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Insight and Judgement

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701. Inherited Reproductive Disorders

. In addition, there is significant clinical heterogeneity among affected individuals, including members of the same family harboring the same mutations. Careful human phenotyping of such patients and families has expanded our understanding of this spectrum of disorders to include oligo-digenic inheritence, as well as reversibility of the condition, and has provided insight into developmental pathways involved in the ontogeny of GnRH neurons. Genetic analysis of subjects with unknown mutations is likely (...) to yield important insights into additional pathways involved in the regulation of GnRH secretion. Here, we propose a genetic investigation of subjects with IHH to characterize further the phenotypic effect of previously described genetic variants, as well as to identify novel genes involved in congenital GnRH deficiency. In collaboration with the Reproductive Endocrine Unit at the Massachusetts General Hospital, we will use both candidate gene and whole exome approaches, as well as linkage analysis

2011 Clinical Trials

702. Improving guideline adherence for cardiac rehabilitation in the Netherlands Full Text available with Trip Pro

recommendations. Third, a guideline development group decided which revisions were finally included, also taking practical considerations into account.A total of nine items were revised: three because of new scientific insights and six because of the need for more objective measurement instruments. In all revised items, subjective assessment methods were replaced by more objective assessment tools (e.g. symptom-limited exercise instead of clinical judgement). In addition, four new key items were added

2011 Netherlands Heart Journal

703. Causality Assessment Methods In Drug Induced Liver Injury: Strengths And Weaknesses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Causality Assessment Methods In Drug Induced Liver Injury: Strengths And Weaknesses. Diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a challenge and eagerly awaits the development of reliable hepatotoxicity biomarkers. Several methods have been developed in order to facilitate hepatotoxicity causality assessments. These methods can be divided into three categories: (1) expert judgement, (2) probabilistic approaches, and (3) algorithms or scales. The last category is further divided (...) of adjustments are needed. This review is a detailed timely criticism to alert the readers of the limitations and give insight into what would be needed to improve the scale. Instructions on how to approach DILI diagnosis in practice are provided, using CIOMS as an aid to emphasize the topics to be addressed when assessing DILI cases. Amendments of the CIOMS scale in the form of applying authoritative evidence-based criteria, a simplified scoring system and appropriate weighting given to individual

2011 Journal of Hepatology

704. Parcellating the neuroanatomical basis of impaired decision-making in traumatic brain injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of injury to this system may include impaired decision-making and impulsivity. We used the Cambridge Gambling Task to characterize decision-making and risk-taking behaviour, outside of a learning context, in a cohort of 44 patients at least six months post-traumatic brain injury. These patients were found to have broadly intact processing of risk adjustment and probability judgement, and to bet similar amounts to controls. However, a patient preference for consistently early bets indicated a higher (...) imaging abnormalities in areas not implicated in their performance. The ability to dissociate the location and extent of damage with performance on the various task components using diffusion tensor imaging allows important insights into the neuroanatomical basis of impulsivity following traumatic brain injury. The ability to detect such damage in vivo may have important implications for patient management, patient selection for trials, and to help understand complex neurocognitive pathways.

2011 Brain

705. Magnetoencephalography of frontotemporal dementia: spatiotemporally localized changes during semantic decisions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Magnetoencephalography of frontotemporal dementia: spatiotemporally localized changes during semantic decisions. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with dysfunction and atrophy of the frontal lobes leading to changes in personality, behaviour, empathy, social conduct and insight, with relative preservation of language and memory. As novel treatments begin to emerge, biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia will become increasingly important, including (...) functionally relevant neuroimaging indices of the neurophysiological basis of cognition. We used magnetoencephalography to examine behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia using a semantic decision task that elicits both frontal and temporal activity in healthy people. Twelve patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (age 50-75) and 16 matched controls made categorical semantic judgements about 400 pictures during continuous magnetoencephalography. Distributed source analysis was used

2011 Brain

706. Capnography Library

Description Go to Brief Summary: Capgnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the expired respiratory gases; as such, it is a non-invasive monitoring technique which allows fast and reliable insight into ventilation, circulation and metabolism. Capnography has proven to be more effective than clinical judgement alone in the early detection of adverse respiratory events. The shape of a capnogram is identical in all humans with healthy lungs; any deviations

2011 Clinical Trials

707. Placebo

is the difference between that response, and no treatment. It is also part of the recorded response to any active medical intervention. Any measurable placebo effect is termed either objective (e.g. lowered ) or subjective (e.g. a lowered perception of pain). Effects [ ] Placebos have no meaningful therapeutic worth. They have no effect on , and can only affect some people's subjective judgement of their symptoms. Sometimes they can make people feel better, and sometimes worse – in which case they are termed (...) . : . . Diederich NJ, Goetz CG (August 2008). "The placebo treatments in neurosciences: New insights from clinical and neuroimaging studies". Neurology . 71 (9): 677–84. : . . Ader R, Cohen N (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosomatic Medicine . 37 (4): 333–40. : . . ^ Pacheco-López G, Engler H, Niemi MB, Schedlowski M (September 2006). "Expectations and associations that heal: Immunomodulatory placebo effects and its neurobiology". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity . 20 (5): 430–46

2012 Wikipedia

708. African trypanosomiasis

, but not unequally nor snort. Young people are more subject to it than the old; and the Judgement generally pronounced is Death, the Prognostik seldom failing. If now and then one of them recovers, he certainly loses the little Reason he had, and turns Ideot..." In 1901, a devastating epidemic erupted in , killing more than 250,000 people, including about two-thirds of the population in the affected lakeshore areas. According to The Cambridge History of Africa , "It has been estimated that up to half the people (...) of the vectors is being studied as a method of controlling the disease. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is unable to survive in the bloodstream without its . This insight gives researchers a new angle with which to attack the parasite. are undergoing research. Additionally, the Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative has contributed to the African sleeping sickness research effort by developing a compound called . This project was originally started in April 2007 and is currently in a pivotal study

2012 Wikipedia

709. Henry Head

to time so that they could comment on each other's experiences, thoughts and reading. The one failing of their marriage was that it remained childless. Head adored children, as can be seen in his poems and his poetry also gives considerable insight into Head's great desire for a child of his own. In his poem , for example, he takes on the perspective of a woman yearning for 'the fierce joy of motherhood' and presents a sympathetic view of her plight. Head's deeply personal poems also could be said (...) in integrating impulses of a different nature and from the various sense organs. Throughout the many arduous and time consuming experiments of this period, Head is described as maintaining his energy and enthusiasm with his vivid imagination suggesting new lines of thought for every problem. Head also recognised that his enthusiasm could sometimes limit his judgement so he always consulted a multitude of peers when conducting a new experiment. Beginning by examining patients in whom nerves had been divided

2012 Wikipedia

710. Thrombophilia Full Text available with Trip Pro

disease that underlies and other forms of cardiovascular disease. Diagnosis [ ] A mutation of coagulation factor V (schematic representation drawn here) is much more common in people with thrombosis than in those without, but is only regarded as a weak risk factor. Tests for thrombophilia include (with examination of the ), , , , and , , , , activated protein C resistance, tests, and mutation, and basal levels. Testing may be more or less extensive depending on clinical judgement and abnormalities (...) Associated with Thrombophilia" C. Yapijakis, Z. Serefoglou, C. Voumvourakis, Chapter in book "Thrombosis, Atherosclerosis and Atherothrombosis - New Insights and Experimental Protocols", 2015, ^ (September 2013), , : an initiative of the , , retrieved 10 December 2013 , which cites Chong, L. -Y.; Fenu, E.; Stansby, G.; Hodgkinson, S.; Guideline Development, G. (2012). "Management of venous thromboembolic diseases and the role of thrombophilia testing: Summary of NICE guidance". BMJ . 344 : e3979

2012 Wikipedia

711. Traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

for endocrinologic work up. Signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism may develop and be screened for in adults with moderate TBI and in mild TBI with imaging abnormalities. Children with moderate to severe head injury may also develop hypopituitarism. Screening should take place 3 to 6 months, and 12 months after injury, but problems may occur more remotely. Cognitive deficits that can follow TBI include impaired attention; disrupted insight, judgement, and thought; reduced processing speed; distractibility

2012 Wikipedia

712. Dementia

, they may begin to get lost often), reasoning, judgment, and insight. Insight refers to whether or not the person realizes they have memory problems. Common early symptoms of Alzheimer's include repetition, getting lost, difficulties keeping track of bills, problems with cooking especially new or complicated meals, forgetting to take medication, and word-finding problems. The part of the brain most affected by Alzheimer's is the . Other parts of the brain that show shrinking (atrophy) include (...) of DLB is straightforward and unless it is complicated, a brain scan is not always necessary. Frontotemporal dementia [ ] (FTDs) are characterized by drastic personality changes and language difficulties. In all FTDs, the person has a relatively early social withdrawal and early lack of insight into the disorder. Memory problems are not a main feature of this disorder. There are six main types of FTD. The first has major symptoms in the area of personality and behavior. This is called behavioral

2012 Wikipedia

713. Complications of traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

, including the loss of many higher-level mental skills. Cognitive deficits that can follow TBI include impaired attention; disrupted insight, judgement, and thought; reduced processing speed; distractibility; and deficits in executive functions such as abstract reasoning, planning, problem-solving, and multitasking. , the most common cognitive impairment among head-injured people, occurs in 20–79% of people with closed head trauma, depending on severity. (PTA), a confusional state with impaired memory

2012 Wikipedia

714. Psychoactive drug

by the use of drugs. We do not mean the purely physical craving...That of which we speak is something much higher, namely the knowledge of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, and to catch a glimpse of deeper insights and more magnificent visions of the beauty, truth, and the divine than we are normally able to spy through the cracks in our prison cell. But there are not many drugs which have the power of stilling such craving. The entire catalog, at least to the extent (...) drugs as a treatment for illness is widespread and generally accepted. Little controversy exists concerning psychoactive medications in and . Psychoactive drugs are commonly prescribed to patients with psychiatric disorders. However, certain critics believe that certain prescription psychoactives, such as and , are overprescribed and threaten patients' judgement and autonomy. Highly known psychoactive drugs [ ] This is a list of very well known drugs that are psychoactive. They are both legal

2012 Wikipedia

715. Mental status examination Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the clinical process in practice. It is a structured way of observing and describing a 's psychological functioning at a given point in time, under the domains of appearance, , behavior, mood, and affect, speech, , thought content, , , insight, and . There are some minor variations in the subdivision of the MSE and the sequence and names of MSE domains. The purpose of the MSE is to obtain a comprehensive cross-sectional description of the patient's mental state, which, when combined with the biographical (...) skill of qualified (mental) health personnel. It is a key part of the initial psychiatric assessment in an or setting. It is a systematic collection of data based on observation of the patient's behavior while the patient is in the clinician's view during the interview. The purpose is to obtain evidence of symptoms and signs of mental disorders, including danger to self and others, that are present at the time of the interview. Further, information on the patient's insight, judgment, and capacity

2012 Wikipedia

716. Rorschach test

. However currently, another major determinant considered is shading , which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing quality of the inkblots. Rorschach initially disregarded shading, since the inkblots originally featured uniform saturation, but later recognized it as a significant factor. Form is the most common determinant, and is related to intellectual processes. Color responses often provide direct insight into one's emotional life. Movement and shading have been considered more ambiguously (...) which are supposedly meaningless. Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes, but it is not clear how this occurs. Also, recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless, and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots. (1985) describes the blots as merely ".. the vehicle for the interaction .." between client

2012 Wikipedia

717. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods.The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness (...) provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

2010 BMC Public Health

718. Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female's own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively

2010 Communicative & integrative biology

719. Professional autonomy in 21st century healthcare: Nurses' accounts of clinical decision-making. Full Text available with Trip Pro

reports on a focus group study of UK nurses participating in post-qualifying professional development in 2008. Three groups of nurses in different specialist areas comprised a total of 26 participants. The study uses accounts of decision-making to gain insight into contemporary professional nursing. The study also aims to explore the usefulness of a theory of professional work set out by Jamous and Peloille (1970). The analysis draws on notions of interpretive repertoires and elements of narrative (...) analysis. We identified two interpretive repertoires: 'clinical judgement' which was used to describe the different grounds for making judgements; and 'decision-making' which was used to describe organisational circumstances influencing decision-making. Jamous and Peloille's theory proved useful for interpreting instances where the nurses collectively withdrew from the potential dangers of too extreme claims for technicality or indeterminacy in their work. However, their theory did not explain the full

2010 Social Science & Medicine

720. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Fixed Dose Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Orvepitant in Subjects With Major Depressive Disorder

of weight and 17: insight) that are ranked on a scale of 0 to 4 or 0 to 2 (4 and 2: highly severe and 0: not present). The HAM-D total score is calculated by summing individual response scores on the HAM-D questionnaire. The highest possible score is 52, representing most severe measure of depression; lowest possible score is 0, representing no depression. Baseline was Day 1. Change from Baseline was calculated by subtracting Baseline values from post-Baseline values. Secondary Outcome Measures (...) Factor Score (Sum of Items 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 17) [ Time Frame: Baseline (Day 1) to Week 6 ] The HAMD anxiety factor score includes 6 items/questions (item 10: anxiety psychic, item 11: anxiety somatic, item 12: somatic symptoms gastrointestinal, item 13: somatic symptoms general, item 15: hypochondriasis and item 17: insight). The items are rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (items 10, 11 and 15) or 0 to 2 (items 12, 13 and 17), higher scores reflecting greater severity. The highest possible score is 18

2009 Clinical Trials

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