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, 84 VPT and 38 demographically matched full-term (FT) children underwent neurodevelopmental assessment. Children's intellectual ability was assessed using The Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence-III, and language was assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool-2. The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading estimated maternal intellectual ability. The StimQ-Preschool questionnaire provided a measure of cognitive stimulation in the home. Linear mixed-effects models (...) Maternal intelligence quotient (IQ) predicts IQ and language in very preterm children at age 5 years. Sociodemographic factors are linked to cognitive outcomes in children born very preterm (VPT; ≤30 weeks gestation). The influence of maternal intellectual ability, a heritable trait, is unknown. Also undetermined is the extent to which associations between maternal and child intellectual ability vary according to parenting behaviors that target cognitive stimulation in the home.At age 5 years
testing in quiet across 145 participants with both algorithms providing comparable gains. Equivalent results were found between frequency-lowering and conventional processing on all other speech measures.Based on the available data, frequency-lowering does seem to provide some improvement in an individual's speech intelligibility dependant on the stimulus type, although the benefits were modest. This improvement was not seen across all measures, however those who do not benefit from the technology (...) Speech intelligibility benefits of frequency-lowering algorithms in adult hearing aid users: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of two frequency-lowering schemes, non-linear frequency compression and frequency transposition, at improving speech intelligibility for adult hearing-impaired populations.A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was carried out using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Accepted articles were then critically
Predicting Intelligibility Deficit in Dysphonic Speech with Cepstral Peak Prominence. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) for predicting the intelligibility deficit in dysphonic speech.Sentences from Hearing-in-Noise Test were recorded from 18 speakers with dysphonia and 18 speakers with normal voice. These samples were presented to 60 adults with normal hearing in quiet and noise at signal to noise ratio of +0 dB. Intelligibility was measured (...) by orthographic transcription. Cepstral peak prominence was measured for all samples. Correlation between CPP and intelligibility score was examined.Intelligibility was significantly lower in dysphonic speech than normal speech in the presence of background noise. The correlation between CPP and intelligibility score was moderate when the intelligibility scores were averaged per speaker.Cepstral peak prominence only moderately predicts intelligibility deficit in dysphonic speech. Accordingly, CPP alone
Building a national Infection Intelligence Platform to improve antimicrobial stewardship and drive better patient outcomes: the Scottish experience. The better use of new and emerging data streams to understand the epidemiology of infectious disease and to inform and evaluate antimicrobial stewardship improvement programmes is paramount in the global fight against antimicrobial resistance.To create a national informatics platform that synergizes the wealth of disjointed, infection-related (...) health data, building an intelligence capability that allows rapid enquiry, generation of new knowledge and feedback to clinicians and policy makers.A multi-stakeholder community, led by the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group, secured government funding to deliver a national programme of work centred on three key aspects: (i) technical platform development with record linkage capability across multiple datasets; (ii) a proportionate governance approach to enhance responsiveness; and (iii
Artificial Intelligence Learning Semantics via External Resources for Classifying Diagnosis Codes in Discharge Notes. Automated disease code classification using free-text medical information is important for public health surveillance. However, traditional natural language processing (NLP) pipelines are limited, so we propose a method combining word embedding with a convolutional neural network (CNN).Our objective was to compare the performance of traditional pipelines (NLP plus supervised (...) the area under the curve (AUC) and F-measure as the global measure of effectiveness.In 5-fold cross-validation tests, our method had a higher testing accuracy (mean AUC 0.9696; mean F-measure 0.9086) than traditional NLP-based approaches (mean AUC range 0.8183-0.9571; mean F-measure range 0.5050-0.8739). A real-world simulation that split the training sample and the testing sample by date verified this result (mean AUC 0.9645; mean F-measure 0.9003 using the proposed method). Further analysis showed
Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize (...) no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.
Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Adolescents with Craniofacial Microsomia. The authors compared the IQ and academic achievement of adolescents with craniofacial microsomia (cases) and unaffected children (controls). Among cases, the authors analyzed cognitive functioning by facial phenotype.The authors administered standardized tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, writing, and mathematics to 142 cases and 316 controls recruited from 26 cities across the United States and Canada
Artificial intelligence in medicine is still a long ways off Artificial intelligence in medicine is still a long ways off Artificial intelligence in medicine is still a long ways off | | July 10, 2017 74 Shares “Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability.” – Sir William Osler Two people presented to my clinic on the same day with classic symptoms of head and neck cancer. Each reported several weeks of unilateral throat discomfort, ear pain, and a neck mass. Each was having (...) , time away from work, unnecessary testing, and needless expense before coming to see our team. But because each person initially saw a different care provider, the scenario remained the same. Of course, the people working in the clinics did the best they could. We are taught that “common things occur commonly,” and that “when you hear hoofbeats, think horses, not zebras.” But how might we help our doctors and nurse practitioners remain open to unusual diagnoses? How could we share our experiences
Two-stage approach for risk estimation of fetal Trisomy 21 and other aneuploidies using computational intelligence systems. To estimate the risk of fetal trisomy 21 (T21) and other chromosomal abnormalities (OCA) at 11-13 weeks' gestation using computational intelligence classification methods.As a first step, a training dataset consisting of 72 054 euploid pregnancies, 295 cases of T21 and 305 cases of OCA was used to train an artificial neural network. Then, a two-stage approach was used (...) T21 and 18 OCA were classified as no risk in Stage 1. The remaining 18 796 cases were forwarded to Stage 2, of which 7895 euploid, two T21 and two OCA cases were classified as no risk, 10 464 euploid, 83 T21 and 61 OCA as moderate risk and 187 euploid, 50 T21 and 52 OCA as high risk. The sensitivity and the specificity for T21 in Stage 2 were 97.1% and 99.5%, respectively, and the false-positive rate from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was reduced from 51.4% to ∼1%, assuming that the cell-free DNA test could
Concept Clearance » Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Decoding and Modulating Behaviorally-Activated Brain Circuits NIMH » Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Decoding and Modulating Behaviorally-Activated Brain Circuits Mental Health Information Outreach Research Funding News & Events About Us Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: > > > Concept Clearance • May 25, 2017 Presenter: Michele Ferrante, Ph.D. Division of Neuroscience (...) and Basic Behavioral Science & Division of Translational Research Goal: The goal of this initiative is to solicit applications in the area of eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) applied to mental health priorities ( , Strategy 1.1: Describe the molecules, cells, and neural circuits associated with complex behaviors; and , Strategy 3.2: Develop ways to tailor interventions to optimize outcomes). Current machine learning approaches focus on classifying and predicting brain and behavioral signals
Your next doctor, powered by artificial intelligence Your next doctor, powered by artificial intelligence Your next doctor, powered by artificial intelligence | | May 17, 2017 111 Shares Although every technology product released today seems as if it is “powered by artificial intelligence,” the actual AI revolution is ahead of us. When it arrives, it will be on par with the industrial revolution in changing our lives, especially in the world of medicine. John McCarthy, a legendary computer (...) scientist, coined the term “AI” in 1955. He defined it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.” There are two broad types of AI: general and narrow. Think of general AI as replacing humans (something that is a long way off — think science fiction such as Westworld or Ex
Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife. We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages.The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (...) , and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R.Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the <2.5kg birth weight group and those in the 3.5 to 4.00kg group were >5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young
Social cognition in bipolar disorder: Focus on emotional intelligence. The present study aims to characterize emotional intelligence (EI) variability in a sample of euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) patients through the Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional IntelligenceTest (MSCEIT).A total of 134 euthymic BD outpatients were recruited and divided into three groups according to the total Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ) score of the MSCEIT, following a statistical criterion of scores 1.5SDs above (...) /below the normative group mean, as follows: a low performance (LP) group (EIQ <85), a normal performance (NP) group (85≤EIQ≤115), and a high performance (HP) group (EIQ >115). Afterwards, main sociodemographic, clinical, functional and neurocognitive variables were compared between the groups.Three groups were identified: 1) LP group (n=16, 12%), 2) NP group (n=93, 69%) and 3) HP group (n=25, 19%). There were significant differences between the groups in premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) (p=0.010
, this study assessed whether perceived EI might be a potential moderator in the relationship between life satisfaction/happiness and suicidal behaviours in a relatively large sample of unemployed individuals. Participants were 1125 unemployed (506 men and 619 women) who completed satisfaction with life and happiness questionnaires, the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire and the Wong and Law Emotional IntelligenceTest. Consistent with the interaction hypothesis, lower scores in life satisfaction (...) Attenuating the Negative Impact of Unemployment: The Interactive Effects of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being on Suicide Risk. A growing body of research has demonstrated that deficits in well-being may be related to increased suicide risk, but there is only a limited number of studies that have focused on specific protective factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviours. Given that unemployment may be a factor leading to increased risk for suicide
Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues. Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information (...) was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.
Education, socioeconomic status and intelligence in childhood and stroke risk in later life: A meta-analysis. Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ).We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We (...) included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education. Two reviewers independently screened full texts and extracted and cross-checked data, including available risk factor adjustments. We meta-analyzed stroke risk using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and mean differences (MD). We tested effects of study and participant characteristics in sensitivity analyses and meta-regression, and assessed heterogeneity and publication bias.We identified 90
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Intelligence Quotient in Early-Treated Individuals with Classical Galactosemia. Cognitive impairment is a well-known complication of classical galactosemia (CG). Differences in patient characteristics and test methods have hampered final conclusions regarding the extent of intellectual disabilities in CG. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess intellectual performance in early-treated (≤4 weeks of life) individuals with confirmed CG (...) (defined by absent or barely detectable GALT enzyme activity and/or the presence of two null or severe missense variations), assessed with comparable test instruments. The full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was the variable of interest.A clinical librarian developed search strategies, and two independent investigators performed the study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Individual patient data were pooled for meta-analysis using linear mixed-effect models with a random intercept per study
Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce the Risk of Nonadherence in Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy. This study evaluated the use of an artificial intelligence platform on mobile devices in measuring and increasing medication adherence in stroke patients on anticoagulation therapy. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants, while reducing the need for monitoring, have also placed pressure on patients to self-manage. Suboptimal adherence goes undetected as routine laboratory tests (...) are not reliable indicators of adherence, placing patients at increased risk of stroke and bleeding.A randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted in adults (n=28) with recently diagnosed ischemic stroke receiving any anticoagulation. Patients were randomized to daily monitoring by the artificial intelligence platform (intervention) or to no daily monitoring (control). The artificial intelligence application visually identified the patient, the medication, and the confirmed ingestion. Adherence
speech to their most comfortable listening level, then background noise was added, and they adjusted it to the maximum level that they were "willing to put up with" while listening to the speech.) Participants also performed a modified version of the ANL test in which the speech was fixed at four different levels (50, 63, 75, and 88 dBA), and they adjusted only the level of the background noise. The authors calculated speech intelligibility index (SII) scores for each participant and test level. SII (...) scores ranged from 0 (no speech information is present) to 1 (100% of the speech information is present). The authors considered a participant's results to be consistent with a speech intelligibility-based listening criterion if his or her SIIs remained constant across all of the test conditions.For all but one of the participants with normal hearing, their SIIs remained constant across the entire 38-dB range of speech levels. For all participants with hearing loss, the SII increased with speech