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Infant Nutritional Sources

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5201. Influence of intervention on beverage choices: trends in the dietary intervention study in children (DISC). (Abstract)

, whereas total milk consumption decreased sharply.With nutrition education, children can make changes in the type of milk consumed, and in the quantity of dietary calcium consumed. (...) Influence of intervention on beverage choices: trends in the dietary intervention study in children (DISC). To compare treatment, sex, and visit differences in beverage choice and calcium intake in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children, to compare the relationship of other beverages to milk consumption, and document whether or not the dietary intervention affected choice of beverage and milk type over time.Data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children, a randomized, controlled

2007 Journal of the American Dietetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5202. Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Children in Standard I classes received the local plant-based dish githeri as a midmorning school snack (...) supplemented with meat, milk, or fat added to equalize energy content in all feedings. The Control children received no feedings but participated in data collection. Main outcome measures assessed at baseline and longitudinally were 24-h food intake recall, anthropometry, cognitive function, physical activity, and behaviors during school free play. For cognitive function, the Meat group showed the steepest rate of increase on Raven's Progressive Matrices scores and in zone-wide school end-term total

2007 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5203. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a 6-month follow-up pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a 6-month follow-up pilot study. To examine the effect of high-dose maternal vitamin D(3) (vitD) supplementation on the nutritional vitD status of breastfeeding (BF) women and their infants compared with maternal and infant controls receiving 400 and 300 IU vitD/day, respectively.Fully lactating women (n = 19) were enrolled at 1-month postpartum into a randomized- control pilot trial. Each mother (...) receiving 400 IU vitD/day decreased to a nadir of 45.6 at visit four and varied little during the study period (45.6-78.6 IU/L), whereas the mean activity in the 6400 IU/day group increased from 82 to 873 IU/L (p < 0.0003). There were no differences in circulating 25(OH)D levels of infants supplemented with oral vitD versus infants whose only source of vitD was breast milk.With limited sun exposure, an intake of 400 IU/day vitamin D(3) did not sustain circulating maternal 25(OH)D levels, and thus

2006 Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5204. Appropriate strategies for testing and treating Helicobacter pylori in children: when and how? (Abstract)

is substantially higher among populations of immigrant children and children born of recent immigrants to the United States. H pylori transmission is primarily "person-to-person" via fecal-oral, gastric-oral, or oral-oral routes, with evidence suggesting contaminated water as a potential source of infection. Risk factors for infection in childhood include an infected family member, having > or =2 siblings, crowded living conditions, lower socioeconomic means, and attendance at a daycare facility. The natural (...) Appropriate strategies for testing and treating Helicobacter pylori in children: when and how? Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired primarily during childhood and carries a significant lifetime risk for morbidity. In developing countries, approximately 70% of children are infected with the bacterium by their 15th birthday. In the United States, the rate of H pylori infection among children varies widely--approximately 10% of all 10-year-olds are infected; however, this figure

2004 American Journal of Medicine

5205. Weaning preterm infants: an open issue. (Abstract)

failure and nutrient deficits, correct nutritional intervention after hospital discharge must be instituted to avoid postnatal malnutrition and to correct the acquired deficit. Nutrient-enriched formulas for several months after discharge have shown some benefits, although their clinical value remains unclear. Weaning, which certainly represents a relevant source of nutrients for the preterm infant, has attracted little attention until now. There are no precise guidelines on this topic, and too often (...) weaning practices are left totally to the parents, without considering the specific nutritional needs of the single infant.

2007 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

5206. Children's dairy intake in the United States: too little, too fat? (Abstract)

Children's dairy intake in the United States: too little, too fat? To compare reported dairy/calcium intake with intake recommendations and examination of food sources and fat levels of dairy intake in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.Dietary, anthropometric, and sociodemographic data for 2- to 18-year-olds (n = 7716) were evaluated to compare intakes of dairy (MyPyramid) and calcium (Adequate Intake [AI]) recommendations. US Department of Agriculture food codes (...) , and 2- to 8-year-olds met the AI. Intake of flavored milk ranged from 9% to 18%. More than half of the milk consumed by 2- to 3-year-olds was whole milk, and, with the exception of yogurt consumption in 2- to 3-year-olds, children choose to consume more of the highest-fat varieties of cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dairy-based toppings.Dairy and calcium intakes are inadequate in 4- to 18-year-olds. Most children consume the high-fat varieties of milk and dairy products. Focusing nutrition guidance

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

5207. Importance of generational status in examining access to and utilization of health care services by Mexican American children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

reports of health status and needs (perceived health of the child and reported illnesses), health care access (usual source of health care and specific provider), and health care utilization (contact with a physician within the past year, use of prescription medications, physician visit because of earache/infection, and hearing and vision screenings) for different subgroups within the sample.More than two thirds of first-generation Mexican American children were poor and uninsured and had parents (...) ; and to determine whether first-generation Mexican American children have poorer health care access and utilization than do non-Hispanic white children, after controlling for health insurance status and socioeconomic status.The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to create a sample of 4372 Mexican American children (divided into 3 generational groups), 4138 non-Hispanic black children, and 4594 non-Hispanic white children, 2 months to 16 years of age. We compared parent/caregiver

2005 Pediatrics

5208. Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence. Numerous nutrition policy statements recommend the consumption of 800 to 1500 mg of calcium largely from dairy products for osteoporosis prevention; however, the findings of epidemiologic and prospective studies have raised questions about the efficacy of the use of dairy products for the promotion of bone health. The objective of this study was to review existing literature on the effects (...) of dairy products and total dietary calcium on bone integrity in children and young adults to assess whether evidence supports (1) current recommended calcium intake levels and (2) the suggestion that dairy products are better for promoting bone integrity than other calcium-containing food sources or supplements.A Medline (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) search was conducted for studies published on the relationship between milk, dairy products, or calcium intake and bone mineralization

2005 Pediatrics

5209. Epidemiology of Highly Endemic Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant Shigellosis in Children in the Peruvian Amazon. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amazon between October 1, 2002, and April 15, 2006.The incidence of diarrheal disease was 4.38 episodes per child-year. The incidence rate for shigellosis was 0.34 episodes per child-year in children <72 months of age and peaked in children between 12 and 23 months at 0.43 episodes per child-year. Maternal education at or beyond the primary grade level, piped water supply, weight-for-age z score, and improved water-storage practices were the most significant determinants of disease in this community (...) at water source and improved storage, nutritional interventions, and improved maternal education seem to have a greater impact than a univalent S flexneri 2a vaccine.

2008 Pediatrics

5210. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. We sought to document increases in caloric contributions from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice among US youth during 1988-2004.We analyzed 24-hour dietary recalls from children and adolescents (aged 2-19) in 2 nationally representative population surveys: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994, N = 9882) and National Health (...) provided more than half of the sugar-sweetened beverage calories consumed by preschool-aged children. Fruit juice drinkers consumed, on average, 148 (ages 2-5), 136 (ages 6-11), and 184 (ages 12-19) kcal/day. On a typical weekday, 55% to 70% of all sugar-sweetened beverage calories were consumed in the home environment, and 7% to 15% occurred in schools.Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Our analysis indicates

2008 Pediatrics

5211. Is there research evidence which suggests that obesity in children under 5 is less common in children who were breastfed?

of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Pediatrics. 2004 Feb;113(2) ( ) 3) Hediger ML et al. Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. JAMA. 2001 May 16;285(19):2453-60. ( ) 4) Armstrong J et al. Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity. Lancet. 2002 Jun 8;359(9322):2003-4 ( ) 5) Shields L et al. Breastfeeding and obesity at 14 years: a cohort study. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006 May;42(5 (...) of papers on this topic. However, these did not look at the defined group ‘under 5s’, mostly focussing on weight at adolescence. However, references 2 and 3 report on children nearer your preferred age range and reference eight looks at 7 year olds. A 2002 critically appraised topic (CAT) published on the Evidence-Based Pediatrics website [1] gave the following ‘Clinical bottom lines’: “- Breastfeeding (BF) for > 6mos is associated with a 22% decreased incidence of overweight in adolescents. - Longer

2006 TRIP Answers

5212. Gastroenteritis in Children

potassium supplementation once the plasma potassium level is known. Nutritional management During rehydration therapy: Continue breast-feeding. Do not give solid foods. In children without red flag symptoms or signs, do not routinely give oral fluids other than ORS solution; however, consider supplementation with the child's usual fluids (including milk feeds or water but not fruit juices or carbonated drinks) if they consistently refuse ORS solution. In children with red flag symptoms or signs, do (...) Gastroenteritis in Children Gastroenteritis in Children. Child diarrhoea and vomiting | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Gastroenteritis in Children Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 15 Dec 2014 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK

2008 Mentor

5213. Sensorial evaluation of nutritional supplements (PROGRESA) enriched with 3 different forms of iron in a rural Mexican community. (Abstract)

Sensorial evaluation of nutritional supplements (PROGRESA) enriched with 3 different forms of iron in a rural Mexican community. As part of the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia (IDA), the Mexican Federal program PROGRESA distributes complementary foods to toddlers and pregnant women living in extreme poverty. Complementary foods were originally fortified with hydrogen-reduced iron, which proved a limited efficacy. The supplement was reformulated to provide higher iron bioavailability (...) . This investigation aims to assess the sensory changes and the acceptance of new versions of the complementary foods fortified with either reduced iron, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, stored at room temperature for 2, 4, and 6 mo. Complementary foods were presented without flavor (plain) or flavored with either chocolate or vanilla. The complementary foods were evaluated in toddlers and their mothers using a hedonic scale. The percentage of overall acceptance for the baby foods was higher in toddlers (80

2008 Journal of food science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5214. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (<4 months) and late (>or=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving (...) Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula

2008 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

5215. Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. (Abstract)

Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. The obesity epidemic in the United States continues to increase. Because obesity tends to track over time, the increase in overweight among young children is of significant concern. A number of eating patterns have been associated with overweight among preschool-aged children. Recently, 100% fruit juice and sweetened fruit drinks have received considerable attention as potential sources of high-energy beverages that could (...) be related to the prevalence of obesity among young children. Our aim was to evaluate the beverage intake among preschool children who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and investigate associations between types and amounts of beverages consumed and weight status in preschool-aged children.We performed a secondary analysis of the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002, which is a continuous, cross-sectional survey

2006 Pediatrics

5216. Nutritional Support in Primary Care

of a dietician. Supplements should only be used as the sole source of nutrition following dietetic advice. Supplements should be given between meals and not with or instead of a meal. Boredom with taste and texture may be overcome by trying different flavours or types of feeds. Nutritional supplements available on the NHS should generally be prescribed for Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances (ACBS) approved conditions. No more than four to six weeks' supply should be given, as the patient should (...) ) or may be the sole source of nutrition (TPN). The most common indication for home parenteral nutrition in the UK is Crohn's disease. [ ] Other indications include preparation of undernourished patients for surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy; other severe or prolonged disorders of the GI tract; major surgery, trauma, or burns; prolonged coma or refusal to eat; some patients with renal or hepatic failure. It is commenced in hospital. The management of patients who need home artificial

2008 Mentor

5217. Comparative Gastrointestinal Tolerance of Various Infant Formulas in Healthy Term Infants

. Infant is a singleton from a full term birth with a gestational age of 37-42 weeks. Infant's birth weight was > 2490 g (~5 lb 8 oz). Infant is between 0 and 8 days of age at enrollment. Parent(s) confirm their intention to feed their infant the study product as the sole source of nutrition for the duration of the study. Parent(s) confirm their intention not to administer vitamin or mineral supplements, solid foods or juices to their infant for the duration of the study. Infants using medications (...) Midwest Children's Health Research Institute, LLC Lincoln, Nebraska, United States, 68504 Center for Human Nutrition Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 68105 United States, Ohio Pediatric Associates of Mount Carmel, Inc Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45245 MetroHealth Medical Center Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44109 Dayton Clinical Research Dayton, Ohio, United States, 45406 Ohio Pediatric Research Association Huber Heights, Ohio, United States, 45424 Institute of Clinical Research, LLC Mayfield

2008 Clinical Trials

5218. Tolerance of Healthy Term Infants Fed Infant Formulas

of the study is to assess comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of normal term infants to various milk-protein infant formulas. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Infant, Newborn Other: milk protein formulas, varying carbohydrate/protein sources Phase 2 Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 190 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care (...) source Other: milk protein formulas, varying carbohydrate/protein sources ad lib for 0-8 days of age until 28 days of age Experimental: 2 Experimental milk protein based infant formula with varying carbohydrate and protein source Other: milk protein formulas, varying carbohydrate/protein sources ad lib for 0-8 days of age until 28 days of age Experimental: 3 Experimental milk protein based infant formula with varying carbohydrate and protein source Other: milk protein formulas, varying carbohydrate

2008 Clinical Trials

5219. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk. Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical trial format to evaluate the effect of supplemental DHA (...) in solid foods on visual development of breast-fed infants with the primary outcome, sweep visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity, as an index for maturation of the retina and visual cortex. At 6 mo of age, breast-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 jar (113 g)/d of baby food containing egg yolk enriched with DHA (115 mg DHA/100 g food; n = 25) or control baby food (0 mg DHA; n = 26). Gravimetric measures were used to estimate the supplemental DHA intake which was 83 mg DHA/d

2004 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5220. Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen (...) breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other

2006 Pediatrics

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