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Insulin Dosing

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22201. Low-dose acarbose does not delay digestion of starch but reduces its bioavailability. Full Text available with Trip Pro

curves of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased by acarbose (-58.1 +/- 8.2% and -72.7 +/- 7.4%, respectively). Acarbose reduced the overall 6-h appearance of exogenous glucose (bioavailability) by 22 +/- 7% (mean +/-se) and the 6-h cumulative (13)CO(2) excretion by 30 +/- 6%.These data show that in healthy volunteers a low dose of 12.5 mg acarbose decreases the appearance of starch-derived glucose substantially. Reduced bioavailability seems to contribute (...) Low-dose acarbose does not delay digestion of starch but reduces its bioavailability. Slowly digestible starch is associated with beneficial health effects. The glucose-lowering drug acarbose has the potential to retard starch digestion since it inhibits alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidases. We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of acarbose delays the rate of digestion of rapidly digestible starch without reducing its bioavailability and thereby increasing resistant starch flux

2007 Diabetic Medicine

22202. Low-dose metformin improves hyperglycaemia related to myotonic dystrophy. (Abstract)

Low-dose metformin improves hyperglycaemia related to myotonic dystrophy. One of the clinical features of myotonic dystrophy is insulin resistance with non-obese diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, the mechanism of insulin resistance in patients with myotonic dystrophy was revealed. The optimal treatment of DM with myotonic dystrophy has not been established. We report the effect of metformin in a patient with myotonic dystrophy without obesity.A 58-year-old woman (BMI = 22.1 kg/m2) with myotonic (...) dystrophy and DM was followed at our clinic. She had been treated with glimepiride for DM for the last 6 months, without achieving good control (HbA(1c) 9.3%). She was admitted with congestive heart failure and cholecystitis. She was treated with diuretics, antibiotics and insulin. As her blood glucose fell, we discontinued insulin and started glimepiride, but her glycaemic control had worsened. We started metformin instead of glimepiride. After 4 weeks of metformin, HbA(1c) was decreased to 7.4%, while

2005 Diabetic Medicine

22203. Dose-response for glycaemic and metabolic changes 28 days after single injection of long-acting release exenatide in diabetic fatty Zucker rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dose-response for glycaemic and metabolic changes 28 days after single injection of long-acting release exenatide in diabetic fatty Zucker rats. Exenatide (exendin-4) injected subcutaneously twice daily reduces glycaemic deterioration in diabetic fatty Zucker (ZDF) rats and reduces HbA1c in humans with type 2 diabetes. Because tachyphylaxis may develop with continuous peptide exposure, we examined the activity of a long-acting-release (LAR) formulation of exenatide on HbA1c, insulin sensitivity (...) microg+/-0.1 log per rat; median effective concentration 52 pmol/l+/-0.06 log). Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp procedures incorporating an intraclamp glucose challenge performed 28 days after treatment revealed increases in beta cell response to the glucose challenge at lower exenatide-LAR doses, and up to a 2.1-fold increase in insulin sensitivity at higher exenatide-LAR doses.The finding that a single dose of exenatide-LAR enhanced glucose control for 28 days in the ZDF rat model of type 2

2005 Diabetologia

22204. Genistein affects adipose tissue deposition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Genistein increased epididymal and renal fat pad and adipocyte size at doses up to 50,000 microg/kg.d or at 800 ppm in the diet in males but not in females. The alteration in adipocity correlated with changes in peripheral insulin resistance. These treatments increased genistein serum concentrations from 35+/-6 to 103+/-26 nM 12 h after treatment and lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The 200,000 microg/kg.d genistein dose decreased adipose tissue weight similarly to E2. This genistein (...) Genistein affects adipose tissue deposition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner. The soy isoflavone genistein targets adipose tissue and elicits physiological effects that may vary based on dietary intake. We hypothesized that the adipose effects of genistein are dose and gender dependent. Four-week-old C57BL/6 male and female mice received daily oral doses of genistein (50-200,000 microg/kg.d) or 17beta-estradiol (E2) (5 microg/kg.d) for 15 d or a diet containing 800 ppm genistein

2006 Endocrinology

22205. Diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease: comparison between serum and salivary cortisol during the high-dose short synacthen test. Full Text available with Trip Pro

both unstimulated and during a high-dose short synacthen test (HDT) in comparison to the insulin tolerance test (ITT).Comparative study between 2005 and 2007.Fifty-five patients with HPA impairment and 21 healthy controls were enrolled. Samples were collected in the early morning and over 120 min during the HDT. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed individual thresholds for four HDT periods (0-30, 0-60, 0-90, and 0-120 min).The ITT identified 30 subjects as adrenal insufficient (...) Diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease: comparison between serum and salivary cortisol during the high-dose short synacthen test. Accurate assessment of adrenal function is essential in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) disease. The measurement of salivary cortisol (SaC) instead of serum cortisol (SeC) offers several advantages, such as the determination of the free hormone. We evaluated the diagnostic value of SeC and SaC

2009 European Journal of Endocrinology

22206. Efficacy of 12-month treatment with the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly resistant to long-term, high-dose somatostatin analog treatment: effect on IGF-I levels, tumor mass, hypertension and glucose tolerance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of 12-month treatment with the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly resistant to long-term, high-dose somatostatin analog treatment: effect on IGF-I levels, tumor mass, hypertension and glucose tolerance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly resistant to long-term (> or = 24-month), high-dose treatment with octreotide-LAR (40 mg/month) or lanreotide (120 mg/month).This was an open, prospective study.We studied 16 (...) patients with acromegaly (nine women; aged 28-61 years). The main outcome measures were IGF-I levels, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and safety (liver function and tumor size). Pegvisomant was given at doses of 10-40 mg s.c. daily. Dose titration was performed every month by IGF-I assay.Three patients spontaneously stopped pegvisomant treatment after 6-9 months because of poor compliance; from the measurement of serum pegvisomant, another patient was found not to inject herself properly. After 6

2006 European Journal of Endocrinology

22207. The effects of oral contraceptives including low-dose estrogen and drospirenone on the concentration of leptin and ghrelin in polycystic ovary syndrome. (Abstract)

The effects of oral contraceptives including low-dose estrogen and drospirenone on the concentration of leptin and ghrelin in polycystic ovary syndrome. To evaluate short-term leptin and ghrelin concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who use low-dose oral contraceptives containing drospirenone.Prospective study.Department of obstetrics and gynaecology in a university hospital.Twenty women with PCOS were enrolled in the study.A low-dose oral contraceptive containing (...) ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone was given for three cycles.Serum androstenedione, free T, T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin, FSH, LH, E(2), lipid profiles, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured in each subject. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).While leptin concentrations did not change with therapy, ghrelin levels increased statistically. Baseline leptin concentrations were correlated positively

2008 Fertility and Sterility

22208. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components. (Abstract)

Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components. We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum (...) with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi

2006 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

22209. Nocturnal glucose control and free insulin levels in children with type 1 diabetes by use of the long-acting insulin HOE 901 as part of a three-injection regimen. (Abstract)

Nocturnal glucose control and free insulin levels in children with type 1 diabetes by use of the long-acting insulin HOE 901 as part of a three-injection regimen. 10857953 2000 10 02 2015 11 19 0149-5992 23 4 2000 Apr Diabetes care Diabetes Care Nocturnal glucose control and free insulin levels in children with type 1 diabetes by use of the long-acting insulin HOE 901 as part of a three-injection regimen. 557-9 Mohn A A Strang S S Wernicke-Panten K K Lang A M AM Edge J A JA Dunger D B DB eng (...) Clinical Trial Letter Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial United States Diabetes Care 7805975 0149-5992 0 Blood Glucose 0 Hypoglycemic Agents 0 Insulin 0 Insulin, Long-Acting 2ZM8CX04RZ Insulin Glargine 53027-39-7 Insulin, Isophane IM Adolescent Blood Glucose metabolism Child Child, Preschool Circadian Rhythm Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 blood drug therapy Drug Administration Schedule Drug Therapy, Combination Female Humans Hypoglycemic Agents administration & dosage therapeutic use Infant

2000 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22210. Miscibility of human and bovine ultralente insulin with soluble insulin. (Abstract)

Preparations 0 Drug Combinations 0 Insulin 0 Insulin, Long-Acting 0 Insulin, Regular, Pork 0 Insulin, Ultratard AVT680JB39 insulin, neutral AIM IM Absorption Animals Biological Availability Blood Glucose metabolism C-Peptide blood Cattle Delayed-Action Preparations Drug Combinations Humans Injections, Subcutaneous Insulin administration & dosage blood metabolism Insulin, Long-Acting Insulin, Regular, Pork Kinetics Male 1984 12 15 1984 12 15 0 1 1984 12 15 0 0 ppublish 6439364 PMC1443819 Diabetes. 1979 Dec (...) Miscibility of human and bovine ultralente insulin with soluble insulin. 6439364 1985 02 06 2018 11 13 0267-0623 289 6459 1984 Dec 15 British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) Miscibility of human and bovine ultralente insulin with soluble insulin. 1656-7 Mühlhauser I I Broermann C C Tsotsalas M M Berger M M eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 8302911 0267-0623 0 Blood Glucose 0 C-Peptide 0 Delayed-Action

1985 British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22211. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood glucose and insulin requirement in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Beck-Nielsen H H eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Mol Aspects Med 7603128 0098-2997 0 Blood Glucose 0 Coenzymes 0 Insulin 1339-63-5 Ubiquinone 97C5T2UQ7J Cholesterol EJ27X76M46 coenzyme Q10 IM Adult Blood Glucose analysis Body Mass Index Cholesterol blood Coenzymes Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 blood drug therapy Double-Blind Method Female Humans Insulin administration & dosage therapeutic use Male Treatment Failure Ubiquinone analogs & derivatives pharmacology (...) The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood glucose and insulin requirement in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. 9266541 1997 11 14 2018 04 20 0098-2997 18 Suppl 1997 Molecular aspects of medicine Mol. Aspects Med. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood glucose and insulin requirement in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. S307-9 Andersen C B CB Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Henriksen J E JE Hother-Nielsen O O Vaag A A Mortensen S A SA

1997 Molecular Aspects of Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22212. [A comparative study of intensive conventional insulin treatment and a multiple insulin-injection regimen with NovoPen]. (Abstract)

[A comparative study of intensive conventional insulin treatment and a multiple insulin-injection regimen with NovoPen]. 3299948 1987 08 13 2016 11 23 0041-5782 149 20 1987 May 11 Ugeskrift for laeger Ugeskr. Laeg. [A comparative study of intensive conventional insulin treatment and a multiple insulin-injection regimen with NovoPen]. 1335-8 Ditzel J J Clemmensen N K NK dan Clinical Trial Comparative Study Controlled Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Sammenlignende (...) undersøgelse af intensiv konventionel insulinbehandling og multipel insulin-injektionsregi med NovoPen. Denmark Ugeskr Laeger 0141730 0041-5782 0 Insulin 0 Insulin, Regular, Pork AVT680JB39 insulin, neutral IM Adult Clinical Trials as Topic Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 drug therapy Female Humans Insulin administration & dosage Insulin Infusion Systems Insulin, Regular, Pork Male Middle Aged 1987 5 11 1987 5 11 0 1 1987 5 11 0 0 ppublish 3299948

1987 Ugeskrift for laeger Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22213. [Increased working capacity in insulin-dependent diabetics treated with insulin pumps. A controlled study]. (Abstract)

English Abstract Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Oget arbejdskapacitet hos insulinkraevende diabetikere behandlet med insulinpumpe. En kontrolleret undersøgelse. Denmark Ugeskr Laeger 0141730 0041-5782 0 Insulin IM Adult Clinical Trials as Topic Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 drug therapy physiopathology Female Humans Insulin administration & dosage Insulin Infusion Systems Male Random Allocation Work Capacity Evaluation 1988 1 4 1988 1 4 0 1 1988 1 4 0 0 ppublish 3287712 (...) [Increased working capacity in insulin-dependent diabetics treated with insulin pumps. A controlled study]. 3287712 1988 07 06 2011 11 17 0041-5782 150 1 1988 Jan 04 Ugeskrift for laeger Ugeskr. Laeg. [Increased working capacity in insulin-dependent diabetics treated with insulin pumps. A controlled study]. 24-7 Thuesen L L Christiansen J S JS Sørensen K E KE Falstie-Jensen N F NF Christensen C K CK Hermansen K K Mogensen C E CE Schmitz A A Henningsen P P dan Clinical Trial Comparative Study

1988 Ugeskrift for laeger Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22214. Test for chlorpropamide-alcohol flush becomes positive after prolonged chlorpropamide treatment in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. (Abstract)

Test for chlorpropamide-alcohol flush becomes positive after prolonged chlorpropamide treatment in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. 6855871 1983 07 29 2013 11 21 0028-4793 309 2 1983 Jul 14 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Test for chlorpropamide-alcohol flush becomes positive after prolonged chlorpropamide treatment in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. 93-6 Fui S N SN Keen H H Jarrett J J Gossain V V Marsden P P eng Clinical Trial (...) Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 WTM2C3IL2X Chlorpropamide AIM IM Alcoholic Beverages Chlorpropamide administration & dosage pharmacology therapeutic use Diabetes Mellitus classification diagnosis genetics Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 diagnosis Diagnosis, Differential Face blood supply Humans Skin Temperature drug effects 1983 7 14 1983 7 14 0 1 1983 7 14 0 0 ppublish 6855871 10.1056/NEJM198307143090208

1983 The New England journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22215. Comparison of fixed-ratio versus variable-ratio regular and NPH semisynthetic human insulin in insulin-requiring diabetic patients. (Abstract)

split-mix regimens of animal insulin. Seventy-eight patients were enrolled, of whom 72 were evaluated for efficacy of the respective regimens. Although the baseline fasting serum glucose concentrations were significantly higher in the fixed-ratio group than in the control group, mean serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin values throughout the 12 weeks of experimental treatment were not significantly different between groups. The mean serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin values in the fixed (...) -ratio group also did not differ significantly from baseline; however, statistically significant increases were observed in the control group at weeks 4 and 8, but not at week 12. Total daily insulin dosages were comparable between the two groups, and body weight did not change significantly in either group. At the end of the study, the investigators judged 90% of the patients in the fixed-ratio group and 88% of the patients in the control group to be either improved or unchanged with respect

1989 Clinical therapeutics

22216. Effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative insulin resistance as evaluated by insulin clamp technique. (Abstract)

operation, and was significantly inhibited in group E on postoperative day 1. These results indicate that insulin resistance after elective abdominal surgery is due to a postreceptor deficit in glucose utilization, as indicated by the downward shift of the dose-response curves. This disturbance in glucose metabolism was reduced by epidural analgesia, the results being associated with inhibited catecholamine and cortisol responses. (...) Effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative insulin resistance as evaluated by insulin clamp technique. The influence of epidural neural blockade on postoperative insulin resistance was studied using the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique. Eighteen patients undergoing elective upper abdominal surgery of moderate severity were allocated to two groups: group G patients underwent operation under general anaesthesia, and postoperative pain was relieved by systemic administration of analgesia

1988 The British journal of surgery

22217. Requirement of MAP kinase for differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes, for insulin activation of p90 S6 kinase and for insulin or serum stimulation of DNA synthesis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Antisense EAS 1 elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin- and serum-stimulated DNA synthesis. Elimination of p42 MAP kinase by > 95% and p44 MAP kinase to levels undetected blocked the ability of serum in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts and insulin in 3T3 L1 adipocytes to stimulate DNA synthesis by 87-95%. The differentiation of 3T3 L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes was prevented by 1 microM antisense EAS 1. The corresponding sense, scrambled or sense plus antisense EAS 1 phosphorothioate oligonucleotides did (...) Requirement of MAP kinase for differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes, for insulin activation of p90 S6 kinase and for insulin or serum stimulation of DNA synthesis. A phosphorothioate-oligonucleotide-based antisense strategy for depleting MAP kinase was developed. The 17mer antisense probe, EAS 1, caused a potent and concentration-dependent decrease in the steady state expression of p42 and p44 MAP kinase in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes with submicromolar concentrations effective

1995 The EMBO journal

22218. A Thiazolidinedione Improves In Vivo Insulin Action on Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase in Insulin-Resistant Monkeys Full Text available with Trip Pro

improve insulin action on skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GS), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis, 4 insulin-resistant obese monkeys were given 1 mg/kg/day R-102380 p.o. for a 6-week period. Skeletal muscle GS activity and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) content were compared between pre-dosing and dosing periods before and during the maximal insulin-stimulation of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Compared to pre-dosing, insulin-stimulated GS activity and G6P content were increased (...) A Thiazolidinedione Improves In Vivo Insulin Action on Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase in Insulin-Resistant Monkeys Thiazolidinediones (TZD) have been shown to have anti-diabetic effects including the ability to decrease fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, increase insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and decrease hepatic glucose production, but the mechanisms of action are not well established. To determine whether a TZD (R-102380, Sankyo Company Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) could

2000 International journal of experimental diabetes research

22219. Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes in Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus) and Production of Collagen in Cultured Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. Influence of Insulin Full Text available with Trip Pro

) of sand rats, type I and type III collagen biosynthesis and insulin effects, at low dose, on these parameters were investigated. In all experimental conditions of cultured SMC study, The alpha chains of type I collagen were analysed by immunoblotting in media and cells. Metabolic radiolabelling and Immunochemical procedures revealed that, in diabetic state, synthetic SMC (SMCs) actively produce type I and III collagen which are synthesised in the cells and secreted in the medium; type I collagen (...) was predominant as compared with type III collagen. Diabetes enhanced the collagen synthesis. Low dose of Insulin added to the medium, during 48 h of incubation, induced a marked reduction in the synthesis of collagen types, especially type I collagen.

2001 International journal of experimental diabetes research

22220. Ligand-receptor interactions involved in the stimulation of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts by insulin-like growth factors and insulin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of DNA synthesis induced by IGF-1, MSA and insulin, in the presence of a synergizing mitogen, were similar. The dose-response curve for insulin was not parallel to those for IGF-1 and MSA; in particular, low concentrations of insulin induced a greater stimulation than expected on the basis of its potency in the inhibition or down-regulation of 125I-IGF-1 binding. 4. The preincubation of 125I-IGF-1 with Swiss 3T3 cells at 37 degrees C decreased its ability to bind to a second batch of cells (...) Ligand-receptor interactions involved in the stimulation of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts by insulin-like growth factors and insulin. 1. The binding of 125I-labelled insulin-like growth factor 1 (125I-IGF-1) to Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts was time- and concentration-dependent. Unlabelled IGF-1 had a slightly higher potency than multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA) in inhibiting the binding of 125I-IGF-1, and insulin gave a parallel inhibition curve at 300-1000-fold lower potency. Chemical cross

1988 Biochemical Journal

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