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Infant Feeding

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41. Infant feeding practices among HIV-exposed infants less than 6 months of age in Bomet County, Kenya: an in-depth qualitative study of feeding choices. (Abstract)

Infant feeding practices among HIV-exposed infants less than 6 months of age in Bomet County, Kenya: an in-depth qualitative study of feeding choices. In children, HIV can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy, delivery and through breast milk. The WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding or exclusive replacement feeding for the first 6 months after birth for HIV-exposed infants. Barriers such as HIV-related stigma, inadequate resources, lack of access to safe water and negative cultural (...) beliefs have been shown to influence infant feeding among HIV-exposed infants in some settings. In Kenya, there is limited literature on the barriers. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to optimal feeding among HIV-exposed infants 0-5 months of age attending a mission hospital in Bomet County, Kenya.A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted at a referral mission hospital in Bomet County, Southwest Kenya. Four focused group discussions were conducted among mothers/caregivers

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

42. Exclusive Breast Milk vs. Hybrid Milk Feeding for Preterm Babies-A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Time to Full Feeds. (Abstract)

Exclusive Breast Milk vs. Hybrid Milk Feeding for Preterm Babies-A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Time to Full Feeds. When breastmilk is insufficient to meet planned feed volumes, neonatologists need to continue parenteral nutrition (PN) or use formula. This trial conducted at a tertiary care unit in South India between August 2014 and April 2016 compared time to full feeds in preterms fed 'mother's milk alone(MM)' vs. 'hybrid feed-mother's milk supplemented with formula(HF)'. We also (...) volumes. MM received more PN to meet fluid requirements. 54 babies were analyzed in MM and 58 in HF. Time to full feeds were similar-MM (14.1 ± 4 days); HF (13.5 ± 4 days), p = 0.45. Exclusive breast milk feeding rates at discharge were higher in MM when compared to HF (74% vs. 51%). Other secondary outcomes were similar between groups. When mother's milk is unavailable in sufficient quantities, preterm babies may receive hybrid feeds. (Clinical trials registry of India no. REF/2016/02/006622).©

2019 Journal of tropical pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

43. Exclusive breast-feeding is associated with reduced pacifier sucking in children: Breast-feeding and pacifier-sucking habit. (Abstract)

Exclusive breast-feeding is associated with reduced pacifier sucking in children: Breast-feeding and pacifier-sucking habit. Studies suggest that when children do not achieve the emotional satiety and adequate stimulus provided by breast-feeding, they exhibit sucking behaviors. This study aimed to estimate the association from 4 through 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding (EB) postpartum and pacifier-sucking behavior at 12 months of life.A cohort study was conducted with 1,037 infants, born (...) ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.In comparison with EB infants, the RR of pacifier-sucking behavior at 12 months of life was higher in children receiving complementary breast-feeding or no breast-feeding for both 4 months (RRadjusted, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.39 to 2.02] and RRadjusted, 2.67 [95% CI, 2.24 to 3.17], respectively) and 6 months (RRadjusted, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.03 to 2.00] and RRadjusted, 3.30 [95% CI, 2.40 to 4.54], respectively).EB for 6 months postpartum is associated

2019 Journal of the American Dental Association

44. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves feeding and aspiration status in medically complex children undergoing feeding therapy. (Abstract)

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves feeding and aspiration status in medically complex children undergoing feeding therapy. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy in the head and neck has been effectively used to rehabilitate swallowing in adult patients with acquired dysphagia. Limited data is available for the effectiveness of NMES in medically complex children with dysphagia and aspiration. This study intends to determine the efficacy of NMES as a therapeutic adjunct (...) to improve aspiration and feeding status in medically complex children with severe dysphagia undergoing comprehensive speech and swallow therapy.Case series.Tertiary children's hospital.and Methods: Medically complex children undergoing treatment for dysphagia using NMES during a three year period were included. Duration of treatment routinely ranged from 20 to 26 weeks. Demographic information, pre and post-NMES treatment aspiration status via modified barium swallow (MBS), and pre and post-NMES

2019 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

45. Impact of Feeding Interval on Time to Achieve Full Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

Impact of Feeding Interval on Time to Achieve Full Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Trial. Preterm infants are scheduled to receive total feeding amount in either 3-hour or 2-hour intervals. A gavage feeding may be required if the scheduled amount is not completed orally. Feedings every 2 hours are one-third smaller than feedings every 3 hours. Thus, if the volume of each feed is reduced by decreasing the feeding interval from 3 to 2 hours, the likelihood that the infant completes (...) each volume orally increases, and the probability of requiring gavage feeding decreases. The impact of feeding with 2-hour or 3-hour intervals on time to achieve full oral feeding in preterm infants was investigated.Infants on full enteral gavage feedings were randomized into 2 groups to receive feedings in either 3-hour or 2-hour intervals. The time to achieve full oral feeding and the duration of feeding transition from gavage to oral feedings were investigated. Data were presented as median

2019 Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

46. Early Total Enteral Feeding versus Conventional Enteral Feeding in Stable Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Early Total Enteral Feeding versus Conventional Enteral Feeding in Stable Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial. To evaluate the effect of early total enteral feeding (ETEF) when compared with conventional enteral feeding (CEF) in stable very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; 1,000-1,499 g) infants on the postnatal age (in days) at attaining full enteral feeds.In this unblinded randomised controlled trial, 180 infants were allocated to an ETEF (n = 91) or a CEF group (n = 89 (...) similar in the two groups. The infants of the ETEF group attained full enteral feeds earlier than those of the CEF group (6.5 ± 1.5 vs. 10.1 ± 4.1 days postnatal age; mean difference -3.6 [-4.5 to -2.7]; p < 0.001). Total episodes of feed intolerance and clinical sepsis were fewer, with a shorter duration of hospital stay, in the ETEF group (15.5 vs. 19.6 days) (p = 0.01). The incidence of NEC was similar in the two groups.ETEF in stable VLBW infants results in earlier attainment of full feeds

2019 Neonatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

47. Protocol: randomised trial to compare nasoduodenal tube and nasogastric tube feeding in infants with bronchiolitis on high-flow nasal cannula; Bronchiolitis and High-flow nasal cannula with Enteral Tube feeding Randomised (BHETR) trial. (Abstract)

Protocol: randomised trial to compare nasoduodenal tube and nasogastric tube feeding in infants with bronchiolitis on high-flow nasal cannula; Bronchiolitis and High-flow nasal cannula with Enteral Tube feeding Randomised (BHETR) trial. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a non-invasive form of respiratory support used increasingly in bronchiolitis. HFNC provides a variable amount of positive pressure similar to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The positive pressure in CPAP can distend (...) and loosen oesophageal sphincter pressure leading to increased reflux. It is unclear if HFNC causes a similar action. Feeding tubes are used to provide nutrition and hydration to patients that are unable to safely take oral feedings. If there is increased reflux from HFNC, this would increase the risk of aspiration. Our institution places nasoduodenal tubes (NDT) to eliminate this risk. The purpose of the study is to infer if there is a difference between NDT and nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding

2019 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: uncertain

48. Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. One of the most challenging milestones for preterm infants is the acquisition of safe and efficient feeding skills. The majority of healthy full term infants are born with skills to coordinate their suck, swallow and respiration. However, this is not the case for preterm infants who develop these skills gradually as they transition from (...) tube feeding to suck feeds. For preterm infants the ability to engage in oral feeding behaviour is dependent on many factors. The complexity of factors influencing feeding readiness has led some researchers to investigate the use of an individualised assessment of an infant's abilities. A limited number of instruments that aim to indicate an individual infant's readiness to commence either breast or bottle feeding have been developed.To determine the effects of using a feeding readiness instrument

2012 Cochrane

49. Trends in Mean Nutrient Intakes of US Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from 3 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Studies (FITS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in Mean Nutrient Intakes of US Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from 3 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Studies (FITS). Many updates to young child feeding recommendations have been published over the past decade, but concurrent intake trends have not been assessed.The aim of this study was to evaluate adequacy and trends in energy and nutrient intakes of US infants and children aged 0-47.9 mo through use of Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) data from 2002, 2008, and 2016.FITS (...) are cross-sectional surveys of parents/caregivers of infants and young children (FITS 2002, n = 2962; FITS 2008, n = 3276; FITS 2016, n = 3235). Dietary intakes were assessed by telephone with trained interviewers using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Mean ± SE nutrient intakes were calculated. Diet adequacy was assessed with the nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) for 17 nutrients and the corresponding mean adequacy ratio.Energy and macronutrient intakes were generally stable across surveys

2019 Journal of Nutrition

50. The association between baby care books that promote strict care routines and infant feeding, night time care, and maternal-infant interactions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The association between baby care books that promote strict care routines and infant feeding, night time care, and maternal-infant interactions. Baby care books that promote strict infant care routines are popular but little research has considered their impact upon maternal infant care behaviours. We explored whether mothers who have read these books guide their infant care behaviours based on their concepts, and how this is associated with infant feeding, night time care, and response (...) to infant's needs. Three hundred and fifty-four UK mothers with a baby aged 0-12 months completed an online questionnaire exploring use of baby care books, motivations for use, whether guidance was followed, and infant care behaviours. Mothers who read the books were drawn to them for information about how to settle their infant, infant sleep and infant feeding behaviour. Those who read the books were less likely to breastfeed, feed responsively, have their infant sleep in the same room, cuddle

2019 Maternal & child nutrition

51. Evidence for gene-environment correlation in child feeding: Links between common genetic variation for BMI in children and parental feeding practices Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for gene-environment correlation in child feeding: Links between common genetic variation for BMI in children and parental feeding practices The parental feeding practices (PFPs) of excessive restriction of food intake ('restriction') and pressure to increase food consumption ('pressure') have been argued to causally influence child weight in opposite directions (high restriction causing overweight; high pressure causing underweight). However child weight could also 'elicit' PFPs (...) . A novel approach is to investigate gene-environment correlation between child genetic influences on BMI and PFPs. Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) combining BMI-associated variants were created for 10,346 children (including 3,320 DZ twin pairs) from the Twins Early Development Study using results from an independent genome-wide association study meta-analysis. Parental 'restriction' and 'pressure' were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Child BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS

2018 PLoS genetics

52. Time of recovery and associated factors of children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic feeding program in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Time of recovery and associated factors of children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic feeding program in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. The outpatient therapeutic feeding program is one dimension of the Community Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) that provides screening, diagnostic and treatment services for children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). However, little is known about the program outcomes and factors affecting time to recovery.To (...) determine median time of recovery and associated factors among under-five children with SAM treated at outpatient therapeutic feeding unit in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2016.A facility-based retrospective cohort study supplemented with qualitative inquiry was conducted to analyze the records of 713 under-5 children with SAM that were randomly selected from four health centers and one hospital in Dire Dawa. In-depth interviews were conducted with five health

2019 PLoS ONE

53. Effect of vacuum-release teat versus standard teat use on feeding milestones and breastfeeding outcomes in very preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of vacuum-release teat versus standard teat use on feeding milestones and breastfeeding outcomes in very preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. Breast milk is important to infant health, yet shorter breastfeeding duration is reported for preterm infants. Both breast and bottle feeds are given in the neonatal unit, with full oral feeding often the last milestone to be achieved prior to discharge home. Unlike standard bottle teats, a vacuum release teat requires the application (...) of negative intra-oral pressure to release milk, and so may facilitate breastfeeding in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vacuum release teat use on timing of achievement of the first full oral feed and on first completion of 24 h full oral feeds. Feeding method at discharge home, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks corrected gestational age were also examined.A randomized controlled trial was completed with mothers of preterm infants born 24-33 weeks gestation

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

54. Development of a human milk concentrate with human milk lyophilizate for feeding very low birth weight preterm infants: A preclinical experimental study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of a human milk concentrate with human milk lyophilizate for feeding very low birth weight preterm infants: A preclinical experimental study. Breast milk is considered the gold standard nutritional resource for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in terms of nutrients and protective factors. If mother's milk is not available, the second choice is donated and fortified human milk (HM) from the Human Milk Bank (HMB). This study hypothesized that HM could be lyophilized and used (...) as an additive to increase the levels of macronutrients and micronutrients available to VLBW infants. This study aimed to constitute a lyophilized HM concentrate and determine the osmolality and the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients in HM samples at "baseline" and in "HM concentrates", analyzed immediately (HMCI), and after 3 (HMC3m) and 6 (HMC6m) months of freezing. Osmolality was verified using the freezing point osmometric method. Macronutrient quantification was performed using the MIRIS

2019 PLoS ONE

55. Factors affecting feeding 6-23 months age children according to minimum acceptable diet in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors affecting feeding 6-23 months age children according to minimum acceptable diet in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey. Though infant and young children should be fed according to a minimum acceptable diet to ensure appropriate growth and development, only 7% of Ethiopian 6-23 months age children meet the minimum acceptable dietary standards, which is lower than the national target of 11% set for 2016. Therefore, this study aims to assess (...) the individual and community level factors affecting feeding according to minimum acceptable diet among 6-23 months age children in Ethiopia.This study analyzed retrospectively a cross-sectional data on a weighted sample of 2919 children aged 6-23 months nested within 617 clusters after extracting from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016 via the link www.measuredhs.com. By employing bi-variate multilevel logistic regression model, variables which were significant at the p-value < 0.25 were included

2019 PLoS ONE

56. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children age 6-23 months in Myanmar: A secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Demographic and Health Survey. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Feeding practices and nutritional status of children age 6-23 months in Myanmar: A secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Demographic and Health Survey. Nutritional deficiencies are a major problem among developing countries including Myanmar. They can occur in all age groups, but the impact is more severe among children age 6-23 months as this period is critical for child development, and irreversible damages can occur due to nutritional deficiencies. Proper infant and young child feeding practices (...) are pivotal to tackle nutritional problems and to prevent irreversible consequences among children. To assess the current feeding practices and associations with nutritional status, we conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done adjusting for covariates and the results were presented by adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 1,222 children age 6-23 months were included in this analysis

2019 PLoS ONE

57. Macronutrient variability in human milk from donors to a milk bank: Implications for feeding preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macronutrient variability in human milk from donors to a milk bank: Implications for feeding preterm infants. The composition of human milk varies widely and impacts the ability to meet nutrient requirements for preterm infants. The purpose of this study is to use a large dataset of milk composition from donors to a milk bank to: (1) describe the macronutrient variability in human milk and how it contributes to the ability to meet the protein and calorie targets for the preterm infant using (...) or targeted pooling based on macronutrient analysis of donor pools. Over 75% of mature milk samples fortified with a basic protein fortifier did not meet daily protein targets of 3.5 g/kg without exceeding volumes of 160 ml/kg/day.There is a strong individual signature to human milk that impacts the pooling of donor milk, and the ability to meet protein and energy requirements for the preterm infant with basic and intermediate protein and calorie fortifiers.

2019 PLoS ONE

58. Effects of complementary feeding on attained height among lower primary school-aged children in Eastern Uganda: A nested prospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of complementary feeding on attained height among lower primary school-aged children in Eastern Uganda: A nested prospective cohort study. Despite the fact that Uganda has been a signatory to the global strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding practices (IYCF) for nearly a decade, the prevalence of stunting among children under five years of age remains tragically high at 17% in Eastern Uganda and twofold higher countrywide. Only 6% of all children aged 6-23 months feed adequately (...) . This study aimed to establish the covariates of complementary feeding (CF) and its effect on attained height among primary school-aged children in Mbale district (Eastern Uganda).This was a community-based prospective cohort study using data from the PROMISE EBF trial. The main exposure variable was adequate complementary feeding (CF) measured in a parent questionnaire at 18-24 months of age. We defined adequate CF as having received animal food, cereals and fruit, juice and/or vegetables during the 24

2019 PLoS ONE

59. Feeding intolerance alters the gut microbiota of preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Feeding intolerance alters the gut microbiota of preterm infants. Feeding intolerance (FI) is a common disease in preterm infants, often causing a delay in individual development. Gut microbiota play an important role in nutrient absorption and metabolism of preterm infants. To date, few studies have focused on the community composition of gut microbiota of preterm infants with feeding intolerance. In this study, we collected fecal samples from 41 preterm infants diagnosed with feeding (...) intolerance and 29 preterm infants without feeding intolerance, at three specific times during the development and prevalence of feeding intolerance (after birth, when feeding intolerance was diagnosed, after feeding intolerance was gone), from different hospitals for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The gut microbiota community composition of preterm infants diagnosed with feeding intolerance was significantly different from that of preterm infants without feeding intolerance. At the time when feeding

2019 PLoS ONE

60. Gastric Residual Volume in Feeding Advancement in Preterm Infants (GRIP Study): A Randomized Trial (Abstract)

Gastric Residual Volume in Feeding Advancement in Preterm Infants (GRIP Study): A Randomized Trial To evaluate the effect of not relying on prefeeding gastric residual volumes to guide feeding advancement on the time to reach full feeding volumes in preterm infants, compared with routine measurement of gastric residual volumes. We hypothesized that not measuring prefeeding gastric residual volumes can shorten the time to reach full feeds.In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we (...) included gavage fed preterm infants with birth weights (BW) 1500-2000 g who were enrolled within 48 hours of birth. Exclusion criteria were major congenital malformations, asphyxia, and BW below the third percentile. In the study group, the gastric residual volume was measured only in the presence of bloody aspirates, vomiting, or an abnormal abdominal examination. In the control group, gastric residual volume was assessed routinely, and feeding advancement was based on the gastric residual volume

2018 EvidenceUpdates

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