, less tinny, and less unpleasant than CI alone

2017 Trends in hearing

253. Analysis of Bioactive Amino Acids from Fish Hydrolysates with a New Bioinformatic Intelligent System Approach Full Text available with Trip Pro

to know these concentrations by the lab experimental tests, especially to conduct large-scale projects. Therefore, this paper introduced a new intelligent algorithm using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based on whale optimization algorithm. This algorithm is used to predict the concentration levels of bioactive amino acids in fish protein hydrolysates at different times during the year. The whale optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal parameters in adaptive neuro-fuzzy (...) Analysis of Bioactive Amino Acids from Fish Hydrolysates with a New Bioinformatic Intelligent System Approach The current economics of the fish protein industry demand rapid, accurate and expressive prediction algorithms at every step of protein production especially with the challenge of global climate change. This help to predict and analyze functional and nutritional quality then consequently control food allergies in hyper allergic patients. As, it is quite expensive and time-consuming

2017 Scientific reports

254. The relationship between intelligence and reaction time varies with age: Results from three representative narrow-age age cohorts at 30, 50 and 69 years Full Text available with Trip Pro

compared with mean values? Here we examine these questions in three population representative cohorts.Participants were drawn from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, a longitudinal population based study designed to investigate socially structured health inequalities. At the fourth wave of data collection, part I of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4) test of general intelligence was administered, and reaction times were measured using a portable device. Means and standard deviations were recorded for simple (...) The relationship between intelligence and reaction time varies with age: Results from three representative narrow-age age cohorts at 30, 50 and 69 years Reaction time (RT) has played a prominent part in research on mental ability for over a century. Throughout this time a number of questions have been repeatedly posed: what is the relationship of RT to general mental ability, and is this the same for simple and choice RT? Does the relationship change with age? How important is RT variability

2017 Intelligence

255. Intelligence and Brain Efficiency: Investigating the Association between Working Memory Performance, Glutamate, and GABA Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intelligence and Brain Efficiency: Investigating the Association between Working Memory Performance, Glutamate, and GABA Intelligence is a measure of general cognitive functioning capturing a wide variety of different cognitive functions. It has been hypothesized that the brain works to minimize the resources allocated toward higher cognitive functioning. Thus, for the intelligent brain, it may be that not simply more is better, but rather, more efficient is better. Energy metabolism supports (...) both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. Indeed, in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, the primary energetic costs are associated with neurotransmission. We tested the hypothesis that minimizing resources through the excitation-inhibition balance encompassing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate may be beneficial to general cognitive functioning using 7 T 1H-MRS in 23 healthy individuals (male/female = 16/7, 27.7 ± 5.3 years). We find that a higher working memory index

2017 Frontiers in Psychiatry

256. Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Intelligence Quotient of 12–14-Year-Old Children in Mathura District: A Cross-Sectional Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Intelligence Quotient of 12–14-Year-Old Children in Mathura District: A Cross-Sectional Study The aim was to assess and correlate the influence of the concentration of fluoride in ingested water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 12-14-year-old youngsters in Mathura district.A total of 219 children were selected, 75 from low F area, 75 medium F area, and 69 from high F area. The concentration of fluoride in the routinely ingested water (...) was estimated using "Ion Selective Electrode method"; then, Raven's Test was utilized to estimate the IQ of the study participants. Independent t-test, Tukey's post hoc, Chi-square an analysis of variance tests were used to associate the mean and proportion IQ scores in high-, medium-, and low-fluoride regions along with inter-group significant differences (P ≤ 0.05).The comparison of IQ score showed that 35 (46.7%) participants from the high fluoride and 10 (13.3%) participants from the medium-fluoride

2017 Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry

257. Performance-based ability emotional intelligence benefits working memory capacity during performance on hot tasks Full Text available with Trip Pro

Performance-based ability emotional intelligence benefits working memory capacity during performance on hot tasks Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions. Higher scores on this ability measured through performance tests (but no through self-reports) appears to be related to better performance on "hot" (emotionally laden) cognitive tasks. However, there are relatively few studies concerning how EI may benefit the working memory capacity (WMC (...) ). Thus, the objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between EI (as measured through a performance-based ability test, a self-report mixed test, and a self-report ability test) and the WMC during the performance of hot and "cool" (i.e., non-emotionally laden) "2-back" tasks. 203 participants completed three EI tests as well as two 2-back tasks. The results provide evidence for better performance of higher EI participants (specifically in the managing branch) measured through

2017 Scientific reports

258. Does Emotional Intelligence Fluctuate within Clinical Depressive Condition? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Does Emotional Intelligence Fluctuate within Clinical Depressive Condition? Emotional intelligence (EI) is regarded an important factor related to psychiatric disorder. Most of previous studies of EI and depression only dealt with EI in present of depressive symptoms. Our study investigated EI both before and after remission of depression and to identify which component of EI is changeable by depression condition.EI was evaluated for 23 depression patients and 44 normal control participants (...) . Adult Emotional Quotient Test (AEQT) was used as subjective EI measure and Emotional Literacy Test (ELT) was used as objective EI measure to both groups.During the initial evaluation of the subjective EI, patient group reported significantly lower scores than control group on all AEQT sub-domains except 'empathy'. However, group difference on 'utilization' disappeared after the remission evaluation. There was no significant difference within the objective EI measure.According to the result

2017 Psychiatry investigation

259. Technology-Assisted Rehabilitation of Writing Skills in Parkinson's Disease: Visual Cueing versus Intelligent Feedback Full Text available with Trip Pro

with either continuous visual cues or intermittent intelligent verbal feedback. Ten PD patients and nine healthy controls were randomly assigned to one of these training modes. To assess transfer of learning, writing performance was assessed in the absence of cueing and feedback on both trained and untrained writing sequences. The feedback pen and a touch-sensitive writing tablet were used for testing. Both training types resulted in improved writing amplitudes for the trained and untrained sequences (...) Technology-Assisted Rehabilitation of Writing Skills in Parkinson's Disease: Visual Cueing versus Intelligent Feedback Recent research showed that visual cueing can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on handwriting of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls depending on the circumstances. Hence, using other sensory modalities to deliver cueing or feedback may be a valuable alternative. Therefore, the current study compared the effects of short-term training

2017 Parkinson's disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

260. Intelligence and neuroticism in relation to depression and psychological distress: Evidence from two large population cohorts Full Text available with Trip Pro

not been well examined.Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS.Neuroticism (...) Intelligence and neuroticism in relation to depression and psychological distress: Evidence from two large population cohorts Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has

2017 European Psychiatry

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