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Infant Feeding

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12741. Early feeding, feeding tolerance, and lactase activity in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Early feeding, feeding tolerance, and lactase activity in preterm infants. We sought to ascertain whether the timing of feeding initiation affected the development of intestinal lactase activity and whether there are clinical ramifications of lower lactase activity.Preterm infants (26 to 30 weeks' gestation; n = 135) were randomly assigned to begin enteral feedings at either 4 (early group) or 15 days of age (standard group). At 10, 28, and 50 days of age lactase activity was determined (...) by measuring the urinary ratio of lactulose/lactose after the 2 sugars were administered.Lactase activity increased significantly over time. Infants in the early group had greater lactase activity at 10 days of age (by 100%) and 28 days of age (by 60%) than the standard group. At 10 days of age lactase activity was greater in milk- versus formula-fed infants. The time required to achieve full enteral feedings, the number of abnormal abdominal x-ray examinations, and the total number of abdominal x-ray

1998 The Journal of pediatrics

12742. Feeding strategies for premature infants: beneficial outcomes of feeding fortified human milk versus preterm formula. (PubMed)

Feeding strategies for premature infants: beneficial outcomes of feeding fortified human milk versus preterm formula. In a large-scale study of feeding strategies in premature infants (early vs later initiation of enteral feeding, continuous vs bolus tube-feeding, and human milk vs formula), the feeding of human milk had more effect on the outcomes measured than any other strategy studied. Therefore, this report describes the growth, nutritional status, feeding tolerance, and health (...) of participating premature infants who were fed fortified human milk (FHM) in comparison with those who were fed exclusively preterm formula (PF).Premature infants were assigned randomly in a balanced two-way design to early (gastrointestinal priming for 10 days) versus late initiation of feeding (total parenteral nutrition only) and continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus tube-feeding groups. The type of milk was determined by parental choice and infants to receive their mother's milk were randomized

1999 Pediatrics

12743. Feeding strategies for premature infants: randomized trial of gastrointestinal priming and tube-feeding method. (PubMed)

Feeding strategies for premature infants: randomized trial of gastrointestinal priming and tube-feeding method. Data on enteral feeding management of premature infants are limited and often not the subject of randomized clinical trials. Several small studies suggest benefits from the early initiation of feeding, but do not assess the combined effects of time of initiation of feeding, tube-feeding method, and type of milk used. Either singly or in combination, these treatments may affect growth (...) , bone mineralization, biochemical measures of nutritional status, and feeding tolerance, and, ultimately, the duration of hospitalization.A total of 171 premature infants, stratified by gestational age (26 to 30 weeks) and diet (human milk or preterm formula) were assigned randomly among four treatment combinations in a balanced two-way design comparing the presence or absence of gastrointestinal (GI) priming for 10 days and continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus tube-feeding.The major

1999 Pediatrics

12744. A feeding protocol for healthy preterm infants that shortens time to oral feeding. (PubMed)

A feeding protocol for healthy preterm infants that shortens time to oral feeding. To test the hypothesis that healthy preterm infants randomly assigned to a semi-demand feeding protocol would require fewer days to attain oral feeding and have a satisfactory weight gain compared with control infants receiving standard care.In 2 neonatal intensive care nurseries, 81 infants 32 to < or = 34 weeks' postconceptional age were randomly assigned to the control (n = 41) or experimental (n = 40 (...) ) protocol for transition from gavage to oral feedings. The control protocol followed the standard practice of gradually increasing scheduled oral feedings, whereas the experimental protocol used a semi-demand feeding method contingent on infant behavior. Analysis of variance techniques were used to compare the study groups for number of days to attain oral feeding and weight gain.The semi-demand method shortened the time for infants to achieve oral feeding by 5 days (P < .001). There were no differences

2001 The Journal of pediatrics

12745. Breast-feeding of term infants. Three-hour vs. four-hour non-demand. A randomized controlled reappraisal of hospital-based feeding schedules. (PubMed)

Breast-feeding of term infants. Three-hour vs. four-hour non-demand. A randomized controlled reappraisal of hospital-based feeding schedules. On those maternity wards where "rooming in" is not practiced, infants are fed according to fixed schedules. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences between two common feeding regimens, three-hourly vs. four-hourly feeds during the first 3 days of life. A group of 152 singleton, full-term infants with birth weights 2,500-2,990 g (...) , born at Bikur Cholim Hospital in Jerusalem from February 1988, to August 1988, were randomly assigned to one of two breast-feeding groups and followed prospectively. The study group (62 infants) was breast-fed every 4 hours, and the control group (90 infants) every 3 hours. The two groups were statistically similar for mean maternal age, parity, ethnic origin, social class, neonatal Apgar scores, birth percentile, and mean birth weights. Infants who breast-fed every 4 hours did not have greater

1989 Clinical pediatrics

12746. Effect of enteral feeding temperature on feeding tolerance in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Effect of enteral feeding temperature on feeding tolerance in preterm infants. Thirty preterm infants were randomly assigned to one of three milk temperature groups: 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 10 degrees C. Infants were fed by gavage every two hours, and gastric residuals were measured immediately prior to the next feeding. Feeding tolerance was determined by dividing the volume of gastric residual by the total volume of the feeding. Abdominal and axillary skin temperatures were monitored (...) groups were found. Warming milk to body temperature may promote greater feeding tolerance in the VLBW infant (< or = 1,500 gm). Results from this study provide objective data that will help nurses provide optimal nutrition to preterm infants.

1995 Neonatal network : NN

12747. Commercial discharge packs and breast-feeding counseling: effects on infant-feeding practices in a randomized trial. (PubMed)

Commercial discharge packs and breast-feeding counseling: effects on infant-feeding practices in a randomized trial. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate two interventions for prolonging the duration of breast-feeding in a multiethnic sample of 343 low-income urban women. One intervention compared research breast-feeding bedside counseling by a trained counselor, who also made eight telephone calls during the first 3 months of the infant's life, with the routine breast (...) -feeding counseling provided in the hospital by nurses. The other intervention compared commercial discharge packs provided by formula companies with research discharge packs designed to be consistent with the WHO Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. When infants were 4 months old, a telephone interviewer unaware of treatment status contacted 95% (324/343) of the women to determine the infants' feeding and health histories. Compared with routine counseling, research counseling delayed the first

1987 Pediatrics

12748. Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview. (PubMed)

Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview. The purpose of this review is to examine the plausibility of a causal relationship between maternity ward practices and lactation success.Studies were located with MEDLINE, from our personal files, and by contacting researchers working in this field. Of the 65 studies originally reviewed, 18 met our inclusion criteria (i.e., hospital-based intervention, experimental design (...) with randomization procedures, or quasi-experimental design with adequate documentation).Meta-analysis indicated that commercial discharge packs had an adverse effect on lactation performance. The impact of early mother-infant contact on lactation success was unclear. Rooming-in and breast-feeding guidance in a rooming-in context had a beneficial impact on breast-feeding among primiparae. Breast-feeding on demand was positively associated with lactation success. In-hospital formula supplementation of 48 mL per

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1994 American Journal of Public Health

12749. Cup feeding: an alternative method of infant feeding. (PubMed)

Cup feeding: an alternative method of infant feeding. 7979537 1994 12 29 2018 11 13 1468-2044 71 4 1994 Oct Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Cup feeding: an alternative method of infant feeding. 365-9 Lang S S Department of Child Health, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital. Lawrence C J CJ Orme R L RL eng Journal Article England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 AIM IM Breast Feeding Cleft Lip therapy Cleft Palate therapy Female Humans Infant Equipment Infant Nutritional (...) Physiological Phenomena Infant, Newborn Infant, Premature Male Milk, Human 1994 10 1 1994 10 1 0 1 1994 10 1 0 0 ppublish 7979537 PMC1030024 Midwifery. 1986 Dec;2(4):164-71 3643397 Acta Paediatr Scand. 1986 Nov;75(6):913-8 3105239 Biol Neonate. 1987;52 Suppl 1:50-64 3327534 J Trop Pediatr. 1989 Oct;35(5):241-4 2585581 J Hum Lact. 1990 Jun;6(2):59-63 2346601 Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1990;31 Suppl 1:57-9; discussion 67-8 1972088 Br J Radiol. 1958 Mar;31(363):156-62 13510585 Br J Disord Commun. 1990 Dec;25(3

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1994 Archives of Disease in Childhood

12750. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding (PubMed)

Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.Content analysis.Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.UK mass media.Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified (...) benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding.

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2000 BMJ : British Medical Journal

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