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Insight and Judgement

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82. The economic evaluation of early intervention with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha treatments in pediatric Crohn's disease

-Ellen Hogan, Mr. Austin Nam, Dr. Petros Pechlivanoglou, Dr. Peter Austin, Dr. Jan Barnsley and Dr. Eleanor Pullenayegum for their help and suggestions in tackling this project. Thanks also to Dr. David Naimark, Dr. Lusine Abrahamyan, Dr. Beate Sander, Dr. Walter Wodchis, Dr. Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Dr. Murray Krahn, Dr. Myla Moretti, and Ms. Kate Tsiplova for their insight. List of Abbreviations 5-ASA 5-aminosalicylic acid 6-MP 6-mercaptopurine ADA Adalimumab AZA Azathioprine CAD Canadian dollar (...) missing data did not inhibit a health state to be assessed, it was ignored. Where missing data required making assumptions such as in the assignment of peri-rectal scores for calculating the wPCDAI, a scoring scheme was devised to show how judgements were made when scoring was assigned. Where missing data was absent in the RISK-PROKIIDS data such as treatment dose information, clinical practice guidelines were used. A situation where surrogates for missing data could not be used, was if missing values

2019 SickKids Reports

83. School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion

, 2004), ethnicity (e.g., Hostetler & Fisher, 1997), initial levels of problem behaviour, self-control or size of the school (e.g., Harding, 2011) were all classified as a potentially having a high risk of bias. A further 22% (eight studies) did not report enough data for judgement (i.e., unclear risk) and around half (49%) of the studies were assessed as presenting a low risk of bias. Addressing incomplete outcome data The fact that our included studies pursued more than one measure across time (...) a high risk of selective outcome reporting (e.g., Panayiotopoulos & Kerfoot, 2004; Russell, 2007). In the case of thesis or trials without published protocols, the assessment was 67 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org only based on discrepancies between outcomes proposed and reported in those documents 31 . Thirty-two studies (86%) displayed a low risk of bias and only 3% did not report enough data for judgement. Summary Overall, our assessment demonstrates that a high number

2018 Campbell Collaboration

85. What is the evidence on the methods, frameworks and indicators used to evaluate health literacy policies, programmes and interventions at the regional, national and organizational levels?

are the responsibility of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Regional Office.viii SUMMARY The issue Health literacy can be defined as the capacity of individuals, families and communities to access, understand, appraise and apply health information in order to make judgements and take decisions in everyday life concerning health care, disease prevention and health promotion in order to maintain or improve their quality of life. It is considered to be a social determinant (...) literacy is linked to literacy and entails people’s knowledge, motivation and competences to access, understand, appraise and apply health information in order to make judgements and take decisions in everyday life concerning health care, disease prevention and health promotion to maintain or improve quality of life during the life course. Health literacy: the solid facts outlined a whole-of-society, multisectoral approach that addressed health literacy across the whole life-course and included

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

86. BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma

are determined on the basis of all clinical data available for an individual case and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and patterns of care evolve. Adherence to guideline recommendations will not ensure a successful outcome in every case, nor should they be construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding other acceptable methods of care aimed at the same results. The ultimate judgement must be made by the appropriate healthcare professional(s) responsible (...) for clinical decisions regarding a particular clinical procedure or treatment plan. This judgement should only be arrived at through a process of shared decision making with the patient, covering the diagnostic and treatment choices available. It is advised, however, that significant departures from the national guideline or any local guidelines derived from it should be fully documented in the patient’s medical records at the time the relevant decision is taken. 1.3.1 Influence of financial and other

2019 British Thoracic Society

88. Principles and guidance for interpretive external quality assessment schemes in laboratory medicine

wish to obtain RCPath approval for their schemes 16 Appendix: Background and purpose of interpretive EQA 17 The history of evaluating the quality of responses 18 History of the governance of interpretive EQA schemes 19 Prof 131017 3 V1 1 Scope of this guidance This guidance relates only to external quality assessment (EQA) schemes where the participant is an individual pathologist, not a whole department, and where the participant is expected to make a professional judgement about the meaning (...) or significance of the material circulated, rather than making a measurement. Compliance with this guidance is a requirement for any such scheme that wishes to obtain approval from the RCPath Interpretive EQA Steering Committee as a scheme suitable to provide input to medical appraisal and revalidation. Schemes currently exist which ask for professional judgement from a laboratory rather than from an identifiable individual; or where no attempt is made to feed back an objective report on personal performance

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

90. Evaluation of the Glasgow Lone Parent Project: final report

was ensuring the priorities and direction of the project was driven by lone parents, thus funding a Lone Parent Advisor and establishing a lone parent advisory group. A key characteristic of the advisory group was the non-judgemental, comfortable, informal and supportive environment created by the Lone Parent Advisor, as was basing the Advisor within an established third sector organisation for the target group, partly as it provided continuity for lone parents involved with the project. Barriers (...) of experience highlights new issues and new connections: holistic support; risk of income and time poverty; and working hours. This helped to ensure that policy was both grounded in 21 their realities, that parents trusted these policy/services which made sense to them, while also instilling a sense of ownership and information that could increase uptake of services. As such, the lone parent advisory group generated new insights into the impact of current policies. Equipped with factual knowledge

2018 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

91. Appropriate care at the end of life

all studies, we consistently referred to end of life (care) with ‘(zorg in de) laatste levensfase’ and ‘(soins en) fin de vie’ in Dutch and French, respectively. 2.2 Belgian literature review 2.2.1 Orientation of the study Though the Netherlands and Belgium are neighbouring countries, strong societal differences exist. We therefore found it recommended to conduct an additional literature review that specifically focused on the Belgian situation. Concretely, we aimed to inventory ‘Belgian’ insights

2018 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

92. Homelessness at Transition

among young people leaving juvenile justice 50 Effectiveness of interventions to prevent homelessness and sustain housing among young people leaving juvenile justice 50 Other potential models 53 People leaving prison 56 Risk factors for homelessness among people leaving prison 57 Effectiveness of interventions to prevent homelessness and sustain housing among people leaving prison 61 Australian program evaluations 64 Additional insights into pre-prison release planning 65 People leaving hospital 69 (...) : inadequate housing for needs or delays in transfer to more suitable housing; safety concerns within the household or neighbourhood; and financial difficulties in part due to tenancies being established with debt. • Chronic homelessness may influence tenancy sustainment via social isolation. • Substance use and other mental health problems, including hoarding and squalor, were mentioned in a few studies but the evidence regarding these factors is equivocal. • Few insights were available about risk factors

2017 Sax Institute Evidence Check

93. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Detecting Brain Hematoma

. Unfortunately, studies of NIRS to date have almost exclusively focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of the device and its diagnostic accuracy in series of patients who are referred for a CT scan. These studies therefore provide little insight on how use of NIRS impacts clinical decision-making, patient outcomes, and healthcare utilization. Moreover, it is unknown how NIRS performs in older nursing home patients with mild injury after falls because this type of use has not been studied. Only (...) of 7.7% in the text, but Figure 2 supports a lower rate of 3.96%. We contacted the authors for clarification, but they did not respond by the publication date of this report. Evidence Brief: Spectroscopy for Brain Hematoma Evidence-based Synthesis Program 5 suspicion for a hematoma is low to provide reassurance to patients and clinicians that a hematoma is not present and thereby prevent unnecessary ED visits and CTs. NIRS has not been intended to be used as a substitute for clinical judgement

2017 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

95. A Guideline for the Clinical Management of Opioid Use Disorder

to be significant gender-related differences in treatment outcomes for buprenorphine/nal- oxone compared to methadone. 92,93 Further research is needed since few studies have examined gender-based outcomes; 22 however, forthcoming systematic reviews may provide further insights in this area. 94 Care providers with gender-specific concerns, including the care of pregnant women with opioid use disorder, should consult with provincial specialist resources at BC Women’s Hospital or call the Rapid Access

2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

96. Theory based evaluation of long term conditions and MacMillan benefit advice service in Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow

to help inform decision makers as to whether to further fund the service. Evaluation involves making a judgement as to how successful (or otherwise) a project has been, with success commonly being measured as the extent to which the project has met its original objectives. Both the “process” (activities) and “outcomes” (what is produced, for example in terms of changes in the health of those targeted by the project) can be ... evaluated.’ World Health Organization (2014) 10 . There are many types (...) Health Board), which limited some of the comparisons. TR and AJW carried out the analyses. They carried out descriptive explorations of the data initially and then, where appropriate, extend to statistical modeling (single and multivariable regression models). It was not possible to answer all the evaluation questions through analysis of quantitative data. Some of the key findings and insights can come from qualitative interviews. METHODS Page 10Figure 1. Logic Model and Theory of Change

2017 Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research & Policy

97. The effectiveness and efficiency of cash-based approaches in emergencies

offers some insights, the paucity of rigorous research on cash-based approaches limits the strength of the conclusions. This is not uncommon among topics related to humanitarian assistance. The following table summarizes the types of studies reviewed in each section of this report: Review Topic Studies Reviewed Study Characteristics Effects of cash-based approaches on: • Individual and household-level economic outcomes • Sector-specific humanitarian outcomes • Cross-cutting humanitarian outcomes 5

2017 Campbell Collaboration

98. Later school start times for supporting the education, health and well-being of high school students

: Characteristics of included studies 70 Table 2: Characteristics of excluded studies 84 Table 3: Characteristics of studies awaiting classification 86 Table 4: Characteristics of ongoing studies 87 Table 5: Summary of Findings table for Early vs delayed school start 87 Figure 1: Flowchart 89 Figure 2: Risk of bias summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study 90 Figure 3: Early school start vs late school start, outcome: 1.1 School-night sleep duration (Analysis 1.1

2017 Campbell Collaboration

100. ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats

of their importance, ideally using additional quantitative analyses. A sensitivity analysis may be performed to assess the impact of the assumptions on the results [11]. The process itself may be lengthy and requires time and effort, but provides useful insights thanks to the discovered data and the input from the disease experts. Best practice recommendation: ? Ensure that the impact of the risk-ranking results is evaluated. ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats – Handbook and manual (...) , for example, a consideration of key emerging threats is incomplete without also considering societal and public health vulnerabilities, coping capacities, and social factors which could either mitigate or exacerbate the impacts of a given outbreak. Second, it must be stressed that soliciting expert judgement is best suited where there is incomplete scientific evidence. There are many uncertainties inherent to a risk ranking exercise, and the representativeness of all experts needs to be accounted

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

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