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Insight and Judgement

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21. Neural basis of altered physical and social causality judgements in schizophrenia. (Abstract)

judgements than control subjects, and their judgements were less influenced by motion attributes (angle/time delay). In the patients group, fMRI revealed greater BOLD-responses, during both physical and social causality judgements (group×task interaction), in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L.IFG). Across conditions (main effect), L.IFG-interconnectivity with bilateral occipital cortex was reduced in the patient group. This study provides the first insight into the neural correlates of altered causal (...) Neural basis of altered physical and social causality judgements in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) often make aberrant cause and effect inferences in non-social and social situations. Likewise, patients may perceive cause-and-effect relationships abnormally as a result of an alteration in the physiology of perception. The neural basis for dysfunctions in causality judgements in the context of both physical motion and social motion is unknown. The current study used functional

2014 Schizophrenia Research

22. Children's perception of frontal smile aesthetics and its influence on social judgement: a systematic review

Children's perception of frontal smile aesthetics and its influence on social judgement: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation (...) -Bonferroni correction for testing multiple subgroup analyses will be performed. If one or more subgroup analyses cannot be performed due to insufficient data, the p-value will be adjusted accordingly. ">Other Subgroup analysis or meta-regression are used to explore between-study heterogeneity and can provide insight into the relationship between study characteristics (e.g. species, sex or drug class or dose) and effect size. They should be considered hypothesis-generating. Ideally, a threshold describing

2015 PROSPERO

23. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff. (Full text)

When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff. Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies.Community pharmacies in England and Wales.24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed (...) . Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep

2016 BMJ open PubMed abstract

24. Cognitive insight in first-episode schizophrenia: Further evidence for a role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. (Abstract)

with a unique object/location, and later completed source memory judgements during fMRI scanning. Self-Reflectiveness, measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, was significantly and positively correlated to activation in bilateral VLPFC in FES, but not in controls, providing further evidence that the VLPFC supports Self-Reflectiveness in FES. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (...) Cognitive insight in first-episode schizophrenia: Further evidence for a role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In people with psychoses, Self-Reflectiveness may rely on the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a novel virtual reality paradigm to evaluate the role of the VLPFC for Self-Reflectiveness in 25 first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) participants and 24 controls. Participants first viewed 20 characters each paired

2015 Schizophrenia Research

25. How the stigma of low literacy can impair patient-professional spoken interactions and affect health: insights from a qualitative investigation. (Full text)

How the stigma of low literacy can impair patient-professional spoken interactions and affect health: insights from a qualitative investigation. Low literacy is a significant problem across the developed world. A considerable body of research has reported associations between low literacy and less appropriate access to healthcare services, lower likelihood of self-managing health conditions well, and poorer health outcomes. There is a need to explore the previously neglected perspectives (...) requirements of service use and health professionals need to offer non-judgemental (universal) literacy-sensitive support to promote positive healthcare experiences and outcomes.

2013 BMC Health Services Research PubMed abstract

26. Obinutuzumab with bendamustine for treating follicular lymphoma after rituximab

careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this guidance are at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual (...) prognosis compared with the trial population. It also accepted that the immaturity of the SACT data made it difficult to make Obinutuzumab with bendamustine for treating follicular lymphoma after rituximab (TA629) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 8 of 15meaningful comparisons. The committee concluded that the SACT data provide a useful insight into the use of obinutuzumab with bendamustine in clinical

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

27. Cerebral palsy in adults

Cerebral palsy in adults Cerebr Cerebral palsy in adults al palsy in adults NICE guideline Published: 15 January 2019 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng119 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

28. Decision-making and mental capacity

their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian. Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have (...) the specific decision in question, and for the period of time necessary to make the decision. 1.4.24 Practitioners should be aware that a person may have decision-making capacity even if they are described as lacking 'insight' into their condition. Capacity and insight are 2 distinct concepts. If a practitioner believes a person's insight/lack of insight is relevant to their assessment of the person's capacity, they must clearly record what they mean by insight/lack of insight in this context and how

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

29. Physical activity and the environment

their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian. Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have (...) or facilitators to physical activity among these groups, and they agreed with it. Likewise, the reviews did not provide any insight into identifying and addressing the needs of different groups, but expert testimony identified the importance of engaging with communities [Expert papers 1, 2, 6 and 9]. This is consistent with existing NICE guidance on community engagement. Benefits and harms of str Benefits and harms of strategies, policies and plans to increase ph ategies, policies and plans to increase

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

32. Enzalutamide for hormone-relapsed non-metastatic prostate cancer

the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this guidance are at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate (...) The committee discussed whether the relative effectiveness of enzalutamide at later points in the treatment pathway could provide insight into its survival benefit in the hormone-relapsed non-metastatic setting. In this setting (see section 3.8), the hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.83 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.06). This compared with hazard ratios later in the treatment pathway (that is, for hormone-relapsed metastatic disease) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.88) in the pre- chemotherapy setting and 0.62 (95% CI

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

33. Navigating later life transitions: An evaluation of emotional and psychological interventions

the course (baseline) and at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after the courses. The questionnaires included bespoke questions and validated tools to provide insights on the key psychosocial outcomes of: – Self-kindness; – Wellbeing; – Attitudes to retirement; – Quality of social relationships; – Acceptance of change; – Self-judgement; – Attitudes to ageing; – Job involvement. l At each data collection timepoint, participants were asked about how clear they now were about their future goals as regards (...) to others, how would you describe yourself? personality cards exercise this exercise, based on the myers briggs t ype indicator (mbti), gives an insight into your predominant personality type, which are divided into 16 different ones identifying our predominant personality type can help us to understand: What motivates us, what stresses us and how we can support ourselves to be the best we can be. identifying individual drivers individual, complete the drivers questionnaire to look at what drives you

2020 The Centre for Ageing Better

34. What is the current evidence for the efficacy of drug consumption rooms?

counselling support and referrals to external services (5). The success of Insight may be due largely to the fact that it is situated in an area with a high density of PWUD, 'estimated at nearly 5000 people within a few square kilometres' and it has been noted that for dispersed populations, mobile sites or smaller, multiple facilities may be more cost-effective (6) (p228). There will be references to Insite throughout this briefing because the research into the effectiveness of the facility enabled (...) care services People who use drugs are more likely to rely on acute and emergency care. This is due to less knowledge of how to access services, ability to afford healthcare, long wait times at medical facilities, and the amount of time spent acquiring and consuming drugs (5). Qualitative interviews with users of Insite showed that the facility had provided easier access to health and social care services for PWUD because it combines non- judgemental, integrated care. Aspects of this that were

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

35. What approaches to performance management and performance appraisal in the workplace are effective for improving organisation outcomes or staff attitudes to the process?

Business Elite, Proquest Chadwick Healy, Emerald Insight, Ingenta journals: Economics and Business, SAGE journals, HMIC, Taylor Francis online: Economics, Finance, Business & Industry, Springer Link: Business and Management, Google from Jan 1st 2014 to Nov 12 th 2019 26 highly relevant citations were used to produce this evidence briefing. Evidence briefings are a summary of the best available evidence that has been selected from research using a systematic and transparent method in order to answer (...) performance among employees and holding people to account (2). Performance appraisal (PA) is one part of PM and often consists of setting performance ratings that are applied to employees, judging employees against the ratings and feeding back the judgement to the employee (2). The terms PM and PA are often used interchangeably in the literature (3), so this briefing includes both the traditionally narrower practices of PA as well as discussing the broader activities considered to be part of PM. Companies

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

36. NEWS (or NEWS2) score when assessing possible COVID-19 patients in primary care?

focused research on the use of NEWS2 scores in primary care.[32] At that time, RCGP Council recommended NEWS2 scoring in combination with clinical judgement for the assessment of illness severity and to support decisions to refer (or not) to hospital. In addition, they recommend its use as a communication tool between GPs, ambulance services and secondary care, highlighting its potential value in assessing deterioration over time. Whilst the RCGP now cautiously recommends the use of NEWS2, it does (...) not recommend it as a substitute for clinical judgement. In its latest statement, for example, the College points out: “GPs have always had to make challenging and complex decisions in a short time; should a patient be reassured, reviewed or referred? By using NEWS2 alongside clinical judgment, subtle changes in physiology may become apparent.” [31] THEORETICAL CONCERNS RELEVANT TO USE OF NEWS/NEWS2 IN THE PRIMARY CARE MANAGEMENT OF COVID-19 PATIENTS Even in the secondary care environment for which

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

37. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: Current evidence for their effectiveness in treating COVID-19

, 28). In a letter to the editor, Risambaf et al (27) raise concerns about reports of COVID-19 causing liver and renal impairment, which may increase the risk of toxicity of CQ/HCQ when it is used to treat COVID-19. CHLOROQUINE | Drug | HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE SULFATE | Drug | Disclaimer: the article has not been peer-reviewed; it should not replace individual clinical judgement and the sources cited should be checked. The views expressed in this commentary represent the views of the authors (...) . Nature, pp.1-4. 17) Wang, P.H., 2020. Increasing Host Cellular Receptor—Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Expression by Coronavirus may Facilitate 2019-nCoV Infection. bioRxiv. 18) Devaux, C.A., Rolain, J.M., Colson, P. and Raoult, D., 2020. New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, p.105938. 19) Savarino, A., Boelaert, J.R., Cassone, A., Majori, G. and Cauda, R., 2003. Effects

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

38. COVID-19: Good Practice for Surgeons and Surgical Teams

units will have to make complex decisions very quickly. Our aim is not to be overly prescriptive, but to make broad recommendations which can be adapted to support individual circumstances based on surgeons’ and teams’ professional judgement. OUR RECOMMENDATIONS ARE STRUCTURED AROUND FOUR AREAS: • Adapting surgical services » Triage of non-emergency surgery » Clinical networks » Rotas » Virtual outpatient clinics • Working in an extended scope of practice » Working beyond one’s regular scope (...) and reducing avoidable deaths will always be critical. In some cases, surgical intervention will be appropriate for critically ill and high risk patients. There will, however, be cases where surgical intervention will not increase the quantity or improve the quality of life of the patient. Surgeons should use their professional judgement in these circumstances and be cognisant of the College values as set out in Good Surgical Practice. Judging whether an intervention will be of little or no benefit

2020 Royal College of Surgeons of England

40. What is the evidence for the prone position in patients with COVID-19?

syndrome has suggested that alternating supine and prone positioning was associated with increased lung recruitability ? Commentaries from the Lancet, JAMA insights and Anaesthesiology suggest the use of the prone position for COVID-19 patients Background Guidelines for adult patients with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) strongly recommend using prone over supine position. (1, 2) This review aims to synthesise the evidence available on the prone position in patients with COVID (...) . Specific recommendations include that; Rapid evidence checks are based on a simplified review method and may not be entirely exhaustive, but aim to provide a balanced assessment of what is already known about a specific problem or issue. This brief has not been peer-reviewed and should not be a substitute for individual clinical judgement, nor is it an endorsed position of NSW Health. COVID-19 Critical Intelligence Unit 28 March 2020 Rapid evidence checks are based on a simplified review method and may

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

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