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Intelligence Testing

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181. A Cross-Sectional Study of Emotional Intelligence in Military General Surgery Residents. (Abstract)

A Cross-Sectional Study of Emotional Intelligence in Military General Surgery Residents. Higher emotional Intelligence (EI) is linked to improved doctor-patient relationships, empathy, teamwork, communication skills, stress management, and leadership in medicine. This study analyzes the effects of age, postgraduate year (PGY), gender, and prior military experience on EI in military general surgery residents, and compares these to the general population and civilian surgery residents.This (...) is a retrospective, observational study. Results were analyzed using independent sample t test and linear regression to compare general surgery residents with the normative population and civilian general surgery residents.The general surgery department at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, a single-center, academic institution.All general surgery residents, PGY 1 to 6, were surveyed at the beginning of academic year, in June 2016.There were no statistically discernable differences in global EI

2018 Journal of Surgical Education

182. Artificial intelligence machine learning-based coronary CT fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR<sub>ML</sub>): Impact of iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques. (Abstract)

Artificial intelligence machine learning-based coronary CT fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML): Impact of iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques. The influence of computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithms on the performance of machine-learning-based CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML) has not been investigated. CT-FFRML values and processing time of two reconstruction algorithms were compared using an on-site workstation.CT-FFRML (...) was computed on 40 coronary CT angiography (CCTA) datasets that were reconstructed with both iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithms. CT-FFRML was computed on a per-vessel and per-segment basis as well as distal to lesions with ≥50% stenosis on CCTA. Processing times were recorded. Significant flow-limiting stenosis was defined as invasive FFR and CT-FFRML values ≤ 0.80. Pearson's correlation, Wilcoxon, and McNemar statistical testing were used for data

2018 Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography

183. Impact of an intelligent chronic disease management system on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Beijing community. (Full text)

Impact of an intelligent chronic disease management system on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Beijing community. Rapid demographic and economic changes have made chronic disease the number one health issue in China, contributing to more than 80% of the country's 10.3 million annual deaths and nearly 70% of its total disease burden (Wang et al., Toward a Healthy and Harmonious Life in China: Stemming the Rising Tide of Non-Communicable Diseases, 2011; Yip and Hsiao, Lancet 384: 805 (...) in Australia (Kelly et al., Aust J Prim Health 9:186-9, 2003). The ICDMS is an important tool in the implementation of patient-centered programs targeting chronic health issues, and its success is determined by factors, such as frequent contact between patients and doctors and effective website training for patients. This retrospective study used de-identified data from the Fangzhuang (Beijing) intelligent chronic disease management system (ICDMS) database to evaluate the effect of an intelligent chronic

2018 BMC health services research PubMed abstract

184. Effects of Hearing Loss and Fast-Acting Compression on Amplitude Modulation Perception and Speech Intelligibility. (Full text)

Effects of Hearing Loss and Fast-Acting Compression on Amplitude Modulation Perception and Speech Intelligibility. The purpose was to investigate the effects of hearing-loss and fast-acting compression on speech intelligibility and two measures of temporal modulation sensitivity.Twelve adults with normal hearing (NH) and 16 adults with mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were tested. Amplitude modulation detection and modulation-depth discrimination (MDD) thresholds (...) with sinusoidal carriers of 1 or 5 kHz and modulators in the range from 8 to 256 Hz were used as measures of temporal modulation sensitivity. Speech intelligibility was assessed by obtaining speech reception thresholds in stationary and fluctuating background noise. All thresholds were obtained with and without compression (using a fixed compression ratio of 2:1).For modulation detection, the thresholds were similar or lower for the group with hearing loss than for the group with NH. In contrast, the MDD

2018 Ear and hearing PubMed abstract

185. Maternal and offspring intelligence in relation to BMI across childhood and adolescence. (Full text)

Maternal and offspring intelligence in relation to BMI across childhood and adolescence. The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth.Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual (...) Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). A series of regression analyses tested the association between IQ and offspring's BMI by age group, while adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and family SES. The analyses were stratified by sex and ethnicity (non-Black and non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic).The following associations were observed in the fully adjusted analyses. For the non-Blacks and non-Hispanics, a SD increment in mothers' IQ was negatively

2018 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

186. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study. (Full text)

Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study. Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study (...) of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (<20 years) have -3.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -4.3, -1.8) points lower IQ compared to children

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

187. Deep Learning-Based Noise Reduction Approach to Improve Speech Intelligibility for Cochlear Implant Recipients. (Abstract)

noise, at 0 and 5 dB SNR levels. Two conventional NR techniques and the proposed deep learning-based approach are used to process the noisy utterances. We qualitatively compare the NR approaches by the amplitude envelope and spectrogram plots of the processed utterances. Quantitative objective measures include (1) normalized covariance measure to test the intelligibility of the utterances processed by each of the NR approaches; and (2) speech recognition tests conducted by nine Mandarin-speaking CI (...) recipients. These nine CI recipients use their own clinical speech processors during testing.The experimental results of objective evaluation and listening test indicate that under challenging listening conditions, the proposed NC + DDAE NR approach yields higher intelligibility scores than the two compared classical NR techniques, under both matched and mismatched training-testing conditions.When compared to the two well-known conventional NR techniques under challenging listening condition

2018 Ear and hearing

188. Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for detecting gastric cancer in endoscopic images. (Full text)

Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for detecting gastric cancer in endoscopic images. Image recognition using artificial intelligence with deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has dramatically improved and been increasingly applied to medical fields for diagnostic imaging. We developed a CNN that can automatically detect gastric cancer in endoscopic images.A CNN-based diagnostic system was constructed based on Single Shot MultiBox (...) Detector architecture and trained using 13,584 endoscopic images of gastric cancer. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, an independent test set of 2296 stomach images collected from 69 consecutive patients with 77 gastric cancer lesions was applied to the constructed CNN.The CNN required 47 s to analyze 2296 test images. The CNN correctly diagnosed 71 of 77 gastric cancer lesions with an overall sensitivity of 92.2%, and 161 non-cancerous lesions were detected as gastric cancer, resulting

2018 Gastric Cancer PubMed abstract

189. Effect of acupuncture at 3-points for intelligence on vascular dementia: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Full text)

Effect of acupuncture at 3-points for intelligence on vascular dementia: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Vascular dementia (VD) is a commonly-seen disease in the elderly. What is more, "Acupuncture at 3-points for intelligence" is one of the most important components of "Jin's three-needle therapy" created by Rui Jin, a professor of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, which can be used in the VD patients. In this article, researchers (...) will assess the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture at 3-points for intelligence in the treatment of VD.A systematic literature search for articles up to September 2018 will be conducted using 9 databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang database, OASIS, and CiNii. Inclusion criteria are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture at 3-points for intelligence on treating VD. The primary outcome measures will be scores reflecting the neurological function

2018 Medicine PubMed abstract

190. Fully automated diagnostic system with artificial intelligence using endocytoscopy to identify the presence of histologic inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (with video). (Full text)

Fully automated diagnostic system with artificial intelligence using endocytoscopy to identify the presence of histologic inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (with video). In the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), an incremental benefit of achieving histologic healing beyond that of endoscopic mucosal healing has been suggested; persistent histologic inflammation increases the risk of exacerbation and dysplasia. However, identification of persistent histologic inflammation (...) is extremely difficult using conventional endoscopy. Furthermore, the reproducibility of endoscopic disease activity is poor. We developed and evaluated a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to predict persistent histologic inflammation using endocytoscopy (EC; 520-fold ultra-magnifying endoscope).We evaluated the accuracy of the CAD system using test image sets. First, we retrospectively reviewed the data of 187 patients with UC from whom biopsy samples were obtained after endocytoscopic observation. EC

2018 Gastrointestinal endoscopy PubMed abstract

191. Robotic-assisted vs. open radical prostatectomy: A machine learning framework for intelligent analysis of patient-reported outcomes from online cancer support groups. (Abstract)

Robotic-assisted vs. open radical prostatectomy: A machine learning framework for intelligent analysis of patient-reported outcomes from online cancer support groups. The advantages of Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RARP) over open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in Prostate cancer perioperatively are well-established, but quality of life is more contentious. Increasingly, patients are utilising online cancer support groups (OCSG) to express themselves. Currently there is no method (...) of analysis of these sophisticated data sources. We have used the PRIME-2 (Patient Reported Information Multidimensional Exploration version 2) framework for automated identification and intelligent analysis of decision-making, functional and emotional outcomes in men undergoing ORP vs. RARP from OCSG discussions.The PRIME-2 framework was developed to retrospectively analyse individualised patient-reported information from 5,157 patients undergoing RARP and 579 ORP. The decision factors, side effects

2018 Urologic oncology

192. Personal Activity Intelligence and Mortality in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: The HUNT Study. (Full text)

Personal Activity Intelligence and Mortality in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: The HUNT Study. To test whether Personal Activity Intelligence (PAI), a personalized metric of physical activity (PA) tracking, is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with self-reported CVD and to determine whether these associations change depending on whether contemporary PA recommendations are met.A total of 3133 patients with CVD (mean [SD] age, 67.6 [10.3

2018 Mayo Clinic Proceedings PubMed abstract

193. The diagnostic outcomes of esophageal cancer by artificial intelligence using convolutional neural networks. (Abstract)

The diagnostic outcomes of esophageal cancer by artificial intelligence using convolutional neural networks. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is relatively poor. Patients are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when it is often too late for effective treatment. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) using deep learning has made remarkable progress in medicine. However, there are no reports on its application for diagnosing esophageal cancer. Here, we demonstrate the diagnostic ability (...) of AI to detect esophageal cancer including squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.We retrospectively collected 8428 training images of esophageal cancer from 384 patients at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Japan. Using these, we developed deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We also prepared 1118 test images for 47 patients with 49 esophageal cancers and 50 patients without esophageal cancer to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy.The CNN took 27 seconds to analyze 1118 test

2018 Gastrointestinal endoscopy

194. The influence of childhood intelligence, social class, education and social mobility on memory and memory decline in late life. (Full text)

The influence of childhood intelligence, social class, education and social mobility on memory and memory decline in late life. In an observational longitudinal study of a sub-sample of the Aberdeen 1936 birth cohort, from age 62 to 77 years, we investigated childhood intelligence, social class, education, life-course social mobility, memory test performance and memory decline in late life. We examined 388 local residents who had attended school in Aberdeen in 1947 and measured Auditory-Verbal (...) Learning Test (AVLT) at recruitment age about 64 years and up to five times until age about 77 years. Better performance at age about 64 on AVLT was predicted by early socioeconomic status (SES), social mobility and childhood intelligence. The trajectory of AVLT decline was steeper in those who had received less education. This relationship was independent of childhood ability, sex, SES in childhood and social mobility. The protection of memory by education suggests that education supports resilience

2018 Age and ageing PubMed abstract

195. Enhanced tomographic assessment to detect corneal ectasia based on artificial intelligence. (Abstract)

Enhanced tomographic assessment to detect corneal ectasia based on artificial intelligence. To improve the detection of corneal ectasia susceptibility using tomographic data.Multicenter case-control study.Data from patients from 5 different clinics from South America, the United States, and Europe were evaluated. Artificial intelligence (AI) models were generated using Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) parameters to discriminate the preoperative data of 3 groups: stable laser-assisted (...) in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) cases (2980 patients with minimum follow-up of 7 years), ectasia susceptibility (71 eyes of 45 patients that developed post-LASIK ectasia [PLE]), and clinical keratoconus (KC; 182 patients). Model accuracy was independently tested in a different set of stable LASIK cases (298 patients with minimum follow-up of 4 years) and in 188 unoperated patients with very asymmetric ectasia (VAE); these patients presented normal topography (VAE-NT) in 1 eye and clinically diagnosed

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

196. Macular Vessel Density and Ganglion Cell/Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness and Their Combinational Index Using Artificial Intelligence. (Abstract)

Macular Vessel Density and Ganglion Cell/Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness and Their Combinational Index Using Artificial Intelligence. To evaluate the relationship between macular vessel density and ganglion cell to inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT) and to compare their diagnostic performance. We attempted to develop a new combined parameter using an artificial neural network.A total of 173 subjects: 100 for the test and 73 for neural net training. The test group consisted of 32 healthy

2018 Journal of Glaucoma

197. Association between intelligence quotient and violence perpetration in the English general population. (Abstract)

Association between intelligence quotient and violence perpetration in the English general population. Data on the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and violence perpetration are scarce and nationally representative data from the UK adult population is lacking. Therefore, our goal was to examine the relationship between IQ and violence perpetration using nationally representative community-based data from the UK.We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric (...) Morbidity Survey. IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). Violence perpetration referred to being in a physical fight or having deliberately hit anyone in the past 5 years. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association between IQ (exposure variable) and violence perpetration (outcome variable).There were 6872 participants aged ⩾16 years included in this study. The prevalence of violence perpetration decreased linearly with increasing IQ [16.3% (IQ 70-79) v

2018 Psychological Medicine

198. Targeted Estimation of the Relationship Between Childhood Adversity and Fluid Intelligence in a US Population Sample of Adolescents. (Full text)

(n = 10,073), we examined the associations between 11 childhood adversities and intelligence, using targeted maximum likelihood estimation. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation incorporates machine learning to identify the relationships between exposures and outcomes without overfitting, including interactions and nonlinearity. The nonverbal score from the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test was used as a standardized measure of fluid reasoning. Childhood adversities were grouped into deprivation (...) Targeted Estimation of the Relationship Between Childhood Adversity and Fluid Intelligence in a US Population Sample of Adolescents. Many studies have shown inverse associations between childhood adversity and intelligence, although most are based on small clinical samples and fail to account for the effects of multiple co-occurring adversities. Using data from the 2001-2004 National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a cross-sectional US population study of adolescents aged 13-18 years

2018 American Journal of Epidemiology PubMed abstract

199. A "Goldilocks" Approach to Hearing Aid Self-Fitting: Ear-Canal Output and Speech Intelligibility Index. (Full text)

A "Goldilocks" Approach to Hearing Aid Self-Fitting: Ear-Canal Output and Speech Intelligibility Index. The objective was to determine self-adjusted output response and speech intelligibility index (SII) in individuals with mild to moderate hearing loss and to measure the effects of prior hearing aid experience.Thirteen hearing aid users and 13 nonusers, with similar group-mean pure-tone thresholds, listened to prerecorded and preprocessed sentences spoken by a man. Starting with a generic (...) level and spectrum, participants adjusted (1) overall level, (2) high-frequency boost, and (3) low-frequency cut. Participants took a speech perception test after an initial adjustment before making a final adjustment. The three self-selected parameters, along with individual thresholds and real-ear-to-coupler differences, were used to compute output levels and SIIs for the starting and two self-adjusted conditions. The values were compared with an NAL second nonlinear threshold-based prescription

2018 Ear and hearing PubMed abstract

200. Burnout is Associated With Emotional Intelligence but not Traditional Job Performance Measurements in Surgical Residents. (Abstract)

Burnout is Associated With Emotional Intelligence but not Traditional Job Performance Measurements in Surgical Residents. To evaluate whether burnout was associated with emotional intelligence and job performance in surgical residents.General surgery residents at a single institution were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and trait EI questionnaire (TEIQ-SF). Burnout was defined as scoring in 2 of the 3 following domains; Emotional Exhaustion (high), Depersonalization (high (...) ), and Personal Accomplishment (low). Job performance was evaluated using faculty evaluations of clinical competency-based surgical milestones and standardized test scores including the American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3. USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2, which were taken prior to residency training, were included to examine possible associations of burnout with USMLE examinations. Statistical comparison was made using Pearson

2018 Journal of Surgical Education

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