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Infectious Diarrhea Causes

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1. Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea

of specimen. For identification of viral and protozoal agents, and C. difficile toxin, fresh stool is preferred (weak, low). VIII. What is the clinical relevance of fecal leukocytes or lactoferrin or calprotectin in a person with acute diarrhea? Recommendation 20. Fecal leukocyte examination and stool lactoferrin detection should not be used to establish the cause of acute infectious diarrhea (strong, moderate). There are insufficient data available to make a recommendation on the value of fecal (...) Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic Search Account Menu Menu Navbar Search Filter Mobile Microsite

2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America

2. AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Laboratory Evaluation of Functional Diarrhea and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults (IBS-D) Full Text available with Trip Pro

presenting with chronic diarrhea, the AGA recommends testing for Giardia . Strong recommendation: high-quality evidence. Comments: Use of a Giardia antigen test or polymerase chain reaction for Giardia test is recommended. Throughout the United States, Giardia is a common cause of watery diarrhea that can be readily treated. Modern diagnostic tests for Giardia have excellent performance characteristics, with many studies demonstrating sensitivity and specificity of >95%. The best available tests utilize (...) . In the absence of travel or immigration from high-risk areas, the practice of routinely testing the stool for ova and parasites is highly unlikely to identify important causes of chronic watery diarrhea. Guidance on testing and treating diarrhea among those who have been in a high-risk area can come from several sources. x 5 Traveler’s Health. Travelers’ diarrhea. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. ( Available at: ) . , x 6 Riddle, M.S., Connor, B.A., Beeching, N.J. et al. Guidelines

2019 American Gastroenterological Association Institute

3. Infectious Diarrhea Causes

Infectious Diarrhea Causes Infectious Diarrhea Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Infectious Diarrhea Causes (...) Infectious Diarrhea Causes Aka: Infectious Diarrhea Causes From Related Chapters II. Causes: Bacteria Toxigenic (Enterotoxin binds : secretory, account for 80% of ) ( ) Most common in the returning traveler Contaminated water ingestion is the classic, historical example (shellfish ingestion can also occur) Associated with rice-water stools, severe dehydration, Ingestion of well or spring water (esp. in young children or immunocompromised patients) Most common , rapid onset within hours (esp. eggs

2018 FP Notebook

4. Infectious diarrhea in autologous stem cell transplantation: high prevalence of coccidia in a South American center Full Text available with Trip Pro

Infectious diarrhea in autologous stem cell transplantation: high prevalence of coccidia in a South American center Diarrhea is frequently seen in autologous stem cell transplantation. Although toxicity related to conditioning is the most common cause, infectious pathogens can play a distinctive role particularly in certain regions and environments.The role of enteropathogens was investigated in 47 patients submitted to autologous stem cell transplantation at a Brazilian center between May 2011 (...) ) and those who received conditioning with lomustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (p-value = 0.083). Furthermore, the number of days of neutropenia was higher in patients with diarrhea (p-value = 0.06).The high frequency of diarrhea caused by coccidia shows the importance of investigating and correctly identifying etiological agents and highlights the possible varieties of intestinal infections in patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation.

2018 Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy

5. Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting (...) diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.

2018 Journal of veterinary science

6. Time Series Analysis of the Microbiota of Children Suffering From Acute Infectious Diarrhea and Their Recovery After Treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Time Series Analysis of the Microbiota of Children Suffering From Acute Infectious Diarrhea and Their Recovery After Treatment Gut microbiota is closely related to acute infectious diarrhea, one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Understanding the dynamics of the recovery from this disease is of clinical interest. This work aims to correlate the dynamics of gut microbiota with the evolution of children who were suffering from acute infectious diarrhea caused (...) by a rotavirus, and their recovery after the administration of a probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745. The experiment involved 10 children with acute infectious diarrhea caused by a rotavirus, and six healthy children, all aged between 3 and 4 years. The children who suffered the rotavirus infection received S. boulardii CNCM I-745 twice daily for the first 5 days of the experiment. Fecal samples were collected from each participant at 0, 3, 5, 10, and 30 days after probiotic administration

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

7. Long-Term Gastrointestinal Consequences are Frequent Following Sporadic Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Tropical Country: A Prospective Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Long-Term Gastrointestinal Consequences are Frequent Following Sporadic Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Tropical Country: A Prospective Cohort Study. Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) and functional dyspepsia (PI-FD), though reported from the temperate countries, have not been studied in the tropics; PI-malabsorption syndrome (MAS), which mimics PI-IBS, is reported from the tropics. No report till date on PI-IBS excluded PI-MAS. We studied: (i) the frequency of continuing bowel (...) following Vibrio cholera and other bacterial infection was comparable. Malabsorption was present among 2/23 (9%) patients with PI-IBS.FGIDs are common after AG; dyspeptic symptoms, CBD, and weight loss were risk factors for PI-FGIDs. Vibrio cholerae infection caused PI-FGID, which was never reported. About 9 % patients fulfilling the criteria for PI-IBS had PI-MAS.

2018 American Journal of Gastroenterology

8. Evaluation of a multiplex panel for the diagnosis of acute infectious diarrhea in immunocompromised hematologic patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of a multiplex panel for the diagnosis of acute infectious diarrhea in immunocompromised hematologic patients. Diarrhea is a frequent complication in hematologic patients, being an infectious cause frequently suspected. Rapid and accurate detection of gastrointestinal pathogens is vital in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to compare routine diagnostic methods versus a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea (...) in immunocompromised hematologic patients.We conducted a prospective observational study from March 2015 to January 2016 to compare conventional methods for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea with FIlmArray GI Panel (BioFire-bioMérieux, France). Samples from adult immunocompromised hematologic patients with acute diarrhea were collected. In cases with discordant results, a second multiplex assay was performed (Allplex, Seegene, Korea). The result was considered positive or negative when the same result

2017 PLoS ONE

9. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology

to establish or confirm a diagnosis. It is important to welcome and actively engage the microbiology laboratory as an integral part of the healthcare team and encourage the hospital or the laboratory facility to have board-certified laboratory specialists on hand or available to optimize infectious disease laboratory diagnosis. HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT This document is organized by body system, although many organisms are capable of causing disease in >1 body system. There may be a redundant mention (...) A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

10. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome as a Cause of Acute Diarrhea. (Abstract)

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome as a Cause of Acute Diarrhea. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a febrile disorder caused in Korea by the Hantaan and Seoul viruses. Its characteristic clinical manifestations include fever, hemorrhage, and renal failure, but a primary presentation with acute infectious diarrhea is rare. Owing to decreased urine output and renal function, a 54-year-old patient was transferred to our hospital from a local clinic, where he had been receiving (...) was confirmed on an RT-nPCR assay of the buffy coat. Another 60-year-old patient with watery diarrhea was treated conservatively for suspected infectious diarrhea. However, an immunofluorescent antibody assay showed a 4-fold increase in the acute-phase HFRS antibody titer. RT-nPCR using plasma yielded negative results, but Seoul virus was detected on an RT-nPCR buffy coat assay, confirming the diagnosis of HFRS. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome can present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as acute

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

11. Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age.In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea (...) %), Cryptosporidium (3.07%), and Giardia (0.77%). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 44 of 130 (33.84%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (65.90%) compared to children of 2-5 years age group (34.09%). An overall result showed significantly higher detection rates among children with diarrhea in both combinations of two as well as three infections concurrently (p = 0.004915 and 0.03917, respectively).Suspecting possible multiple infectious

2017 Gut pathogens

12. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling (...) an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally

2017 Gut microbes

13. Causes and management of postrenal transplant diarrhea: an underappreciated cause of transplant-associated morbidity. (Abstract)

Causes and management of postrenal transplant diarrhea: an underappreciated cause of transplant-associated morbidity. This review highlights the current literature on both infectious and noninfectious diarrhea in renal transplant recipients and provides a diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of posttransplant diarrhea.Renal transplant recipients share certain predisposing characteristics for the development of posttransplant diarrhea, including a generalized immunosuppressed state (...) and exposure to polypharmacy, most notably broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. The main causes of diarrhea after transplantation are infections, immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotics and other drugs. As the cause of posttransplant diarrhea varies greatly depending on several factors, recommending a single optimal diagnostic algorithm is extremely difficult.Physicians should be familiar with common causes that result in posttransplant diarrhea. A directed approach to diagnosis and treatment will not only

2017 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

14. Clostridium innocuum is a vancomycin-resistant pathogen that may cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium innocuum is a vancomycin-resistant pathogen that may cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Clostridium innocuum can cause extraintestinal infection in patients with underlying diseases. The role of C. innocuum in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) remains unknown.Clinical information of 103 patients from whom C. innocuum was isolated was reviewed. We carried out cellular and animal experiments to examine the pathogenic potential of C. innocuum in AAD.Eighty-eight per cent (91/103 (...) observed in the mouse ileal loop infected by C. innocuum.Vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum may play a potential role as a causative agent of AAD. The clinical manifestations of AAD caused by C. innocuum were diarrhoea or severe colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis.Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

15. Detection of common diarrhea-causing pathogens in Northern Taiwan by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of common diarrhea-causing pathogens in Northern Taiwan by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Conventional methods for identifying gastroenteritis pathogens are time consuming, more likely to result in a false-negative, rely on personnel with diagnostic expertise, and are dependent on the specimen status. Alternatively, molecular diagnostic methods permit the rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. The present study compared (...) conventional methods with the Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG GPP) for the diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in northern Taiwan. From July 2015 to April 2016, 217 clinical fecal samples were collected from patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis. All specimens were tested using conventional diagnostic techniques following physicians' orders as well as with the xTAG GPP. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach detected significantly more positive samples

2018 Medicine

16. Antimotility Agents for the Treatment of Acute Noninfectious Diarrhea in Critically Ill Patients

%. 1 The etiologyof diarrhea in intensive care unit (ICU) settings is multifactorial and includes disease-related, medication-related, feeding-related, infectious, and noninfectious causes. 2 The oc- currenceofdiarrheaincriticallyillpatientsisassociatedwithin- creased ICU lengthofstay, morbidity, andmortality. 3 The management of noninfectious diarrhea in critical ill- ness is directed toward treatment of the underlying cause, fluid- electrolyte correction, avoidance of medications associated (...) Antimotility Agents for the Treatment of Acute Noninfectious Diarrhea in Critically Ill Patients Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/jtrauma by SHrJlXRiF9wyGdmDxC/n4ZvpFObN52W8/pJs1OP5wSe8gFsvgypyd1IoKm1sOFkZv1K8SX2R9B65BkYPRgcPtMQCRf/IzvVQaOu4uz61ZYv4n2SlVPyMQA== on 10/07/2019 Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/jtrauma by SHrJlXRiF9wyGdmDxC/n4ZvpFObN52W8/pJs1OP5wSe8gFsvgypyd1IoKm1sOFkZv1K8SX2R9B65BkYPRgcPtMQCRf/IzvVQaOu4uz61ZYv4n2SlVPyMQA== on 10/07/2019 Antimotility agents

2019 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

17. Review of Diagnostic Procedures and Approaches to Infectious Causes of Reproductive Failures of Cattle in Australia and New Zealand Full Text available with Trip Pro

Review of Diagnostic Procedures and Approaches to Infectious Causes of Reproductive Failures of Cattle in Australia and New Zealand Infectious causes of reproductive failure in cattle are important in Australia and New Zealand, where strict biosecurity protocols are in place to prevent the introduction and spread of new diseases. Neospora caninum ranks highly as an important cause of reproductive wastage along with fungal and bacterial infections. Brucella, a leading cause of abortion elsewhere (...) this process, this review will discuss the infectious causes of reproductive losses present in both countries, their clinical presentation and an effective pathway to a diagnosis.

2018 Frontiers in veterinary science

18. CRACKCast E031 – Diarrhea

associate diarrhea more with embarrassing road trip and first dates than a real health concern, worldwide diarrhea is responsible for 4% of ALL DEATHS. That’s equal to a 737 crashing and killing all on-board every 50 minutes for an entire year! There’s some food for squat… er… thought. 1) Define Acute, Persistent, Chronic Diarrhea Diarrhea – Greek from dia (Through) and rhein (to flow) Acute – 14 days or less (usually infectious viral or bacterial) Persistent – 14 days or more (usually bacterial (...) or protozoan) Chronic – 30 days or more (usually non-infectious) 2) Describe 4 mechanisms of diarrhea Rule of NUMBER 2 (POO): 2 fast, 2 strong, 2 broken, 2 confused Too fast: Abnormal motility – hypermotility decreases contact time, limiting water and electrolyte absorption. Example, heroin withdrawal, also component of almost every acute diarrhea Too strong: Osmotic diarrhea – highly osmotic solutes induce strong osmotic gradient favoring stool, overcoming transporter’s ability to absorb. Examples include

2017 CandiEM

19. CRACKCast E173 – Infectious Diarrheal Disease and Dehydration

lasts longer than 14 days. Dysentery, diarrhea associated with blood and mucus in the stool, implies a compromised bowel wall. [1] What are three pathophysiologic types of diarrhea? Give an example of a cause for each. Infectious agents cause diarrhea by adherence, mucosal invasion, enterotoxin production, and cytotoxin production. Under normal circumstances, the absorptive processes for water and electrolytes predominate over secretion, resulting in net water absorption. Diarrhea occurs when (...) the absorptive area, and preventing normal fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient absorption. The illness is compounded if the colon is unable to compensate for the large fluid volume. Examples: Viral: Rotavirus, adenovirus, Norovirus Bacterial: Salmonella, shigella, campylobacter Dysmotility [2] List 6 Common Causes of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in Developed Countries See table 172.1 in Rosen’s 9 th edition, for the common causes of childhood infectious diarrhea in developed countries. Viruses (70-80%): RAN

2018 CandiEM

20. Probiotics for Acute Infectious Diarrhea

Probiotics for Acute Infectious Diarrhea Probiotics for Acute Infectious Diarrhea – TheNNTTheNNT Probiotics for Acute Infectious Diarrhea 1 day less diarrhea In Summary, for those who took the probiotics: Benefits in NNT Patients were helped by a 1-day decrease in the duration of their diarrhea Patients were helped by a 1-day decrease in the duration of their diarrhea Harms in NNT None were harmed None were harmed View As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Duration of diarrhea, severity (...) of diarrhea Harm Endpoints: None reported Narrative: Diarrhea is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and treatment regimens often include a oral and/or intravenous rehydration, antibiotics, and anti-motility agents. The administration of probiotics have been proposed as an add-on intervention that may be able to decrease the duration and severity of diarrhea. The Cochrane Review included 63 randomized controlled trials (56/63 in infants and children) of 8014 subjects with proven

2011 theNNT

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