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Immunization in HIV

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1. Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status

Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status, 2018 •For online Green Book, see www.gov.uk/government/organisations/public-health-england/series/immunisation-against-infectious-disease-the-green-book • For other countries’ schedules, see http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/ 2 -12 months of age >12 months -2 years of age >2 years -10 years of age 10 years of age (...) should be used to complete a vaccination course started off with OPV • aP should be used to complete a primary course which may have been started with whole cell. • Live vaccines should be postponed if there is severe immunosuppression of the child or a household contact. However consider the vaccination as soon as the immune reconstitution is achieved on HAART. PCV13* • 2 doses of PCV is recommended for all ages if not previously immunised. The use of PPV is controversial in this context

2018 The Children's HIV Association

2. Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral (...) and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in Env-specific IgG antibody titers compared to three sequential immunizations with DNA and rMVA. Cellular immune responses were induced by VLP-DNA and rMVA vaccinations at high levels

2017 Vaccines

3. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Early Measles Vaccination Schedule at 6 and 12 Months of Age in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Unexposed and HIV-Exposed, Uninfected South African Children. (Abstract)

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Early Measles Vaccination Schedule at 6 and 12 Months of Age in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Unexposed and HIV-Exposed, Uninfected South African Children. Measles morbidity and mortality rates are greatest in children <12 months old, with increased susceptibility in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an early 2-dose measles vaccine regimen administered at 6 and 12 months of age in South (...) Africa.HIV-unexposed (HU) (n = 212) and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) (n = 71) children received measles vaccination (CAM-70) at 6 and 12 months of age. Measles immunoglobulin G titers were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and 1 month after each vaccine dose.The majority of children (88.2% HU and 95.8% HEU; P = .04) were seronegative (<150 mIU/mL) to measles at 4.2 months of age. This was particularly evident among infants of mothers born from 1992 onwards (year of public

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

4. Immunogenicity of NYVAC Prime-Protein Boost Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Vaccination and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge of Nonhuman Primates Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity of NYVAC Prime-Protein Boost Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Vaccination and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge of Nonhuman Primates A preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is an essential part of the strategy to eradicate AIDS. A critical question is whether antibodies that do not neutralize primary isolate (tier 2) HIV-1 strains can protect from infection. In this study, we investigated the ability of an attenuated poxvirus (...) vector (NYVAC) prime-envelope gp120 boost to elicit potentially protective antibody responses in a rhesus macaque model of mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. NYVAC vector delivery of a group M consensus envelope, trivalent mosaic envelopes, or a natural clade B isolate B.1059 envelope elicited antibodies that mediated neutralization of tier 1 viruses, cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis. None of the macaques made neutralizing antibodies against the tier 2 SHIV SF162P3

2018 Journal of virology

5. Intravaginal immunisation using a novel antigen-releasing ring device elicits robust vaccine antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intravaginal immunisation using a novel antigen-releasing ring device elicits robust vaccine antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses The generation of effective levels of antigen-specific immunity at the mucosal sites of pathogen entry is a key goal for vaccinologists. We explored topical vaginal application as an approach to initiate local antigen-specific immunity, enhance previously existing systemic immunity or re-target responses to the mucosae. To deliver a protein (...) vaccine formulation to the vaginal mucosal surface, we used a novel vaginal ring device comprising a silicone elastomer body into which three freeze-dried, rod-shaped, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose inserts were incorporated. Each rod contained recombinant HIV-1 CN54gp140 protein (167μg)±R848 (167μg) adjuvant. The inserts were loaded into cavities within each ring such that only the ends of the inserts were initially exposed. Sheep received a prime-boost vaccination regime comprising intramuscular

2017 Journal of Controlled Release

6. Inflammation and Immune Activation in Antiretroviral-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected African Infants and Rotavirus Vaccine Responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inflammation and Immune Activation in Antiretroviral-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected African Infants and Rotavirus Vaccine Responses. Biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation were correlated with rotavirus vaccine responses in 68 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected (and 116 HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) African infants receiving pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in a clinical trial. Prevaccination, HIV-1+ infants had significantly higher (...) concentrations of interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin1β, interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and soluble CD14 compared with HEU infants. Postvaccination concentrations of neutralizing antibodies to RV5 were negatively correlated with prevaccination concentrations of IL-10 (RV5 surface proteins G1 and P1) and IFNγ (G1) in the HIV-1+ infants, whereas antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were not. Heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV-1+ infants did not alter IgA responses

2017 Journal of Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7. Challenges in the treatment of psoriasis with biologics: vaccination, history of malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and pediatric psoriasis. (Abstract)

Challenges in the treatment of psoriasis with biologics: vaccination, history of malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and pediatric psoriasis. Biologics are potent immunomodulatory drugs, whose application in the treatment of psoriasis has shown extremely good therapeutic results and a satisfactory safety profile. The administration of these agents in special cases, such as in patients with HIV infection, previous malignancy, unclear vaccination status as well as children

2019 International Journal of Dermatology

8. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in pneumococcal vaccine-naïve human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infected and -uninfected South African children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in pneumococcal vaccine-naïve human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infected and -uninfected South African children. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization is a pre-requisite for pneumococcal disease; the risk for pneumococcal disease is high in children born to women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated pneumococcal colonization, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates carried (...) by perinatal HIV-infected and HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) children.Serial nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 331 HIV-infected and 491 HEU children, at up to 6 scheduled timepoints, between median ages of 25 to 181 weeks. Pneumococcus was identified by culture; serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done by conventional methods. No pneumococcal vaccine was given.HIV-infected children were less likely to be colonized with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 serotypes than HEU

2020 Medicine

9. Impact of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Dual Infection on Female Genital Tract Mucosal Immunity and the Vaginal Microbiome. (Abstract)

Impact of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Dual Infection on Female Genital Tract Mucosal Immunity and the Vaginal Microbiome. Mechanisms linking herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not fully defined. We tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 and HIV dual infection is associated with cervicovaginal inflammation and/or vaginal dysbiosis.Genital tract samples were obtained weekly over a 12-week period from 30 women seropositive (...) (+) for HIV and HSV-2 and 15 women each who were seropositive for one or seronegative (-) for both viruses. Immune mediators, antimicrobial activity, and microbial composition and diversity were compared.Significant differences in the concentrations of interferon-γ (P = .002), tumor necrosis factor-α (P = .03), human beta defensin 1 (P = .001), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P = .01), and lysozyme (P = .03) were observed across the 4 groups (Kruskal-Wallis). There were also significant

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

10. Development of a Live Recombinant BCG Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Gag Using a pMyong2 Vector System: Potential Use As a Novel HIV-1 Vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of a Live Recombinant BCG Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Gag Using a pMyong2 Vector System: Potential Use As a Novel HIV-1 Vaccine Even though the rate of new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections is gradually decreasing worldwide, an effective preventive vaccine for HIV-1 is still urgently needed. The recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) is promising for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Recently, we showed that a recombinant (...) -pMyong2-p24 elicited enhanced p24-specific immune responses in vaccinated mice as evidenced by higher levels of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte proliferation, gamma interferon ELISPOT cell induction, antibody production, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses. Furthermore, rBCG-pMyong2-p24 showed a higher level of p24-specific Ab production than rSmeg-pMyong2-p24 in the same pMyong2 vector system. In conclusion, our data indicated that a live recombinant BCG expressing HIV-1 Gag using

2018 Frontiers in immunology

11. Dolutegravir rilpivirine (Juluca) - For the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults who are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA copies <50 copies/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen

Dolutegravir rilpivirine (Juluca) - For the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults who are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA copies <50 copies/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen Published 10 September 2018 1 dolutegravir 50mg / rilpivirine 25mg film-coated tablets (Juluca ® ) SMC2091 ViiV Healthcare Ltd. 10 August 2018 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug (...) and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHS Scotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following a full submission dolutegravir / rilpivirine film-coated tablet (Juluca ® ) is accepted for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: The treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults who are virologically-suppressed (HIV-1 RNA 50 copies/mL in the 6-month period before screening and no more than one instance of viral load >50 copies/mL but <200 copies/mL

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium

12. Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection

Calmette-Guerin (Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine) CD4 Refers to CD4 or T-helper cells CHQ Children’s Health Queensland DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid FBC Full blood count HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ID Infectious Diseases specialist IgG Immunoglobulin G IMPS Infection Management Prevention Service PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction PJP Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia RNA Ribonucleic acid QCH Queensland Children’s Hospital VL Viral load Guideline 1. Communication (...) Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Document ID CHQ-GDL-01243 Version no. 3.1 Approval date 28/05/2019 Executive sponsor Executive Director Medical Services Effective date 28/05/2019 Author/custodian Infectious Diseases Physician - Infection Management and Prevention services Review date 28/05/2021 Supercedes 3.0 Applicable to All Children’s Health Queensland

2019 Queensland Health

13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening

. In addition, ART treatment in pregnant persons living with HIV and use of other precautions substantially decrease the risk of transmission to the fetus, newborn, or infant. Abbreviations: ACOG=American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; AIDS=acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; ART=antiretroviral therapy; CDC=Centers for Disease Prevention and Control; HIV= human immunodeficiency virus; STI=sexually transmitted infection. For a summary of the evidence systematically reviewed in making (...) February 2019. Accessed April 9, 2019. 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2017. CDC website. . Published November 2018. Accessed April 5, 2019. 3. Singh S, Song R, Johnson AS, McCray E, Hall HI. HIV incidence, prevalence, and undiagnosed infections in U.S. men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med . 2018;168(10):685-694. 4. Dailey AF, Hoots BE, Hall HI, et al. Vital signs: human immunodeficiency virus testing

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

14. Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure Prophylaxis

Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure Prophylaxis Recommendation | United States Preventive Services Taskforce Toggle navigation Main navigation Main navigation Recommendation Persons at high risk of HIV acquisition The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition. A View the Clinical Summary in Population Persons at high risk of HIV acquisition (...) Once-daily oral treatment with combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine is the only formulation of PrEP currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States in persons at risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection. Relevant USPSTF Recommendations The USPSTF has issued recommendations on behavioral counseling to reduce risk of STIs and on screening for HIV infection. Abbreviations: HIV=human immunodeficiency virus; STI=sexually transmitted infection

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

15. Balancing Trained Immunity with Persistent Immune Activation and the Risk of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Infant Macaques Vaccinated with Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Balancing Trained Immunity with Persistent Immune Activation and the Risk of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Infant Macaques Vaccinated with Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Our goal is to develop a pediatric combination vaccine to protect the vulnerable infant population against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The vaccine consists of an auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that coexpresses (...) HIV antigens. Utilizing an infant rhesus macaque model, we have previously shown that this attenuated M. tuberculosis (AMtb)-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine is immunogenic, and although the vaccine did not prevent oral SIV infection, a subset of vaccinated animals was able to partially control virus replication. However, unexpectedly, vaccinated infants required fewer SIV exposures to become infected compared to naive controls. Considering that the current TB vaccine, Mycobacterium

2017 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI

16. Yellow fever vaccine: stronger precautions in people with weakened immunity and in those aged 60 years or older

those at risk of disease during travel. For most people, the balance between the benefits and possible side effects of the vaccine remains overwhelmingly favourable. However, because the vaccine contains a live, weakened strain of the yellow fever virus, strict adherence to contraindications and precautions is essential to reduce the risk of serious side effects in those who may have a weaker immune system. Revaccination is generally not recommended as the duration of protection following (...) accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Yellow fever vaccine: stronger precautions in people with weakened immunity and in those aged 60 years or older The Commission on Human Medicines has issued a series of recommendations to strengthen measures to minimise risk with the yellow fever vaccine (Stamaril) following very rare fatal reactions. Key recommendations include new and updated contraindications and strengthened precautions to protect those with a weakened immune systems (including

2019 MHRA Drug Safety Update

17. Vaccine-preventable Infections and Immunization in Multiple Sclerosis

to Poser 11 or McDonald 12 criteria. Initially, the panel included only cases of MS diagnosed by a neurologist but later revised this requirement because many studies used computerized databases. Accepted control group criteria varied by question. For questions referencing the general population, studies with only neurologic disease control groups were excluded. 11 The panel included immunizations recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 13 and vaccines suggested (...) with 10 untreated participants with MS and 4 HCs (combined control group). All participants in the treated and untreated groups had baseline immunity to at least one of the 3 viral strains; 9/42 possible participant-variant combinations in the control group and 8/51 in the daclizumab-treated group did not fulfill criteria for seroprotection on day 0 (denominators represent the combination of antibodies to all 3 virus strains tested in the group). After treatment with a trivalent influenza vaccine

2019 American Academy of Neurology

18. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic.Assessment of the factors contributing (...) to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries.This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual

2018 Southern African journal of HIV medicine

19. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections? The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host (...) . Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing

2017 Frontiers in immunology

20. Canadian immunization guide chapter on influenza and statement on seasonal influenza vaccine for 2017-2018

interval CIHR Canadian Institutes of Health Research CIRID Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases Dod Department of Defense (USA) FFU Fluorescent focus units GBS Guillain-Barré syndrome GM Geometric mean GMT Geometric mean titre HA Haemagglutinin HAI Hemagglutination inhibition assay HCW Health care worker HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HIVE Household Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness ICICLE Influenza Clinical Investigation for Children ICU Intensive care unit ID Intradermal IgE (...) of the hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected persons. Vaccine efficacy (VE) may be lower in persons with immune-compromising conditions than in healthy adults. Based on preliminary review of the literature and expert opinion, and consistent with other countries’ recommendations, NACI now includes adults with neuromuscular, neurovascular, neurodegenerative, neurodevelopment conditions and seizure disorders, but excluding migraines and neuropsychiatric conditions

2017 CPG Infobase

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