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Infant Feeding

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161. Integrating infant and young child feeding learning sessions into saving groups is feasible and acceptable for HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Malawi. (PubMed)

Integrating infant and young child feeding learning sessions into saving groups is feasible and acceptable for HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Malawi. Based on formative research, HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi receive little infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling postpartum and want more support for IYCF from their husbands. To address these gaps, we implemented a behaviour change communication intervention promoting IYCF in village savings and loan

2018 Maternal & child nutrition

162. Feed thickeners in gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants (PubMed)

Feed thickeners in gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants 30019018 2018 11 14 2399-9772 2 1 2018 BMJ paediatrics open BMJ Paediatr Open Feed thickeners in gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. e000262 10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000262 Kwok T'ng Chang TC 0000-0003-1841-137X Academic Division of Child Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Ojha Shalini S 0000-0001-5668-4227 Division of Graduate Entry Medicine (Derby), School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Dorling Jon J (...) Academic Division of Child Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. eng Editorial 2018 06 27 England BMJ Paediatr Open 101715309 2399-9772 gastroenterology infant feeding neonatology Competing interests: None declared. 2018 05 16 2018 05 29 2018 7 19 6 0 2018 7 19 6 0 2018 7 19 6 1 epublish 30019018 10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000262 bmjpo-2018-000262 PMC6045726 Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 May;4(5):588-96 16678075 Arch Dis Child. 2015 Oct;100(10):989-93 25755169 J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009

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2018 BMJ Paediatrics Open

163. Amino Acid-Based Formula in Premature Infants with Feeding Intolerance: Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Level (PubMed)

Amino Acid-Based Formula in Premature Infants with Feeding Intolerance: Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Level We investigated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance (FI), and compared the FC levels according to the type of feeding.The medical records of 67 premature infants were reviewed retrospectively. The fully enteral-fed infants were classified into two groups; the FI group (29 infants) and the control group (31 infants). Seven infants (...) with necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and perinatal asphyxia were excluded. If breast milk (BM) or preterm formula (PF) could not be tolerated by infants with FI, amino acid-based formula (AAF) was tried temporarily. Once FI improved, AAF was discontinued, and BM or PF was resumed. We investigated the FC levels according to the type of feeding.Significant differences were found in gestational age, birth weight, age when full enteral feeding was achieved, and hospital stay between the FI and control group (p

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2018 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition

164. Extrapulmonary sequestration with a left internal thoracic arterial feeding vessel in an infant treated with video-assisted Thoracoscopic resection: a case report (PubMed)

Extrapulmonary sequestration with a left internal thoracic arterial feeding vessel in an infant treated with video-assisted Thoracoscopic resection: a case report Congenital lung malformations exist along a spectrum of pathogenesis and disease severity. Extrapulmonary sequestration (EPS), in which nonfunctional lung tissue develops without connection to the tracheobronchial tree, is one rare manifestation of this disease. Atypical vascular anatomy with a systemic feeding vessel characterizes (...) these lesions.A 3 day old, 37 week gestation infant underwent chest X-ray for confirmation of umbilical catheter placement and was found to have an elevated left hemidiaphragm consistent with eventration versus congenital diaphragmatic hernia. He remained asymptomatic and was evaluated as an outpatient at the age of 9 months, where CT angiogram demonstrated extrapulmonary versus intrapulmonary sequestration with a systemic feeding vessel from the left internal mammary artery.It is exceedingly rare

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2018 Journal of cardiothoracic surgery

165. HIV-1 transmission and survival according to feeding options in infants born to HIV-infected women in Yaoundé, Cameroon. (PubMed)

HIV-1 transmission and survival according to feeding options in infants born to HIV-infected women in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric (...) HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options.A retrospective cohort-study conducted in Yaounde from April 2008 through December 2013 among 1086 infants born to HIV-infected women and followed-up throughout the PMTCT cascade-care until 24-months. Infants with documented feeding option during their first 3 months of life (408 on Exclusive Breastfeeding [EBF], 663 Exclusive Replacement feeding [ERF], 15

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2018 BMC Pediatrics

166. Infant formula feeding practices and the role of advice and support: an exploratory qualitative study. (PubMed)

Infant formula feeding practices and the role of advice and support: an exploratory qualitative study. Infant formula feeding practices are an important consideration for obesity prevention. An infant's diet is influential on their later risk of developing overweight or obesity, yet very little is known about infant formula feeding practices. It is plausible that certain modifiable practices may put children at higher risk of developing overweight or obesity, for example how much and how often (...) a baby is fed. Understanding how parents use infant formula and what factors may influence this practice is therefore important. Moreover, parents who feed their infants formula have identified a lack of support and access to resources to guide them. Therefore this study aimed to explore parents' infant formula feeding practices to understand how parents use infant formula and what factors may influence this practice.Using an explorative qualitative design, data were collected using semi-structured

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2018 BMC Pediatrics

167. Associations of land, cattle and food security with infant feeding practices among a rural population living in Manyara, Tanzania. (PubMed)

Associations of land, cattle and food security with infant feeding practices among a rural population living in Manyara, Tanzania. Livelihoods strategies and food security experiences can positively and negatively affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. This study contributes to this literature by exploring how variation in household economics among rural farmers in Tanzania relates to IYCF patterns over the first 8 months of an infant's life.These data were produced from (...) a longitudinal study in which a cohort of mother-infant dyads was followed from birth to 24 months. In addition to baseline maternal, infant, and household characteristics, mothers were queried twice weekly and monthly about infant feeding practices and diet. Weekly and monthly datasets were merged and analyzed to assess infant feeding patterns through the first 8 months. Standard statistical methods including survival and logistic regression analyses were used.Aside from breastfeeding initiation, all other

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2018 BMC Public Health

168. Men's views and experiences of infant feeding: A qualitative systematic review. (PubMed)

Men's views and experiences of infant feeding: A qualitative systematic review. Although the advantages of breastfeeding are well documented, rates for breastfeeding often fall short of international and national targets. Increasing attention has been paid to the role of men in infant feeding, but a lot of the research about men has been elicited from women, rather than from men themselves. To explore these issues further, a systematic review of the qualitative research on infant feeding (...) was carried out, focusing specifically on men's own views and experiences. Evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus), manually searching citations, and by searching the grey literature. Studies were included in the review if they discussed men's views and experiences of infant feeding and if they reported primary qualitative data. Twenty research papers were included in the review, and each study was summarised and then analysed thematically to produce

2018 Maternal & child nutrition

169. Prevalence and duration of breast milk feeding in very preterm infants: A 3-year follow-up study and a systematic literature review. (PubMed)

Prevalence and duration of breast milk feeding in very preterm infants: A 3-year follow-up study and a systematic literature review. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast milk feeding until 6 months and continuing up to 2 years of age; little is known about whether very preterm infants are fed in accordance with these recommendations. We aimed to describe the prevalence and duration of breast milk feeding in very preterm children and to systematically review internationally (...) for exclusive and 3 months for any breast milk; only 9.9% received exclusive breast milk for at least 6 months, 10.2% received any breast milk for 12 months or more, and 2.0% for up to 24 months. The literature review identified few studies on feeding after hospital discharge (n = 9); these also reported a low prevalence of exclusive breast milk feeding at 6 months (1.0% to 27.0%) and of any breast milk at 12 months (8.0% to 12.0%).The duration of breast milk feeding among Portuguese very preterm infants

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2018 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

170. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques. (PubMed)

Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques. Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants.We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding.From birth to 6 mo (...) in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P < 0.001). β-Carotene accumulated across brain regions in all groups, but was not detected in retina. Although lycopene was found in many tissues of the SF group, it was not detected in the brain or retina.Although carotenoid supplementation of infant formula significantly increased serum and tissue lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented

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2018 Journal of Nutrition

171. Perturbations of the gut microbiome genes in infants with atopic dermatitis according to feeding type. (PubMed)

Perturbations of the gut microbiome genes in infants with atopic dermatitis according to feeding type. Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases.We sought to understand the role of the gut microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types.Composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6 (...)  months old) by using pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with AD. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by means of whole-metagenome sequencing (20 control subjects and 20 patients with AD). In addition, the total number of bacteria in the feces was determined by using real-time PCR.The gut microbiome of 6-month-old infants was different based on feeding types, and 2 microbiota groups (Bifidobacterium species-dominated and Escherichia/Veillonella species

2018 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

172. Effects of opaque, weighted bottles on maternal sensitivity and infant intake during bottle-feeding. (PubMed)

Effects of opaque, weighted bottles on maternal sensitivity and infant intake during bottle-feeding. Caregivers' abilities to assess how much is in the bottle may lead to encouragement of infant bottle emptying and overfeeding. The present study assessed whether use of opaque, weighted bottles (as compared with conventional, clear bottles) improves feeding outcomes. Mothers with infants <32 weeks of age (n = 76) were assessed on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from an opaque (...) , weighted bottle on 1 day and a clear bottle on the other; conditions were counterbalanced. Blinded raters certified in the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale scored all videos to determine maternal sensitivity. Infant intake was assessed by weighing the bottle before and after each feeding, and feeding outcomes included infant intake (mL), intake per kilogram body weight (mL/kg), meal duration (min), and feed rate (mL/min). Mothers exhibited significantly greater sensitivity (p = 0.041), fed

2018 Maternal & child nutrition

173. A qualitative study exploring infant feeding decision-making between birth and six months among HIV-positive mothers. (PubMed)

A qualitative study exploring infant feeding decision-making between birth and six months among HIV-positive mothers. Despite efforts to support breastfeeding for HIV-positive mothers in South Africa, being HIV-positive remains a barrier to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding. The aim was to explore decision-making about infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers in a rural and urban settings in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. HIV-positive pregnant women were purposively sampled from (...) ). Three mothers successfully EBF for 6 months, whereas four had stopped breastfeeding, and two were mixed breastfeeding by 6 months. Mothers reported receiving strong advice from health workers (HWs) to EBF and made decisions based primarily on HWs advice, resisting contrary pressure from family or friends. The main motivation for EBF was to protect the child from HIV acquisition, but sometimes fear of mixed feeding led to mothers stopping breastfeeding entirely. Infant feeding messages from HWs

2018 Maternal & child nutrition

174. Risk of postneonatal mortality, hospitalisation and suboptimal breast feeding practices in low birthweight infants from rural Haryana, India: findings from a secondary data analysis. (PubMed)

Risk of postneonatal mortality, hospitalisation and suboptimal breast feeding practices in low birthweight infants from rural Haryana, India: findings from a secondary data analysis. Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is important to examine whether this risk persists beyond neonatal period. The current secondary data analysis aimed to examine association of birth weight with mortality, hospitalisation and breast feeding practices during (...) infancy.Data from a large randomised controlled trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (Neovita) trial were used. Log binomial model was applied to assess association between birth weight and mortality, hospitalisation and breast feeding practices.Rural Haryana, North India.Newborns recruited in the primary intervention trial that aimed to evaluate the effect of single-dose oral vitamin A supplementation on mortality in the first 6 months of life.We recruited a total of 44 984 infants, of which 10 658

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2018 BMJ open

175. Differences in infant feeding practices between Chinese-born and Australian-born mothers living in Australia: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Differences in infant feeding practices between Chinese-born and Australian-born mothers living in Australia: a cross-sectional study. Chinese immigrants are the third largest immigrant group in Australia. Recent qualitative evidence from Victorian Maternal and Child Health nurses indicate that infants of Chinese parents commonly have rapid growth trajectories and that high value is placed on rapid growth and having a fatter child; with low breastfeeding rates and overfeeding of infant formula (...) . The aim of this study was to compare infant feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant formula, other liquids, solids) of Chinese-born and Australian-born mothers living in Australia.Using the Australian National Infant Feeding Survey dataset (2010-2011), infant feeding data from Chinese-born mothers (n = 602) were compared with a random sub-sample of Australian-born mothers (n = 602). Group differences on feeding practices were tested using Chi-square or t-tests and the effect of ethnicity on infant

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2018 BMC Pediatrics

176. Feeding-related gut microbial composition associates with peripheral T cell activation and mucosal gene expression in African infants. (PubMed)

Feeding-related gut microbial composition associates with peripheral T cell activation and mucosal gene expression in African infants. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the rate of postnatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission compared to nonexclusive breastfeeding; however, the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. Our study aimed to interrogate the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding.We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of infants (...) from a high-HIV-prevalence, low-income setting in South Africa. We evaluated the role of any non-breast milk feeds, excluding prescribed medicines on stool microbial communities via 16S rRNA gene sequencing, peripheral T-cell activation via flow cytometry, and buccal mucosal gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.A total of 155 infants were recruited at birth with mean gestational age of 38.9 weeks and mean birth weight of 3.2 kg. All infants were exclusively breastfed

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

177. Time to reintroduction of feeding in infants with nonsurgical necrotizing enterocolitis. (PubMed)

Time to reintroduction of feeding in infants with nonsurgical necrotizing enterocolitis. For infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) treated nonoperatively, no consensus exists on the optimal fasting period prior to reintroducing feeds after NEC. We report our experience with early (<7days) and late (≥7days) refeeding in this population.A chart review of infants with NEC born between 2006 and 2016 was performed. Data elements include demographics, comorbidities, day of diagnosis, Bell's (...) stage, recurrence, strictures, length of stay and mortality, and were grouped into early and late refeeding. T-tests were used for means and chi-squared tests for distribution of proportions. Linear and logistic regressions were used to further evaluate the association of length of stay, stricture, recurrence, and death with time to refeeding.Of 228 NEC patients, 149(65%) were treated nonoperatively (Bell Stages I, IIA, IIB, IIIA). Eleven patients were excluded owing to never restarting feeds

2018 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

178. Gavage Feed Volume Determines the Gastric Emptying Rate in Preterm Infants. (PubMed)

Gavage Feed Volume Determines the Gastric Emptying Rate in Preterm Infants. Feeding intolerance, manifesting as increased gastric residual, is a common finding in preterm neonates. Little is known about the regulation of gastric emptying early in life and the extent to which this plays a role in the preterm infants' feeding tolerance. The goal of this study was to evaluate clinically stable 28- to 32-week gestation neonates during the first 4 weeks of life and noninvasively determine (...) greater, when comparing the lowest and highest average stomach content volumes.The gastric emptying rate of preterm infants is content volume-dependent and unrelated to the postnatal age. Given the present findings, further investigation on the gastric residual of preterm infants receiving larger than currently administered feed volumes at the initiation of enteral nutrition, is warranted.

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

179. Infant Feeding Practices and the Effect in Reducing Functional Constipation Six Years Later: A Randomised Field Trial. (PubMed)

Infant Feeding Practices and the Effect in Reducing Functional Constipation Six Years Later: A Randomised Field Trial. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of health worker training on infant feeding practices on the prevalence of functional constipation (FC) among children at 6 years of age.Cluster randomized field trial conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Health centers were randomly allocated into intervention (n = 9) or control (n = 11) groups. In intervention sites, health workers (...) joined training sessions on the "Ten Steps for Healthy Feeding for Children from Birth to Two Years of age". Pregnant women in the last trimester of both groups were identified, invited to participate and enrolled in the study as the potential mothers to receive the dietary counseling provided by the health workers. At 6 years of age, the prevalence of FC was evaluated based on Rome III, defined by 2 or more of the following: infrequent defecation, fecal incontinence, history of retentive posturing

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

180. Association of Exposure to Formula in the Hospital and Subsequent Infant Feeding Practices With Gut Microbiota and Risk of Overweight in the First Year of Life. (PubMed)

Association of Exposure to Formula in the Hospital and Subsequent Infant Feeding Practices With Gut Microbiota and Risk of Overweight in the First Year of Life. The effect of neonatal and infant feeding practices on childhood obesity is unclear. The gut microbiome is strongly influenced by feeding practices and has been linked to obesity.To characterize the association between breastfeeding, microbiota, and risk of overweight during infancy, accounting for the type and timing of supplementary (...) feeding.In this study of a subset of 1087 infants from the prospective CHILD pregnancy cohort, mothers were recruited between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1 to December 20, 2017.Feeding was reported by mothers and documented from hospital records. Fecal microbiota at 3 to 4 months (from 996 infants) and/or 12 months (from 821 infants) were characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Infants with a weight for length exceeding the 85th

2018 JAMA pediatrics

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