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Infant Nutritional Sources

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5181. Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana with the objective of assessing how caregiving practices influence nutritional status of young children in Ghana. The study subjects were one hundred mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Each child was visited at home monthly for a period of six months. On each visit, information was collected (...) on caregiver household and personal hygiene, child's immunization status, child's dietary diversity, caregiver responsiveness during feeding, caregiver hygienic practices related to feeding and child's weight and length. At the end of the study, summary scores were generated for each variable and quality of care practice determined based on their distribution. Classification of child nutritional status was based on z-scores for both weight-for-age and length-for-age. The results revealed that caregivers

2008 Nutrition research and practice

5182. An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial. The main emphasis of dietary advice for control of obesity has been on reducing dietary fat. Increasing ready to eat cereal (RTEC) consumption could be a strategy to reduce fat intake and increase carbohydrate intake resulting in a diet with lower energy density.1. To determine if an increase in RTEC intake is an effective strategy (...) to reduce excess body weight and blood lipids in overweight or at risk of overweight children. 2. To determine if a nutrition education program would make a difference on the response to an increase in cereal intake. 3) To determine if increase in RTEC intake alone or with a nutrition education program has an effect on plasma lipid profile.One hundred and forty seven overweight or at risk of overweight children (6-12 y of age) were assigned to one of four different treatments: a. One serving of 33 +/- 7

2008 Nutrition journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5183. Lipid peroxidation assessment by malondialdehyde measurement in parenteral nutrition solutions for newborn infants: a pilot study. (Abstract)

Lipid peroxidation assessment by malondialdehyde measurement in parenteral nutrition solutions for newborn infants: a pilot study. To determine malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in parenteral nutrition admixtures exposed to ambient room light, and in the serum of neonates.Using a new method to measure MDA specifically, this study analysed MDA of lipid-containing all-in-one admixtures provided by the pharmacy, with a composition identical to that used in routine clinical conditions. First, 12 (...) concentrations observed in orally fed neonates. Administration of all-in-one admixtures containing lipids in ambient lighting results in intravenous infusion of high levels of MDA which may present an additional source of morbidity in immature infants. This study confirms the need to protect parenteral admixtures from light.

2004 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5184. Complementary feeding adequacy in relation to nutritional status among early weaned breastfed children who are born to HIV-infected mothers: ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. We created an index to synthesize the nutritional adequacy of infant feeding practices (in terms of quality of the source of milk, dietary diversity, food, and meal frequencies) ranging from 0 to 12. The association of this feeding index with growth outcomes in children was investigated.Among the 262 breastfed children included, complete cessation of breastfeeding occurred in 77% by their first birthday, with a median duration of 4 months. Most of the complementary foods were introduced within (...) feeding to take over breast milk. The purpose of our study first was to describe the nature and the ages of introduction of complementary feeding among early weaned breastfed infants up to their first birthday and second was to assess the nutritional adequacy of these complementary foods by creating a child feeding index and to investigate its association with child nutritional status.A prospective cohort study in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, was conducted in HIV-infected pregnant women who were willing

2006 Pediatrics

5185. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. This comment by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition summarizes available information on the composition and use of soy protein formulae as substitutes for breastfeeding and cows' milk protein formulae as well as on their suitability and safety for supporting adequate growth and development in infants. Soy is a source (...) of protein that is inferior to cows' milk, with a lower digestibility and bioavailability as well as a lower methionine content. For soy protein infant formulae, only protein isolates can be used, and minimum protein content required in the current European Union legislation is higher than that of cows' milk protein infant formulae (2.25 g/100 kcal vs. 1.8 g/100kcal). Soy protein formulae can be used for feeding term infants, but they have no nutritional advantage over cows' milk protein formulae

2006 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

5186. Causes of nutrition-related public health problems of preschool children: available diet. (Abstract)

animal source foods, and have been associated with delayed child development. Dietary diversity is an especially important determinant of micronutrient intakes when animal source food intake is low. Interventions with animal source foods have produced improvements in growth, micronutrient status, cognitive performance and activity of children. Although much is now known about the role of inadequate diets in preschooler malnutrition, on a global scale the ability of households to apply this knowledge (...) Causes of nutrition-related public health problems of preschool children: available diet. The primary goal of this review is to examine the timing and nature of dietary inadequacy during the first 5 years of life. An important issue is that many children in developing countries are already nutritionally depleted by the end of the first year of life, because maternal undernutrition can cause low fetal accumulation of nutrient stores and secretion of inadequate amounts of some micronutrients

2006 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

5187. A double blind comparison of a new paediatric amino acid solution in neonatal total parenteral nutrition. (Abstract)

A double blind comparison of a new paediatric amino acid solution in neonatal total parenteral nutrition. All infants requiring parenteral nutrition over a continuous 13-month period were allocated to receive either Vamin or a new paediatric amino acid solution, Paedmin, as their protein source in a double blind prospective study. Those of 32 weeks gestation and less gained weight more rapidly when fed Paedmin than Vamin (P less than 0.004), but there were significant changes in liver function (...) after 14 days nutrition. Babies of 33 weeks gestation and greater gained weight more rapidly when fed Vamin than Paedmin (P less than 0.003) but without liver function changes. There were no differences in the rate of head growth. Amino acid analysis of serum and urine showed a greater urinary loss of amino acids for a given serum concentration in babies of 32 weeks and less for both nutrition groups. The apparent benefit of Paedmin in the immature group of infants must be further evaluated

1987 Early human development

5188. The metabolic effects of oral L-carnitine administration in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition with fat. (Abstract)

for adequate utilization of fat as an energy source. Infants, especially premature ones, without an exogenous dietary source of carnitine, have decreased plasma carnitine levels compared with infants receiving carnitine-supplemented feedings. To determine the importance of carnitine supplementation in a total parenteral nutrition program in infants in which a fat emulsion serves as a major calorie source, the following study was undertaken. Twelve infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with fat (...) The metabolic effects of oral L-carnitine administration in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition with fat. beta-Oxidation, an important pathway in the metabolism of free fatty acids, occurs within the mitochondria in mammals. L-Carnitine is an essential cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Maintenance of normal carnitine concentrations in whole blood and tissues, either through diet or biosynthesis, would appear necessary

1985 Journal of pediatric surgery

5189. Role of amylase-treated, energy-dense liquid diet in the nutritional management of acute shigellosis in children: a controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

regression analysis the effect of ARF-treated energy-dense porridge in increasing the calorie intake persisted after adjusting for a number of confounders, such as age of the child, isolation of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and fever. The results of this study suggest that ARF-treated porridge increases energy intake in infants and young children during acute shigellosis. This feeding approach may be useful in preventing malnutrition following dysentery due to shigellosis. (...) Role of amylase-treated, energy-dense liquid diet in the nutritional management of acute shigellosis in children: a controlled clinical trial. To evaluate if an energy-dense porridge liquefied by amylase-rich flour (ARF) from germinated wheat increased the calorie intake in children with acute shigellosis, we studied 66 children, aged 6-35 months, in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Children were randomized to receive either an energy-dense porridge liquefied with ARF (group 1), a thick

1995 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5190. Lessons learned from randomizing infants to marine oil-supplemented formulas in nutrition trials. (Abstract)

Lessons learned from randomizing infants to marine oil-supplemented formulas in nutrition trials. The effect of n-3 fatty acid intake on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status, growth, retinal physiology, visual acuity, and development (Bayley Mental Developmental Index and Fagan Infantest) has been evaluated in infants randomized to a marine oil source of docosahexaenoic acid or to standard infant formula. This article will focus on the lessons learned (...) in conducting these randomized trials--issues related to design, implementation, and interpretation. By addressing these issues it is hoped that several general concepts related to nutrition studies in infants can be explored that might prove useful to others who undertake clinical nutrition trials in general, and trials with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in particular.

1994 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5191. Nutritional effect of including egg yolk in the weaning diet of breast-fed and formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nutritional effect of including egg yolk in the weaning diet of breast-fed and formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Egg yolks can be a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iron but are often associated with adverse consequences on plasma cholesterol.Our goal was to investigate the effect of consumption of 4 egg yolks/wk on infant DHA status and hemoglobin, ferritin, and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin (...) saturation.This was a randomized controlled trial comparing no dietary intervention, consumption of 4 regular egg yolks/wk, and consumption of 4 n-3 fatty acid-enriched egg yolks/wk in breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 6 to 12 mo of age. Erythrocyte DHA concentrations, cholesterol, and iron status were assessed at 6 and 12 mo of age.Of the 82 breast-fed infants recruited, 23 of 28 (no intervention), 23 of 27 (regular eggs), and 24 of 27 (n-3 eggs) completed the trial. Of the 79 formula-fed infants

2002 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5192. Prevalence of blood lead levels >or= 5 micro g/dL among US children 1 to 5 years of age and socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with blood of lead levels 5 to 10 micro g/dL, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. (Abstract)

Prevalence of blood lead levels >or= 5 micro g/dL among US children 1 to 5 years of age and socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with blood of lead levels 5 to 10 micro g/dL, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. As part of an investigation into the impact of a potential revision in federal childhood lead poisoning prevention policy that would result in screening children for blood lead levels (BLLs) >or=5 micro g/dL rather than the current 10 micro g/dL (...) , we analyzed the most recent available, nationally representative data to identify prevalence of BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 1- to 5-year-old children with BLLs >or=5 but <10 micro g/dL.We performed statistical analyses on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994) to describe trends in BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL overall and among subpopulations of children <6 years old and to compare risk factors

2003 Pediatrics

5193. Parenteral 20% safflower oil emulsion safety and effectiveness as a caloric source in newborn infants. (Abstract)

Parenteral 20% safflower oil emulsion safety and effectiveness as a caloric source in newborn infants. Five surgical infants, ages 3 to 30 days, were studied while receiving peripheral total parenteral nutrition for a period of 2 weeks. By a randomized sequence, either 10 or 20% safflower oil emulsion was infused the first week, followed by the alternate solution during the second week. Caloric intake was 80 to 100 cal/kg/day, of which lipids comprised one-third to one-half. No adverse side

1982 JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5194. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants. (Abstract)

vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status (...) Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants. We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked

1990 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5195. Dietary sources of fats and cholesterol in US children aged 2 through 5 years. Full Text available with Trip Pro

differed by region of the country and race/ethnicity, providing opportunities to refine nutrition education interventions and evaluations.By substituting lower-fat foods for the major sources of saturated fats, significant reductions in preschool children's intakes of saturated fats, fat, and dietary cholesterol could be achieved. (...) Dietary sources of fats and cholesterol in US children aged 2 through 5 years. This study of lipid intakes among preschool children (1) analyzed the contributions of 38 food groups to fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intakes; (2) estimated the effects of food substitutions on intakes; and (3) examined demographic differences in food group intake and food group sources of these lipids.The sample consisted of 547 children, aged 2 to 5 years, from the US Department of Agriculture's 1985

1994 American Journal of Public Health

5196. Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baseline findings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baseline findings. A previous longitudinal three-country study in Egypt, Kenya and Mexico found significant positive associations between intake of animal source foods (ASF) and growth, cognitive development and physical activity. To test for a causal relationship, a controlled school feeding intervention study was designed to test (...) the hypotheses that ASF would improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan primary school children. Twelve rural Kenyan schools with 554 children were randomized to four feeding interventions using a local vegetable stew as the vehicle. The groups were designated as Meat, Milk, Energy and Control, who received no feedings. Feeding was carried out on school days for seven terms during 21 mo. Preintervention baseline measures included nutritional status, home food intake, anthropometry

2003 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5197. Nondigestible carbohydrates in the diets of infants and young children: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. (Abstract)

Nondigestible carbohydrates in the diets of infants and young children: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. The consumption of nondigestible carbohydrates is perceived as beneficial by health professionals and the general public, but the translation of this information into dietary practice, public health recommendations, and regulatory policy has proved difficult. Nondigestible carbohydrates are a heterogeneous entity, and their definition is problematic. Without a means (...) expanded to include a range of nondigestible carbohydrates. Their fermentation, fate, and effects in the colon have become a defining characteristic; human milk, hitherto regarded as devoid of nondigestible carbohydrates, is now recognized as a source for infants, and the inclusion of nondigestible carbohydrates in the diet has been promoted for their "prebiotic" effects. Therefore, a review of the importance of nondigestible carbohydrates in the diets of infants and young children is timely. The aims

2003 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

5198. Nutritional efficacy of preterm formula with a partially hydrolyzed protein source: a randomized pilot study. (Abstract)

Nutritional efficacy of preterm formula with a partially hydrolyzed protein source: a randomized pilot study. Decreased nitrogen levels, calcium intestinal absorption rates, and plasma amino acid imbalances were reported for preterm infants who were fed partially hydrolyzed preterm formulas. In this pilot study, we evaluated a new formula with modified nitrogen and calcium sources.During their second week of life, 16 preterm infants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 9 were fed (...) lower for infants who were fed the new formula than for those fed the conventional formula. After correction for difference in nitrogen intake, there was no significant difference in nitrogen retained between the two groups (P = 0.11). Plasma amino acid concentrations were also similar in the two groups. Median calcium absorption tended to be higher in the new-formula group than in the conventional-formula group (54% vs. 45%, P = 0.19). At theoretical term, infants fed the conventional formula were

2001 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5199. Calcium and phosphorus retention in the preterm infant during total parenteral nutrition. A comparative randomised study between organic and inorganic phosphate as a source of phosphorus. (Abstract)

Calcium and phosphorus retention in the preterm infant during total parenteral nutrition. A comparative randomised study between organic and inorganic phosphate as a source of phosphorus. The preterm infant fed parenterally is prone to some demineralisation due in part to insufficient Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) retention. In an attempt to augment Ca and P retention, we prepared a standardised parenteral solution containing calcium gluconate and glucose-1-phosphate (Phocytan) as source (...) significantly lower in the high Ca P group. We conclude that parenteral nutrition with a new high Ca P supplement results in an augmented Ca and P retention in very low birthweight infants. This may help to prevent neonatal bone demineralization.

1993 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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