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Intelligence Testing

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221. Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review. (Abstract)

in this target population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement is used to ensure reliability. The Satz-Mögel, an item-reduction short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows the highest correlation with the golden standard and is described to be most reliable. Nevertheless, when it comes to applicability in prison populations, the shorter and less verbal Quick Test can be preferred over others. Without affecting these conclusions, major limitations (...) Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review. Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate

2017 International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology

222. Building a national Infection Intelligence Platform to improve antimicrobial stewardship and drive better patient outcomes: the Scottish experience. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Building a national Infection Intelligence Platform to improve antimicrobial stewardship and drive better patient outcomes: the Scottish experience. The better use of new and emerging data streams to understand the epidemiology of infectious disease and to inform and evaluate antimicrobial stewardship improvement programmes is paramount in the global fight against antimicrobial resistance.To create a national informatics platform that synergizes the wealth of disjointed, infection-related (...) health data, building an intelligence capability that allows rapid enquiry, generation of new knowledge and feedback to clinicians and policy makers.A multi-stakeholder community, led by the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group, secured government funding to deliver a national programme of work centred on three key aspects: (i) technical platform development with record linkage capability across multiple datasets; (ii) a proportionate governance approach to enhance responsiveness; and (iii

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

223. Artificial Intelligence Learning Semantics via External Resources for Classifying Diagnosis Codes in Discharge Notes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Artificial Intelligence Learning Semantics via External Resources for Classifying Diagnosis Codes in Discharge Notes. Automated disease code classification using free-text medical information is important for public health surveillance. However, traditional natural language processing (NLP) pipelines are limited, so we propose a method combining word embedding with a convolutional neural network (CNN).Our objective was to compare the performance of traditional pipelines (NLP plus supervised (...) the area under the curve (AUC) and F-measure as the global measure of effectiveness.In 5-fold cross-validation tests, our method had a higher testing accuracy (mean AUC 0.9696; mean F-measure 0.9086) than traditional NLP-based approaches (mean AUC range 0.8183-0.9571; mean F-measure range 0.5050-0.8739). A real-world simulation that split the training sample and the testing sample by date verified this result (mean AUC 0.9645; mean F-measure 0.9003 using the proposed method). Further analysis showed

2017 Journal of medical Internet research

224. Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence. A core hypothesis in developmental theory predicts that genetic influences on intelligence and academic achievement are suppressed under conditions of socioeconomic privation and more fully realized under conditions of socioeconomic advantage: a Gene × Childhood Socioeconomic Status (SES) interaction. Tests of this hypothesis have produced apparently inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis (...) of tests of Gene × SES interaction on intelligence and academic-achievement test scores, allowing for stratification by nation (United States vs. non-United States), and we conducted rigorous tests for publication bias and between-studies heterogeneity. In U.S. studies, we found clear support for moderately sized Gene × SES effects. In studies from Western Europe and Australia, where social policies ensure more uniform access to high-quality education and health care, Gene × SES effects were zero

2017 Psychological science

225. A Personalized Self-Management Rehabilitation System with an Intelligent Shoe for Stroke Survivors: A Realist Evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Personalized Self-Management Rehabilitation System with an Intelligent Shoe for Stroke Survivors: A Realist Evaluation In the United Kingdom, stroke is the most significant cause of adult disability. Stroke survivors are frequently left with physical and psychological changes that can profoundly affect their functional ability, independence, and social participation. Research suggests that long-term, intense, task- and context-specific rehabilitation that is goal-oriented and environmentally (...) survivors with integrated insole sensor technology within an "intelligent shoe.". The intervention model was based around a rehabilitation paradigm underpinned by theories of motor relearning and neuroplastic adaptation, motivational feedback, self-efficacy, and knowledge transfer.To understand the conditions under which this technology-based rehabilitation solution would most likely have an impact on the motor behavior of the user, what would work for whom, in what context, and how. We were interested

2016 JMIR rehabilitation and assistive technologies

226. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When (...) Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence

2017 Journal of aging research

227. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires Full Text available with Trip Pro

for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board (...) A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems

2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

228. Monocular-Based 6-Degree of Freedom Pose Estimation Technology for Robotic Intelligent Grasping Systems Full Text available with Trip Pro

intelligent grasping system was developed, with which the robot could adjust its pose to grasp the part. In experimental tests, the part poses estimated with the method described in this paper were compared with those produced by a laser tracker, and results show the RMS angle and position error are about 0.0228° and 0.4603 mm. Robotic intelligent grasping tests were also successfully performed in the experiments. (...) Monocular-Based 6-Degree of Freedom Pose Estimation Technology for Robotic Intelligent Grasping Systems Industrial robots are expected to undertake ever more advanced tasks in the modern manufacturing industry, such as intelligent grasping, in which robots should be capable of recognizing the position and orientation of a part before grasping it. In this paper, a monocular-based 6-degree of freedom (DOF) pose estimation technology to enable robots to grasp large-size parts at informal poses

2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

229. Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates Full Text available with Trip Pro

and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Students were rated on self administered Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SEIT). Examination results were used as the dichotomous outcome variable in a logistic regression analysis.Females had higher mean EI scores (p = 0.014). A positive correlation was found between the EI score and the number of extracurricular activities (r = 0.121, p = 0.008). Those who were satisfied regarding their choice (...) Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates.This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th

2017 BMC medical education

230. Relationship between Divergent Thinking and Intelligence: An Empirical Study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship between Divergent Thinking and Intelligence: An Empirical Study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese Children The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged (...) between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT. The findings were as follows: (1) a breakpoint at the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 109.20 when investigating the relationship between either DT fluency or DT flexibility and intelligence. Another breakpoint was detected at the IQ of 116.80 concerning the correlation between originality

2017 Frontiers in psychology

231. The Three Models of Emotional Intelligence and Performance in a Hot and Cool go/no-go Task in Undergraduate Students Full Text available with Trip Pro

ability test, a self-report mixed test and a self-report ability test) and cognitive control ability during the performance of hot and "cool" (i.e., non-emotionally laden) "go/no-go" tasks. An experimental design was used for this study in which 187 undergraduate students (25% men) with a mean age of 21.93 years (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8) completed the three EI tests of interest (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT], Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS] and Emotional Quotient (...) The Three Models of Emotional Intelligence and Performance in a Hot and Cool go/no-go Task in Undergraduate Students Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand and regulate emotions, appears to be helpful in the performance of "hot" (i.e., emotionally laden) cognitive tasks when using performance-based ability models, but not when using self-report EI models. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between EI (as measured through a performance-based

2017 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

232. Intelligence, Functioning, and Related Factors in Children with Cerebral Palsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

total, 107 children with CP were included. Age, gender, prenatal/natal/postnatal risk factors, type of CP, and presence of other neurodevelopmental disorders were recorded as demographic findings. Intellectual functions of the patients were determined by clinical assessment, adaptive function of daily life, and individualized, standardized intelligence testing. The gross motor function and hand function of the patients were classified using the "Gross Motor Function Classification System (...) Intelligence, Functioning, and Related Factors in Children with Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common significant motor impairment in childhood. CP is defined as a primary disorder of posture and movement; however, intellectual impairment is prevalent in children with CP. The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligence level associated with gross motor function and hand function, type of CP, the presence of comorbid disorders such as epilepsy, and other factors.In

2017 Archives of Neuropsychiatry

233. Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task involving sensory encoding and cognitive resources including working memory and attention. Previous work has shown that brain oscillations, particularly alpha rhythms (8-12 Hz) play important roles in sensory processes involving working memory and attention. However, no previous study has examined brain oscillations during performance of a continuous speech perception test. The aim

2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

234. Brain morphometric analysis predicts decline of intelligence quotient in children with sickle cell disease: a preliminary study Full Text available with Trip Pro

for hemoglobin S, with no history of stroke and transcranial Doppler mean velocities below 170cm/s at baseline. We administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) to each child at yearly intervals for 2-4 years. Each child underwent MR examination within 30 days of the baseline K-BIT evaluation date. We calculated K-BIT change rates, and used rate of change in K-BIT to classify children into two groups: a decline group and a non-decline group. We then generated predictive models to predict K-BIT (...) Brain morphometric analysis predicts decline of intelligence quotient in children with sickle cell disease: a preliminary study For children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and at low risk category of stroke, we aim to build a predictive model to differentiate those with decline of intelligence-quotient (IQ) from counterparts without decline, based on structural magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging volumetric analysis.This preliminary prospective cohort study included 25 children with SCD, homozygous

2017 Advances in medical sciences

235. Speech Characteristics and Intelligibility in Adults with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Full Text available with Trip Pro

appears to be completed in adults with mild-to-moderate ID. The charted speech difficulties can be interpreted to indicate speech motor control and planning difficulties. These findings may aid the development of diagnostic tests and speech therapies aimed at improving speech intelligibility in this specific group.© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel. (...) Speech Characteristics and Intelligibility in Adults with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show reduced speech intelligibility, which affects their social interaction skills. This study aims to establish the main predictors of this reduced intelligibility in order to ultimately optimise management.Spontaneous speech and picture naming tasks were recorded in 36 adults with mild or moderate ID. Twenty-five naïve listeners rated

2017 Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica

236. Gastric and duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients: Conventional endoscopy vs virtual chromoendoscopy (fujinon intelligent color enhancement) in dysplasia evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gastric and duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients: Conventional endoscopy vs virtual chromoendoscopy (fujinon intelligent color enhancement) in dysplasia evaluation To test the fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) in identifying dysplastic or adenomatous polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients.Seventy-six consecutive FAP patients, already treated by colectomy and members of sixty-five families, were enrolled. A FICE system for the upper gastro

2017 World journal of clinical oncology

237. A Study of Emotional Intelligence Among Postgraduate Medical Students in Delhi Full Text available with Trip Pro

Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, to measure the EI of 200 postgraduate medical students of two medical colleges in Delhi. Students working in clinical specialties were selected randomly and contacted by the first author. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire.The mean scores of EI among the study participants was 124.4 with a standard deviation of 12.8. The total scores possible in the scale range from 33 to 165, with higher scores representing higher EI. The age (...) A Study of Emotional Intelligence Among Postgraduate Medical Students in Delhi The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in the successful practice of medicine has been well established. However, efforts to study the same in India, especially in doctors and medical students, are lacking. This study has measured the emotional intelligence of postgraduate medical students in Delhi and aimed to identify some of the factors affecting it.A cross-sectional analytical study, using the Schutte's

2017 Cureus

238. Speech Intelligibility in Persian Hearing Impaired Children with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids Full Text available with Trip Pro

in Hamadan. Participants was evaluated by the test of speech intelligibility level. Results of ANOVA on speech intelligibility test showed that NH children had significantly better reading performance than hearing impaired children with CI and HA. Post-hoc analysis, using Scheffe test, indicated that the mean score of speech intelligibility of normal children was higher than the HA and CI groups; but the difference was not significant between mean of speech intelligibility in children with hearing loss (...) Speech Intelligibility in Persian Hearing Impaired Children with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids The aim of present study is to evaluate and compare speech intelligibility in hearing impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aid (HA) users and children with normal hearing (NH). The sample consisted of 45 Persian-speaking children aged 3 to 5-years-old. They were divided into three groups, and each group had 15, children, children with CI and children using hearing aids

2017 Journal of Audiology & Otology

239. A Strain-Based Method to Estimate Slip Angle and Tire Working Conditions for Intelligent Tires Using Fuzzy Logic Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Strain-Based Method to Estimate Slip Angle and Tire Working Conditions for Intelligent Tires Using Fuzzy Logic Tires equipped with sensors, the so-called "intelligent tires", can provide vital information for control systems, drivers and external users. In this research, tire dynamic strain characteristics in cornering conditions are collected and analysed in relation to the variation of tire working conditions, such as inflation pressure, rolling speed, vertical load and slip angle (...) . An experimental tire strain-based prototype and an indoor tire test rig are used to demonstrate the suitability of strain sensors to establish relations between strain data and lateral force. The results of experiments show that strain values drop sharply when lateral force is decreasing, which can be used to predict tire slip conditions. As a first approach to estimate some tire working conditions, such as the slip angle and vertical load, a fuzzy logic method has been developed. The simulation and test

2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

240. Cumulative culture can emerge from collective intelligence in animal groups Full Text available with Trip Pro

of individuals in experimental groups (a key method in testing for CCE) alters the groups' solution efficiency over successive generations. Homing performance improves continuously over generations, and later-generation groups eventually outperform both solo individuals and fixed-membership groups. Homing routes are more similar in consecutive generations within the same chains than between chains, indicating cross-generational knowledge transfer. Our findings thus show that collective intelligence in animal (...) Cumulative culture can emerge from collective intelligence in animal groups Studies of collective intelligence in animal groups typically overlook potential improvement through learning. Although knowledge accumulation is recognized as a major advantage of group living within the framework of Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE), the interplay between CCE and collective intelligence has remained unexplored. Here, we use homing pigeons to investigate whether the repeated removal and replacement

2017 Nature communications

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